State University of Leuven
The State University of Leuven was a university founded in 1817 in Leuven in Belgium part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was distinct from the Old University of Leuven and from the Catholic University of Leuven, which moved to Leuven after the State University had been closed in 1835; the State University of Leuven was founded by King William I of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1817 in Leuven. This continued the history of having a major university in Leuven, with the Old University of Leuven having been active from 1425-1797, the State University used the same campus and facilities and a dozen of professors of the Old University taught there. Belgium's independence from the Netherlands in 1830/31, plunged the universities into disorder. Attempting to prevent university education from being fragmented, the new government closed Leuven's faculties of law and natural science but backed down due to protests. A proposal to concentrate university education at Leuven was rejected by parliament on 4 August 1835.
On 27 September 1835, the state university was closed, with most professors moving to the state universities of Ghent and Liège. Meanwhile, the bishops of Belgium had founded a new Catholic University at Mechlin; this provoked serious riots in the cities of Ghent, Leuven and Liège by liberals, who feared the Church encroaching on state education. After the State University had been closed, the Catholic University moved its headquarters to Leuven on 1 December 1835 and took the name of Catholic University of Leuven, again leading to protests by liberals due to its efforts to usurp the heritage and identity of the historical Old University of Leuven; the University was housed in former colleges of the former University: College of St. Donat, the Premonstratensian college, the Veterans college and the King college; the State University of Leuven counted upon the creation the Faculties of Law, Medicine and Mathematics and of the Natural Philosophy and Letters. Harbaur Francis Joseph, an Alsatian, Court physician, a former pupil of the philosopher Fichte at the University of Jena, had been in Paris, Fulda, St. Petersburg arrive in the Netherlands.
Unusual character, he spent lavishly to boost the University. Jacmart Charles, Rector in 1822-1823, 1830–1831 and 1831-1832. Dumbeck Francis Joseph, 1825-1826. Jean-François-Michel Birnbaum, rector until October 1827. Gerard Jean Meyer, 1825-1826. Frederick Reiffenberg and philosopher, secretary of the Academic Senate. Karl Bernhardi P. Namur Alexandre Gendebien, liberal politician. Andre Dieudonne Trumper, doctor in medecine and Venerable Master of the respectable lodge of the "True Friends of the Union and Progress" at the Orient of Brussels. Ferdinand de Meeûs, banker. Jules Guerin, physician. Sylvain van de Weyer, liberal politician. Augustus Van Dievoet and historian of the law. Bernard du Bus de Gisignies, politician and paleontologist. Hippoliet Van Peene and playwright, wrote the lyrics of the Flemish anthem "De Vlaamse Leeuw" 1817-1826: Annales Academiae Lovaniensis, 1821-1827. 1821: Annales Academiae Lovaniensis, 1821: "Discours prononcé le 6 octobre 1817 à l'occasion de l'installation de l'Université par M. le docteur François-Joseph Harbaur, professeur en médecine, nommé recteur magnifique de la même université".
1835: J. J. Dodt, Repertorium dissertationum belgicarum, Utrecht, 1835. 1837: A. Ferrier, Description historique et topographique de Louvain, Haumann and Cie, 1837. 1838: Journal historique et littéraire, 1838, p. 88. 1842: Joseph-Marie Quérard, La littérature française contemporaine, 1842. Biographical notice of the professor Birnbaum, p. 539. 1848: P. Namur, "notes concernant le Repertorium dissertationum belgicarum", in Le bibliophile belge, n° 5, 1848, pp. 115–118. 1854: Pierre François Xavier De Ram, Analectes pour servir à l'histoire de l'Université de Louvain, Louvain, 1854, p. 155. 1860: E. Van Even, Louvain monumental... Louvain, C.-J. Fonteyn, 1860. 1884: Léon Vanderkindere, L'université de Bruxelles. Notice historique, Brussels, 1884. 1906: Victor Brants, La faculté de droit de l'Université de Louvain à travers cinq siècles esquisse historique, Louvain, 1906. 1917: Hubert Nélis, Inventaire des archives de l'Université de l'État à Louvain, Hayez, 1917. 1925: Dr. G. Bourgeois, "Un Fumacien oublié: Charles Jacmart, Recteur Magnifique de l'Université de Louvain", in, Nouvelle Revue de Champagne et de Brie, Largentière, 3rd year, 1925, pp. 9 and seq..
