Briscous is a town in the traditional Basque province of Labourd, now a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in southwestern France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE BESKOITZE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Hasparren is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. A resident of Hasparren is known as a'Haspandar', its a commune fait partie of the Basque Province of Labourd. The Côte Basque, is 25km to the west. Hasparren is located on the route D 10, between La Bastide-Clairence and Cambo-les-Bains, at the crossroads with D 21, D 22 and D 23, it has got access to autoroute exit 4 near Briscous. The lands of the commune are rooted in the affluents of the Adour, the Ardanabia and the Aran Eight towns compose the Cummune of Hasparren: Labiri 43.38516°N 1.32767°W / 43.38516. It is attestested with various words: Hesperenne Santus Johannes de Ahesparren, Hesparren und Haesparren, Esparren Aezparren, Hesperren and Hesparrem, Hasparn and Haspar and Hazparne; the toponyme Hasparren derives from the ancient Ahaitz-barren > Ahaizparren, a composition of the Basque root ahaitz that indicates a height and barren - and not form "Haritz barne" as the local tradition says. The toponyme Elizaberri appears with the from Éliçaberria.
The toponyme Urcuray appears with the form Saint-Joseph d'Urcuraye. The toponyme Celhay appears with the from Célay; the current basque name is Hazparne. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE HAZPARNE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Ainhoa is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ainhoars; the commune of Ainhoa is in the traditional Basque province of Labourd. Ainhoa is some 20 km due south of Bayonne and is directly on the Spanish border which forms the southern border of the commune; the commune is mountainous and forested in the south-east portion but with farmland in the northwest of the commune. There is one border crossing to Spain on the southern border at the village of Dantxana. Ainhoa and Sare, together with the two Spanish communes of Zugarramurdi and Urdazubi, form a cross-border territory, called Xareta. Straddling the border with Spain, it is a passage for the Way of St. James from Bayonne to Pamplona; the commune's border with Spain is in the Dancharia area and accesses the area of Dantxarinea d'Urdazubi. The commune is connected to Espelette in the north-east by Highway D20 which passes through the village and continues south to the Spanish border.
Highway D305 branches continues west to join Highway D4 before Cherchebruit. A network of small country roads covers all parts of the commune. Located in the watershed of the Adour, the Nivelle river runs along the southern border and forms the border between France and Spain. Numerous streams arise in the commune and flow down to the Nivelle including the Opalazioko erreka, the Lapitxuri and its tributaries, the Larreko erreka, the Erdiko erreka, the Farendeiko erreka, the Haitzagerriko erreka, the Barretako erreka. Paul Raymond mentions the Haïçaguerry, a tributary of the Nivelle, which descended to Gorospila on the Spanish border, which crossed the territory of Ainhoue; the commune name in basque is the same - Ainhoa. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval suggested that the name could come from the Basque aino which means "goat"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table.
Map: The Map of the Government-General of Guyenne and Gascony and the neighbouring region Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Lhande: Pierre Lhande, Basque-French DictionaryOrigins: Saint-Claire: Titles of the Abbey of Sainte-Claire of Bayonne Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne The ancient redoubt of Urrizti reflects the ancient past of the area. Paul Raymond noted on page 4 of his 1863 dictionary that the parish of Ainhoa was in the gift of the Abbot of Urdax; the Curacy of Ainhoa was created by the Priory of the Premonstratensian of Urdazubi in the 13th century. On 27 April 1238 the new king Theobald I of Navarre purchased the toll rights instituted by Viscount Juan Pérez de Baztan, Ainhoa being at the borders between the Duchy of Aquitaine since 1151, run by the Angevin Kings of England and the Navarrese kingdom; such tolls were charged to pilgrims and traders traveling to Santiago de Compostela on the Way of St. James in Galicia, Spain.
Military clashes between the "English run" Basques of Aquitaine and the Navarrese in 1249 led the Seigneur of Ainhoa, in 1250, to recognize the suzerainty of King Henry III of England. By 1265 Gonzalvo Juanis, Seigneur of Ainhoa known as Gonzalvo Ibáñez or Gonzalvo Yáñes, did not recognize either the English or the Navarrese; however he opened the way to conquest based on old historical claims. Garda Arnaut de Espelette, with loyalty to the "English run" Basques of the Duchy of Aquitaine, sent a letter, dated 29 July 1289 praying the Ainhoa people to adequately connive with him; the outcome of such frontier business was to set up an "undivided" land as had been done previously with the nearby Aldudes close to the Baztan valley. Documents from Estella dated September 1369, some 80 years proved that the people from Ainhoa paid taxes to both the King of Navarre and the "English" Seneschal of the Landes territory in return for their fiscal and personal privileges; when "English run" Bayonne surrendered to the French in 1451 it is not known if these "undivided status" villages on the English-Navarrese frontier were taken by the French as well.
In the Spanish Invasion of 1636 in the Labourd territories many villages, including Ainhoa, were razed. Because of the 1659 "Treaty of the Pyrénées" whereby the Spanish-born Queen regent of France Anne of Austria with the help of Cardinal Mazarin, the First Minister of France, set up an advantageous peace and obtained Maria Theresa of Spain as a wife for her son Louis XIV of France. Ainhoa was repopulated again. Disputes between the new settlers and the old residents concerning the use of communal lands for cattle grazing and fodder and the access by newcomers to town hall positions, church grants, etc. had to be settled by the autonomous Parliament of Bordeaux in the sense of paying for access to village privileges. Ainhoa was destroyed during the Thirty Years War and rebuilt; the only remains from before the destruction are the Machitorénéa House. In 1724, following the revolts in Saint-Jean-le-Vieux Mouguerre and Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, the people of Ainhoa revolted against the salt tax and against other new taxes.
