Council of India
The Council of India was the name given at different times to two separate bodies associated with British rule in India. The original Council of India was established by the Charter Act of 1833 as a council of four formal advisors to the Governor-General at Fort William; the Governor-General in Council was subordinate only to the East India Company's Court of Directors and to the British Crown. In 1858 the Company's involvement in India's government was transferred by the Government of India Act 1858 to the British government; the Act created a new governmental department in London, headed by the cabinet-ranking Secretary of State for India, in turn to be advised by a new Council of India. In consequence, the existing council in India was formally renamed by the Act as the Council of the Governor General of India; the 1773 Act provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor-General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he had an additional casting vote.
The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor-General. The Council of Four, as it was known in its early days, did in fact attempt to impeach the first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, but in his subsequent trial by Parliament he was found to be not guilty. In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members. In 1786, the power of the Governor-General was increased further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding; the Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor-General; as provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated. In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.
The Council of the Secretary of State known as the India Council was based in Whitehall. In 1907, two Indians Sir Krishna Govinda Gupta and Nawab Syed Hussain Bilgrami were appointed by Lord Morley as members of the council. Bilgrami retired early in 1910 owing to ill-health and his place was taken by Mirza Abbas Ali Baig. Other members included P. Rajagopalachari, Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana and Sir Abdul Qadir The Secretary of State's Council of India was abolished by the Government of India Act 1935. India Office English Education Act 1835 Central Legislative Assembly Viceroy's Executive Council Council of State Imperial Legislative Council Interim Government of India A Constitutional History of India, 1600–1935, by Arthur Berriedale Keith, published by Methuen & Co. London, 1936 The Imperial Legislative Council of India from 1861 to 1920: A Study of the Inter-action of Constitutional Reform and National Movement with Special Reference to the Growth of Indian Legislature up to 1920, by Parmatma Sharan, published by S. Chand, 1961 Imperialist Strategy and Moderate Politics: Indian Legislature at Work, 1909-1920, by Sneh Mahajan, published by Chanakya Publications, 1983
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is a broadly based political party in India. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. Congress led India to independence from Great Britain, powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire. Congress is a secular party whose social democratic platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya—the lifting up of all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and marginalised people; the party endorses social democracy—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice and secularism—asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings. Its constitution states democractic socialism to be its ideal.
After India's independence in 1947, Congress formed the central government of India, many regional state governments. Congress became India's dominant political party. There have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, the most recent Manmohan Singh. Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, political parties in India, along with the right-wing, Hindu nationalist, Bharatiya Janata Party. In the 2014 general election, Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member Lok Sabha. From 2004 to 2014, United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of Congress with several regional parties, formed the Indian government led by Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister as the head of the coalition government; the leader of the party during the period, Sonia Gandhi has served the longest term as the president of the party. As of December 2018, the party is in power in six legislative assemblies: Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the union territory of Puducherry.
The Indian National Congress conducted its first session in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885 at the initiative of retired Civil Service officer Allan Octavian Hume. In 1883, Hume had outlined his idea for a body representing Indian interests in an open letter to graduates of the University of Calcutta, its aim was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians, to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between them and the British Raj. Hume took the initiative, in March 1885 a notice convening the first meeting of the Indian National Union to be held in Poona the following December was issued. Due to a cholera outbreak there, it was moved to Bombay. Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of Congress. Notable representatives included Scottish ICS officer William Wedderburn, Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta of the Bombay Presidency Association, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, social reformer and newspaper editor Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Justice K. T. Telang, N. G. Chandavarkar, Dinshaw Wacha, Behramji Malabari and activist Gooty Kesava Pillai, P. Rangaiah Naidu of the Madras Mahajana Sabha.
This small elite group, unrepresentative of the Indian masses at the time, functioned more as a stage for elite Indian ambitions than a political party for the first decade of its existence. At the beginning of the 20th century, Congress' demands became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the British government, the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement because it would allow a new political system in which Congress could be a major party. By 1905, a division opened between the moderates led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, the new extremists who advocated agitation, regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who tried to mobilise Hindu Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity displayed in the annual public Ganapati festivals he inaugurated in western India, was prominent among the extremists. Congress included a number of prominent political figures. Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, was elected president of the party in 1886 and was the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons.
Congress included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Jinnah was a member of the moderate group in the Congress, favouring Hindu–Muslim unity in achieving self-government, he became the leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjee during the partition of Bengal in 1905, the resultant Swadeshi movement. Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915. With the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale, Gandhi became president of Congress. After the First World War, the party became associated with Gandhi, who remained its unofficial spiritual leader and icon, he formed an alliance wit
Bahujan Samaj Party
The Bahujan Samaj Party is a national political party in India. By vote share in the 2014 general election, it is India's third-largest national party, though it did not win any seats in the Lok Sabha, it was formed to represent Bahujans, referring to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes, along with religious minorities. According to Kanshi Ram, when he founded the party in 1984, the Bahujans comprised 85 percent of India's population, but were divided into 6,000 different castes; the party claims to be inspired by the philosophy of Gautama Buddha, B. R. Ambedkar, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Narayana Guru, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj. Kanshi Ram named his protégée Mayawati as his successor in 2001; the BSP has its main base in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. In the 2017 Uttar Pradesh elections, BSP was the second-largest party, with over 22% of votes despite winning only 19 seats, it has an elephant as its election symbol. The BSP has no separate youth wing.