1948: Carlo Bronne, L'amalgame ou la Belgique de 1814 à 1830, Brussels, ed. Paul Legrain, s. D.. 1952: Carlo Bronne, La tapisserie royale, Brussels-Paris, 1952, p. 92. 1955: Albert Bruylants, "Les chimistes louvanistes et leur temps", II, "L'École Centrale de la Dyle et l'Université d'État", in, Bulletin trimestriel de l'Association des Amis de l'Université de Louvain, n°3, 1955. 1964: Jean Jacmart, "Généalogie de la famille Jacmart", in, Recueil de l'Office Généalogique et Héraldique de Belgique, tome XII, Brussels, 1963, p. 114. 1967: Florilège des sciences en Belgique, Royal Academy of Belgium, 1967, p. 118. 1973: B. Borghgraef van der Schueren, De Universiteiten in de Zuidelijke Provincies onder Willem I, Brussels, 1973. 1975: "La faculté de droit de l'Université d'État de Louvain", inJura Falconis, XI, 1975. 1986: Mia De Neef, De Faculteit Wijsbegeerte en Letteren van de Rijksuniversiteit te Leuven, non ed
Ghent University is a public research university located in Ghent, Belgium. It was established in 1817 by King William I of the Netherlands. After the Belgian revolution of 1830, the newly formed Belgian state began to administer the university. In 1930, the university became the first Dutch-speaking university in Belgium, whereas French had been the standard academic language. In 1991,it was granted major autonomy and changed its name accordingly from State University of Ghent to its current designation. In contrast to the Catholic University of Leuven or the Free University of Brussels, UGent considers itself a pluralist university in a special sense, i.e. not connected to any particular religion or political ideology. Its motto Inter Utrumque, on the coat of arms, suggests the acquisition of wisdom and science comes only in an atmosphere of peace, when the institution is supported by the monarchy and fatherland. Ghent University is one of the biggest Flemish universities, consisting of 41,000 students and 9,000 staff members.
The University supports the University Library and the University Hospital, one of the largest hospitals in Belgium. It is one of the greatest beneficiaries of funding from the Research Foundation - Flanders. Ghent University rates among the top universities in the world; the university in Ghent was opened on October 9, 1817, with JC van Rotterdam serving as the first rector. In the first year, it had 16 professors; the original four faculties consisted of Humanities, Law and Science, the language of instruction was Latin. The university was founded by King William I as part of a policy to stem the intellectual and academic lag in the southern part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to become Belgium. After peaking at a student population of 414, the number of students declined following the Belgian Revolution. At this time, the Faculties of Humanities and Science were broken from the university, but they were restored five years in 1835. Ghent University played a big role in the foundation of modern organic chemistry.
Friedrich August Kekulé unraveled the structure of benzene at Ghent and Adolf von Baeyer, a student of August Kekulé, made seminal contributions to organic chemistry. In 1882, Sidonie Verhelst became the first female student at the university. French became the language of instruction, after the 1830 Revolution. In 1903, the Flemish politician Lodewijk De Raet led a successful campaign to begin instruction in Dutch, the first courses were begun in 1906. During World War I, the occupying German administration conducted Flamenpolitik and turned Ghent University into the first Dutch-speaking university in Belgium. A Flemish Institute known as Von Bissing University, was founded in 1916 but was disestablished after the war and French language was reinstated. In 1923, Cabinet Minister Pierre Nolf put forward a motion to definitively establish the university as a Dutch-speaking university, this was realized in 1930. August Vermeylen served as the first rector of a Dutch-language university in Belgium.
In the Second World War, the German administration of the university attempted to create a German orientation, removing faculty members and installing loyal activists. However, the university became the focal point for many resistance members. After the war, the university became a much larger institution, following government policy of democratizing higher education in Flanders during the 1950s and 1960s. By 1953, there were more than 3,000 students, by 1969 more than 11,500; the number of faculties increased to eleven, starting with Applied Sciences in 1957. It was followed by Economics and Veterinary Medicine in 1968, Psychology and Pedagogy, as well as Bioengineering, in 1969, Pharmaceutical Sciences; the faculty of Politics and Social Sciences is the most recent addition, in 1992. In the 1960s to 1980s, there were several student demonstrations at Ghent University, notably around the Blandijn site, which houses the Faculty of Arts & Philosophy; the severest demonstrations took place in 1969 in the wake of May 1968.