This was a prelude to the uprisings in all of Labourd in 1726 against the said taxes. Bayonne and Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port followed in 1748; the Law of 4 March 1790 determined a new administrative landscape of France by creating departments and districts. This resulted in the creation of the department of Basses-Pyrénées and reuniting the Béarn, the
Bardos is a commune in the former Basque province of Labourd in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bardoztars. Bardos is located some 15 km east of Bayonne just south of Guiche; the north-eastern tip of the commune is the departmental border between Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Landes. Access to the commune is by the D936 road from Briscous in the west which passes through the heart of the commune and the town and continues east to Bidache; the D253 goes north from the town to Guiche. The D318 goes south from the town to join the D123 west of Orègue; the D10 goes south to La Bastide-Clairence. The A64 autoroute passes through the north of the commune with the nearest exit being Exit 4 which exits to the D936 just 1 km to the west of the commune; the commune is farmland with scattered forested areas on the slopes. The town is served by the interurban network of Pyrénées-Atlantiques by route 811 to Bayonne and Tardets-Sorholus.
There is a dense network of streams across the whole commune. The north-eastern tip of the commune has the Bidouze as the departmental border; the Ruisseau d'Ermou flows through the commune and joins the Bidouze at the north-eastern tip of the commune. The Ruisseau du Termi forms much of the northern border as it flows north-west to join the Adour north of the commune. Numerous other streams rise in the flow north to the Adour; the Lihoury river forms part of the south-eastern border of the commune as it flows north, fed by the Laharanne, joins the Bidouze east of Bidache. The Ruisseau d'Appât flows south to join the Lihoury; the Arbéroue forms much of the southern border of the commune. The Aran forms most of the western border of the commune as it flows north turns west to join the Adour. Numerous streams flow in the heart of the commune including the Ruisseau d'Artigue, the Ithurriague, the Bardolle; the area of the commune is 4,253 hectares with a maximum altitude of 186 m on the Miremont hill, the location of an old 14th century mansion as well as a water tower built on a panoramic viewpoint overlooking the Adour valley.
The climate of Bardos, some twenty kilometres from the Basque coast, is similar to that of Biarritz with heavy rainfall: the oceanic climate due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. The average winter temperature is around 20 °C in summer; the lowest temperature recorded was -12.7 °C on 16 January 1985 and the highest 40.6 °C on 4 August 2003. Rain on the Basque coast is persistent except during winter storms, it takes the form of intense thunderstorms of short duration. On the Napoleonic Cadastral Map of 1818 the commune was divided into four sections: Section A, Lassarrade Section B, Legarre Section C, Lerine Section D, IbarToday, although the division into districts is not precise, there are seven districts: Arbinoritz le Bourg Ibarre Lambert Lassarrade Miremont les Tisserands In 2011 the total number of dwellings in the commune was 716, down from 611 in 2006. Of these dwellings, 87% were primary residences, 6.6% were second homes, 6.3% were occasional homes or vacant units. 69.4 % of these dwellings were detached 29.6 % were apartments.
The proportion of principle residences owned by their occupants was 74%. The percentage of empty rental public housing was 1.3%. The commune name in Basque is Bardoze and its name in Occitan, gascon dialect is Bardòs; the name consists of the root bard- or bart- which designates the low terrain and clay soils along the river edges plus the Basque-Aquitaine suffix -os. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan proposes the meaning "place of abundant clay soil"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy p. 21 Lhande: Basque-French DictionaryOrigins: Bayonne: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne Bardos: Titles of Bardos Navarre: Titles of the Kingdom of NavarreBardos appears as Bardos on the 1750 Cassini Map and the same on the 1790 version.
Bardos has a Paleolithic site. The parish of Bardos has been mentioned since 1072 and the barony of Bardos was created in 1320; the commune was incorporated into the Duchy of Gramont in 1643. The parish of Bardos was admitted to the Biltzar of Labourd in 1763 and became a commune in 1790, it was the capital of a canton including the communes of Bardos and Guiche and depended on the district of Ustaritz. The relationship of Bardos with Labourd had some unusual features. During the Ancien Régime the three parishes did not dependent judicially on the judicial institutions of Labourd but on the Seneschal of Came. Although they had ceased to participate in the work of the Labourd Biltzar, they are allowed back into meetings in 1763 to contribute to the work of the Biltzar. According to Anne Zink these events had little meaning: before this assignment, the three parishes were fiscally labourdine and it was the customs of the province of Labourd that governed their civil law. From 1770 to 1771 the overall trustee of the Biltzar was Pierre Damestoy from Bardos, notary of the house of Etxebeheiti.
List of Successive Mayors Mayors from 1919 Bardos falls within the area of the Tribunal d'instance of Bayonne, the Tribunal de grande instance of Bayonne
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Bonloc is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in southwestern France. A resident of Bonloc is known as a'Lekuindar'. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE LEKUINE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia