SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Uterus

The uterus or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals. In the human, the lower end of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the upper end, the fundus, is connected to the fallopian tubes, it is within the uterus. In the human embryo, the uterus develops from the paramesonephric ducts which fuse into the single organ known as a simplex uterus; the uterus has different forms in many other animals and in some it exists as two separate uteri known as a duplex uterus. In English, the term uterus is used within the medical and related professions, while the Germanic-derived term womb is commonly used in everyday contexts; the uterus is located within the pelvic region behind and overlying the bladder, in front of the sigmoid colon. The human uterus is pear-shaped and about 7.6 cm long, 4.5 cm broad, 3.0 cm thick. A typical adult uterus weighs about 60 grams; the uterus can be divided anatomically into four regions: the fundus – the uppermost rounded portion of the uterus, the corpus, the cervix, the cervical canal.

The cervix protrudes into the vagina. The uterus is held in position within the pelvis by ligaments; these ligaments include the pubocervical ligaments, transverse cervical ligaments or cardinal ligaments, the uterosacral ligaments. It is covered by a sheet-like fold of the broad ligament. From outside to inside, regions of the uterus include: Cervix uteri – "neck of uterus" External orifice of the uterus Cervical canal Internal orifice of the uterus Body Uterine cavity Fundus The uterus has three layers, which together form the uterine wall. From innermost to outermost, these layers are the endometrium and perimetrium; the endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus. It has a functional layer. During pregnancy, the uterine glands and blood vessels in the endometrium further increase in size and number and form the decidua. Vascular spaces fuse and become interconnected, forming the placenta, which supplies oxygen and nutrition to the embryo and fetus.

The myometrium of the uterus consists of smooth muscle. The innermost layer of myometrium is known as the junctional zone, which becomes thickened in adenomyosis; the perimetrium is a serous layer of visceral peritoneum. It covers the outer surface of the uterus. Surrounding the uterus is a layer or band of fibrous and fatty connective tissue called the parametrium that connects the uterus to other tissues of the pelvis. Commensal organisms form the uterine microbiome; the uterus is supported by the pelvic diaphragm, perineal body, urogenital diaphragm. Secondarily, it is supported by ligaments, including the peritoneal ligament and the broad ligament of uterus, it is held in place by several peritoneal ligaments, of which the following are the most important: Normally the uterus lies in anteversion & anteflexion. In most women, the long axis of the uterus is bent forward on the long axis of the vagina, against the urinary bladder; this position is referred to as anteversion of the uterus. Furthermore, the long axis of the body of the uterus is bent forward at the level of the internal os with the long axis of the cervix.

This position is termed anteflexion of the uterus. The uterus assumes an anteverted position in 50% women, a retroverted position in 25% women, a midposed position in the remaining 25% of women; the uterus is in the middle of the pelvic cavity in frontal plane. The fundus does not surpass the linea terminalis, while the vaginal part of the cervix does not extend below the interspinal line; the uterus is mobile and moves posteriorly under the pressure of a full bladder, or anteriorly under the pressure of a full rectum. If both are full, it moves upwards. Increased intra-abdominal pressure pushes; the mobility is conferred to it by musculo-fibrous apparatus that consists of suspensory and sustentacular part. Under normal circumstances the suspensory part keeps the uterus in anteflexion and anteversion and keeps it "floating" in the pelvis; the meaning of these terms are described below: The sustentacular part supports the pelvic organs and comprises the larger pelvic diaphragm in the back and the smaller urogenital diaphragm in the front.

The pathological changes of the position of the uterus are: retroversion/retroflexion, if it is fixed hyperanteflexion – tipped too forward. A pelvic examination by a doctor can determine; the uterus is supplied by arterial blood both from the ovarian artery. Another anastomotic branch may supply the uterus from anastomosis of these two arteries. Afferent nerves supplying the uterus are T11 and T12. Sympathetic supply is from the ovarian plexus. Parasympathetic supply is from

Gridley, California

Gridley is a neighborhood community with agricultural roots and an historic downtown. It's located in Butte County, United States, 29 miles south of Chico, California and 56 miles north of Sacramento, California; the 2019 State of California population estimate was 7,224. California State Route 99 runs through Gridley and Interstate 5 and California State Route 70 are both nearby. Butte County was a bountiful land of groves of oak trees, fields of manzanita brush, marshes and lakes in the rainy season; the valley floor abounded with wild game and ducks overhead, antelope, tule elk, the coyote, many smaller varieties of animal life. Fish swarmed in the creeks. Several tribal groups, including the Maidu people, were settled in the region when they were first encountered by Spanish and Mexican scouting expeditions in the early 18th century. In the 1850s George W. Gridley, a wool grower and grain farmer who at the time was one of the largest landowners in Butte County, settled a 960-acre home ranch west of the town site, to be named after him.