In 1991, the university changed its name from Rijksuniversiteit Gent to Universiteit Gent, following an increased grant of autonomy by the government of the Flemish Community. Ghent University consists of eleven Faculties with over 130 individual departments. In addition, the university maintains the Zwijnaarde science park and Greenbridge science park. Faculty of Arts and Philosophy Faculty of Bio-science Engineering Faculty of Law Faculty of Sciences Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty of Political and Social Sciences Standing on the Blandijnberg, the Boekentoren houses the Ghent University Library, which contains nearly 3 million volumes; the University Library has joined the Google Books Library Project. Among other notable collections, it preserves Papyrus 30, an early manuscript of the Greek New Testament.
Ghent University ranks among the best universities in the world. Most in 2017, it was ranked, globally, 69th by the Academic Ranking of World Universities and 125th by QS World University Rankings. For 2018, Ghent University has been ranked, worldwide, 88th by U. S. News & World Report and 107th by Times Higher Education
Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators. Since 2009, ARWU has been published and copyrighted annually by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, an independent organization focusing on higher education. In 2011, a board of international advisory consisting of scholars and policy researchers was established to provide suggestions; the publication includes global league tables for institutions and a whole and for a selection of individual subjects, alongside independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking. ARWU is regarded as one of the three most influential and observed university rankings, alongside QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings, it is praised for the objectivity and transparency of its methodology, but draws some criticism as it does not adequately adjust for the size of the institution, thus larger institutions would tend to rank above smaller ones.
ARWU is praised by several institutions for its methodology and influence. A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most used annual ranking of the world's research universities." In 2010, The Chronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities". EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31 December 2003: "The universities were evaluated using several indicators of research performance." Chancellor of University of Oxford, Chris Patten and former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University, Ian Chubb, said: "the methodology looks solid... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." And "The SJTU rankings were reported and around the world... offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation." Respectively. Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's'consistency, clarity of purpose, transparency' as significant strengths. While ARWU has originated in China, the ranking have been praised for being unbiased towards Asian institutions.
The ranking is condemned for "relying too much on award factors" thus undermining the importance of quality of instruction and humanities. A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng. A 2013 paper in the same journal showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced. In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyse how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making, their main conclusions are. The ARWU researchers themselves, N. C Liu and Y Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial, they suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood before reporting or using the results. ARWU has been criticised by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions".
For instance, ARWU is criticised in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic system and the unreasonable weight given to research performed decades ago. It is criticised in France for its use as a motivation for fusing universities into larger ones. Indeed, a further criticism has been that the metrics used are not independent of university size, e.g. number of publications or award winners will mechanically add as universities are grouped, independently of research quality. As it may take much time for rising universities to produce Nobel laureates and Fields Medalists with numbers comparable to those of older institutions, the Institute created alternative rankings excluding such award factors so as to provide another way of comparisons of academic performance; the weighting of all the other factors remains unchanged, thus the grand total of 70%. There are two categories in ARWU's disciplinary rankings, broad subject fields and specific subjects.
The methodology is similar to that adopted in the overall table, including award factors, paper citation, the number of cited scholars. Considering the development of specific areas, two independent regional league tables with different methodologies were launched. Academic Ranking of World Universities Website Jambor, Paul Z.'The Changing Dynamics of PhDs and the Future of Higher Educational Development in Asia and the Rest of the World' Department of Education – The United States of America: Educational Resources Information Center, September 26, 2009 Csizmazia Roland A. Jambor, Paul Z. "Korean Higher Education on the Rise: Time to Learn From the Success – Comparative Research at the Tertiary Education Level", Human Resource Management Academic Research Society: International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development,Volume 3, Issue 2
Gisbertus Voetius was a Dutch Calvinist theologian. He was born at Heusden, in the Dutch Republic, studied at Leiden, in 1611 became Protestant pastor of Vlijmen, whence in 1617 he returned to Heusden. In 1619, he played an influential part in the Synod of Dort. In 1634, Voetius was made professor of Oriental science at the University of Utrecht. Three years he became pastor of the Utrecht congregation, he was an advocate of a strong form of Calvinism against the Arminians. The city of Utrecht perpetuated his memory by giving his name to the street. In March 1642, while serving as rector of the University of Utrecht, Voetius persuaded the university's academic senate to issue a formal condemnation of the Cartesian philosophy and its local defender, Henricus Regius. According to the senate's statement, Cartesian philosophy was to be suppressed because: it was opposed to'traditional' philosophy. Descartes countered with a personal attack on Voetius, in a letter to Jacques Dinet, which he made public in the second edition of his Meditations.
Voetius was provoked into getting Martin Schoock to produce a book-length assault on Descartes and his work, the Admiranda methodus. Descartes associated the quarrel with the part Voetius was playing with another controversy with Samuel Maresius, at least sympathetic to some Cartesian ideas. Legal and diplomatic moves followed. In his long letter to Voetius, Descartes mentioned Aristotelianism only twice. Both Descartes and Voetius acknowledged. Voetius pursued the faith-seeking-understanding program whereas Descartes repudiated the faith-lacking-understanding project; the primary concern of Voetius was not to preserve Aristotelianism but to keep the biblical truth that, as he put it, was received from orthodox tradition. Descartes insisted that the article of faith did not fall under the regime of human reason because faith was something one could not grasp with reason, he argued that whoever embraced the articles of faith for incorrect reasoning would commit a sin no less grave than those who rejected them.
What Descartes defended was the autonomy of human reason and its proper use. In his philosophical enterprise, faith seemed to hinder the use of reason, he believed. Voetius, argued that human reason was surrounded by error and sin, so that perfect knowledge was impossible for humans, he maintained that human beings would be able to learn the truth from divine revelation, the only principle in the pursuit of truth. Therefore, for Voetius, Cartesianism was confronted with scriptural truth, not with Aristotelianism. Van Asselt, WJ. De scholastieke Voetius: Een luisteroefening aan de hand van Voetius' Disputationes Selectae, Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum. Andreas J. Beck: "Gisbertus Voetius: Basic Features of His Doctrine of God." In Willem J. van Asselt und Eef Dekker. Reformation and Scholasticism: An Ecumenical enterprise. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2001, 205–26. Andreas J. Beck: Zur Rezeption Melanchthons bei Gisbertus Voetius, namentlich in seiner Gotteslehre. In Günter Frank, Herman Selderhuis: Melanchthon und der Calvinismus.
Melanchthon-Schriften der Stadt Bretten, 9. Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 2005, S. 319–44. Andreas J. Beck: Gisbertus Voetius. Sein Theologieverständnis und seine Gotteslehre. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2007. Reinhard Breymayer: Auktionskataloge deutscher Pietistenbibliotheken. In Bücherkataloge als buchgeschichtliche Quellen in der frühen Neuzeit. Hrsg. von Reinhard Wittmann. Wiesbaden, S. 113–208. AC Duker, Gysbertus Voetius, I—III. Aza Goudriaan: Die Bedeutung der Trinitätslehre nach Gisbert Voetius. In: Harm Klueting, Jan Rohls: Reformierte Retrospektiven: Vorträge der zweiten Emder Tagung zur Geschichte des Reformierten Protestantismus. Emder Beiträge zum reformierten Protestantismus, 4. Foedus Verlag, Wuppertal 2001, S. 137–45. Aza Goudriaan: Reformed Orthodoxy and Philosophy, 1625–1750. Gisbertus Voetius, Petrus van Mastricht, Anthonius Driessen. Brill’s Series in Church History, 26. Leiden: Brill, 2006. Christian Möller: Einführung in die Praktische Theologie, Tübingen 2004. Andreas Mühling: Zwischen Puritanismus, Orthodoxie und frühem Pietismus – Gisbert Voetius und die'Nadere Reformatie'.
In Monatshefte für Evangelische Kirchengeschichte des Rheinlandes 52, S. 243–54. Andreas Mühling: Art. Voetius, Gisbert. In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie 35, S. 181–84. Han van Ruler: The Crisis of Causality. Voetius and Descartes on God and Change. Brill, Leiden/New York/Köln 1995. Erich Wenneker. "Voetius, Gisbert". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 12. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 1549–54. ISBN 3-88309-068-9. Wo
Harderwijk is a municipality and city at the exact geographical centre of the Netherlands. It is served by the Harderwijk railway station, its population centres are Hierden. Harderwijk is on the western boundary of the Veluwe; the southeastern half of the municipality is forests. Harderwijk received city rights from Count Otto II of Guelders in 1231. A defensive wall surrounding the city was completed by the end of that century; the oldest part of the city is near where the streets Grote Poortstraat now are. Around 1315 the city was expanded southwards, which included the construction of what is now called the Grote Kerk. A second, northward expansion took place around 1425. Along the west side of town, much of the wall still exists but not in original form; that goes for the only remaining city gate, the Vischpoort. Between 1648 and 1811, the University of Harderwijk operated in the city; the Swedish botanist and zoologist, Carl Linnaeus graduated at this university. The university, together with the universities of Zutphen and Franeker, was abolished by Napoleon.