Gridley was established in 1870 when the Oregon and California Railroad was constructed north from Marysville. The railroad reached Chico on July 2, 1870. In response to a "The Place Where Crops Never Fail" advertising campaign by the California Irrigated Land Company, members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints began emigrating from the Rexburg, Idaho area to Gridley in November 1906. By February of the following year the Gridley Branch of the church was organized and more Latter-day Saints continued coming to Gridley from Idaho, Nevada and other states turning this small farming community into a Mormon enclave. By the end of 1908 there were some 500 LDS settlers in the Gridley area and their first chapel was constructed on the west corner of Sycamore and Vermont Streets in 1912 with a seating capacity of 1,000—the largest LDS meetinghouse west of Salt Lake City at that time. Following a fire in November 2018 in Paradise, California, 400 temporary modular housing units called the "Gridley Camp Fire Community" were erected at a city-owned industrial park in Gridley.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the City has a total area of 2.1 square miles, all land. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Gridley has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Gridley had a population of 6,584. The population density was 3,179.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Gridley was 4,283 White, 55 African American, 98 Native American, 249 Asian, 3 Pacific Islander, 1,552 from other races, 344 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,000 persons; the Census reported that 6,472 people lived in households, 16 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 96 were institutionalized. There were 2,183 households, out of which 910 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,087 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 338 had a female householder with no husband present, 134 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 149 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships.

520 households were made up of individuals and 297 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96. There were 1,559 families; the population was spread out with 1,892 people under the age of 18, 668 people aged 18 to 24, 1,681 people aged 25 to 44, 1,415 people aged 45 to 64, 928 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. There were 2,406 housing units at an average density of 1,161.7 per square mile, of which 2,183 were occupied, of which 1,262 were owner-occupied, 921 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.6%. 3,829 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,643 people lived in rental housing units. Gridley is adjacent to the Sacramento metropolitan area, the fifth largest metropolitan area in California after the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Inland Empire, the San Diego metropolitan area, is the 27th largest in the United States.

In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". The Gridley area is a sportsman's haven. Excellent hunting and naturalist opportunities are available on private and public lands; the Gray Lodge Wildlife Waterfowl Management Area, an integral part of the Refuge Water Supply Program is located just 10 miles southwest of Gridley. Its 8,400 acres form some of the most intensively used and developed wetlands in the entire Pacific Flyway. Gridley is just, 24 miles away from the exceptional recreational facilities available at Lake Oroville. Lake Oroville and the Oroville Afterbay feed into the clear rolling waters of the Feather River, which provides some of the best salmon fishing in the state; the Oroville Dam is one of the 20 largest dams in the world, the largest earth filled dam in the US, the tallest dam in the US. This dam is 770 feet tall and 6920 feet long, it impounds Lake Oroville, which has a capacity of 3,500,000 acre feet of water, making it the second l

Fujiwara

Fujiwara is a Japanese surname. Notable people with the surname include: FamiliesThe Fujiwara clan and its members Fujiwara no Kamatari Northern Fujiwara clan Fujiwara no KiyohiraArt and entertainmentFujiwara, Japanese comedy duo consisting of Toshifumi Fujimoto and Takayuki Haranishi Atsushi Fujiwara, Japanese photographer Harry Fujiwara, Japanese-American wrestler Hiroshi Fujiwara, Japanese musician, trendsetter and designer Kamatari Fujiwara, Japanese actor Kei Fujiwara, Japanese actress and film director Keiji Fujiwara, Japanese voice actor Motoo Fujiwara, lead singer and composer for the Japanese rock band Bump of Chicken Tokuro Fujiwara, Japanese video game designer Yoshiaki Fujiwara, Japanese actor and professional wrestler Tatsuya Fujiwara, Japanese actor Yoshie Fujiwara, Japanese tenor singerScienceMasahiko Fujiwara, Japanese mathematician and essayist Matsusaburo Fujiwara, Japanese mathematician and historian of mathematicsPoliticiansMichiko Fujiwara, Japanese nurse and politician René Fujiwara, Mexican politicianModelsNatsuki Fujiwara, Japanese glamour model Norika Fujiwara, Japanese beauty queen and actressSportsNaoya Fujiwara, Japanese shogi player Rika Fujiwara, Japanese tennis player Sotaro Fujiwara, Japanese judoka Toshio Fujiwara, Japanese kickboxer Sakuhei Fujiwhara, Japanese meteorologist Shiho Fujiwara, Japanese ice hockey player Toki Fujiwara, a character of Code: Breaker Hazuki Fujiwara, character of Ojamajo Doremi Fujiwara-no-Sai, character of Hikaru no Go Takumi and Bunta Fujiwara, characters of Initial D Zakuro Fujiwara, character of Tokyo Mew Mew Fujiwara no Takamichi, character of Harukanaru Toki no Naka de Fujiwara no Yukitaka, character of Harukanaru Toki no Naka de 2 Fujiwara, character of Haruhi Suzumiya Chiyoko Fujiwara, main character of Millennium Actress Fujiwara no Mokou, a character of Touhou Project Fujiwara Chika, character of Kaguya-sama: Love Is War Fujiwara-kyō, an ancient Imperial capital of Japan, corresponding to modern-day Kashihara, Nara The Fujiwhara effect Fujiwara, a former town in Mie Prefecture