Harderwijk was a member of the Hanseatic League. It lies on what used to be the Zuiderzee shore and its economy was based on fishing and seafaring in general; that changed after 1932, when the Zuiderzee was cut off from the North Sea for safety reasons. Few fishing boats thus now remain in the Harbour, which now is home to yachts. An annual event illustrating the former importantance of the fishing industry to Harderwijk is Aaltjesdag, which translates to Eel day. Fish can still be bought at stands and restaurants on the boulevard throughout the year except for the winter months. Tourists are common customers. Today, Harderwijk is known best for the Dolfinarium Harderwijk, a marine mammal park where dolphin shows are held and various other marine mammals and fish are kept. Jan Bos, speedskater Theo Bos, cyclist Joost Eerdmans, politician Theo de Meester and prime minister Roef Ragas, actor Dirk Rijnders, politician Marco Roelofsen, Dutch football midfielder Richard Roelofsen, Dutch football striker Henk Schiffmacher, tattoo artist Henk Timmer, Dutch football goalkeeper Marianne Timmer, speedskater This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Harderwyk". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Media related to Harderwijk at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
René Descartes was a French philosopher and scientist. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces, he is considered one of the most notable intellectual figures of the Dutch Golden Age. Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is apparent, he is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution. Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers, he set his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, an early modern treatise on emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before".
His best known philosophical statement is "I think, therefore I am", found in Discourse on the Method and Principles of Philosophy. Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation. Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, was opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke and Hume. Leibniz and Descartes were all well-versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, Descartes and Leibniz contributed to science as well. René Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine, France, on 31 March 1596, his mother, Jeanne Brochard, died soon after giving birth to him, so he was not expected to survive.
Descartes' father, was a member of the Parlement of Brittany at Rennes. René lived with his great-uncle. Although the Descartes family was Roman Catholic, the Poitou region was controlled by the Protestant Huguenots. In 1607, late because of his fragile health, he entered the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand at La Flèche, where he was introduced to mathematics and physics, including Galileo's work. After graduation in 1614, he studied for two years at the University of Poitiers, earning a Baccalauréat and Licence in canon and civil law in 1616, in accordance with his father's wishes that he should become a lawyer. From there he moved to Paris. In Discourse on the Method, Descartes recalls, I abandoned the study of letters. Resolving to seek no knowledge other than that of which could be found in myself or else in the great book of the world, I spent the rest of my youth traveling, visiting courts and armies, mixing with people of diverse temperaments and ranks, gathering various experiences, testing myself in the situations which fortune offered me, at all times reflecting upon whatever came my way so as to derive some profit from it.
Given his ambition to become a professional military officer, in 1618, Descartes joined, as a mercenary, the Protestant Dutch States Army in Breda under the command of Maurice of Nassau, undertook a formal study of military engineering, as established by Simon Stevin. Descartes, received much encouragement in Breda to advance his knowledge of mathematics. In this way, he became acquainted with Isaac Beeckman, the principal of a Dordrecht school, for whom he wrote the Compendium of Music. Together they worked on free fall, conic section, fluid statics. Both believed that it was necessary to create a method that linked mathematics and physics. While in the service of the Catholic Duke Maximilian of Bavaria since 1619, Descartes was present at the Battle of the White Mountain outside Prague, in November 1620. According to Adrien Baillet, on the night of 10–11 November 1619, while stationed in Neuburg an der Donau, Descartes shut himself in a room with an "oven" to escape the cold. While within, he had three dreams and believed that a divine spirit revealed to him a new philosophy.
However, it is that what Descartes considered to be his second dream was an episode of exploding head syndrome. Upon exiting, he had formulated analytical geometry and the idea of applying the mathematical method to philosophy, he concluded from these visions that the pursuit of science would prove to be, for him, the pursuit of true wisdom and a central part of his life's work. Descartes saw clearly that all truths were linked with one another so that finding a fundamental truth and proceeding with logic would open the way to all science. Descartes discovered this basic truth quite soon: his famous "I think, therefore I am". In 1620 Descartes left the army, he visited Basilica della Santa Casa in Loreto visited various countries before returning to France, during the next few years spent time in Paris. It was there that he compo