BSP has website. Sudhindra Bhadoria, a senior party leader, is the only official spokesperson of the BSP; the Pali word "Bahujana" is popularly found in the literature of Buddhist texts. Gautama Buddha used this word to guide his disciples to work for the Bahujana Hitaya Bahujana Sukhaya; the BSP used this slogan extensively to campaign in her political rallies. The BSP's primary focus is on the uplifting of, its self-proclaimed ideology is "Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation" of the "Bahujan Samaj". The "Bahujan Samaj", to them, consists of the lower-caste groups in India like the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes, it includes religious minorities like Sikhs, Christians and Buddhists. They see these groups as having been victims of the "Manuwadi" system for millennia, a system which benefited upper-caste Hindus only, they hold B. R. Ambedkar, champion of lower-caste rights, as one of their key icons and ideological inspirations. Many doubt upper caste Hindu that BSP is an anti-upper caste party, pure propaganda.
BSP believes in egalitarian equality. In 2008 while speaking on same BSP supremo Mayawati said "Our policies and ideology are not against any particular caste or religion. If we were anti-upper caste, we would not have given tickets to candidates from upper castes to contest elections". In fact, Satish Chandra Mishra and many Upper castes Hindu are in various positions in BSP; the party believe in egalitarianism and hold a strong emphasis on social justice.. The Bahujan Samaj Party was founded on the birth anniversary of B. R. Ambedkar, 14 April 1984, by Kanshi Ram, who named former schoolteacher Mayawati as his successor of BSP in 2001. Lesser-known figures from the Indian Rebellion of 1857 have been used as Dalit icons by the BSP; the political strategy of the party is to tell and retell the stories of these heroes, build memorials and organize celebrations around their stories to build a collective memory in the psyche of the people. The stories are narrated in such a manner that the Dalits imagine the story of the making of a nation in which they played a significant role.
The party's power grew with seats in the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh and the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India. In 1993, following the assembly elections, Mayawati formed a coalition with Samajwadi Party President Mulayam Singh Yadav as Chief Minister. On 2 June 1995, she withdrew support from his government, which led to a major incident where Yadav was accused of sending his goons to keep her party legislators hostage at a Lucknow guest house and shout casteist abuses at her. Since this event, they have regarded each other publicly as chief rivals. Mayawati obtained support from the Bharatiya Janata Party to become Chief Minister on 3 June 1995. In October 1995, the BJP withdrew their support and fresh elections were called after a period of President's Rule. In 2003, Mayawati resigned from her own government to prove that she was not "hungry for power" and asked the BJP-run Government of India to remove Union Tourism and Culture Minister, Jagmohan. In 2007, she began leading a BSP-formed government with an absolute majority for a full five-year term..
The results of the May 2007 Uttar Pradesh state assembly election saw the BSP emerge as a sole majority party, the first to do so since 1991. Mayawati began her fourth term as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and took her oath of office along with 50 ministers of cabinet and state rank on 13 May 2007, at Rajbhawan in the state capital of Lucknow. Most the majority achieved in large part was due to the party's ability to take away majority of upper castes votes from their traditional party, the BJP; the party could manage only 80 seats in 2012 as against 206 in 2007 assembly elections. BSP government was the first in the history of Uttar Pradesh to complete its full five-year term. On 26 May 2018, the party in a major revamp, Ram Achal Rajbhar was replaced by R S Kushwaha as President of UP Unit; the 2014 national Lok Sabha elections saw the BSP become the third-largest national p
Samajwadi Party is a political party in India headquartered in New Delhi. It is a state party based in Uttar Pradesh, it describes itself as a democratic socialist party; the Samajwadi Party was one of several parties that emerged when the Janata Dal fragmented into several regional parties. The Samajwadi Party is led by former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Akhilesh Yadav after he was chosen the President by the National Convention held on 1 January 2017; the Samajwadi Party is based in Uttar Pradesh State. It has contested Lok Sabha and State Assembly elections around the country, though its successes have been in Uttar Pradesh. In the 2012 legislative assembly elections of Uttar Pradesh, SP registered a landslide victory with a clear majority in the House, thus enabling it to form the government in the state; this was expected to be the fifth term of Mulayam Singh Yadav as Chief Minister of state, but he surprised everyone by selecting his son, Akhilesh Yadav, to be the new chief minister.
It became official on 15 March. It was the first time that SP was head of the UP government for a full term of 5 years.. The Samajawadi Party provided outside support to the United Progressive Alliance government up to the sixteenth general election, After the sixteenth general election its support became unnecessary when the UPA became the largest alliance, it contested the 2009 general election in alliance with the Rashtriya Janata Dal and the Lok Janshakti Party of Bihar. In the last general election, the Samajwadi Party was defeated by the BJP in Uttar Pradesh, it is the thirteenth largest party in parliament. In the general elections of 2014, it won only 5 seats, while the Indian National Congress gained 44 seats and the Bharatiya Janata Party obtained a clear mandate with 282 seats. In West Bengal, the West Bengal Socialist Party of Kiranmoy Nanda merged with the SP; the SP has one MLA each in Madhya Maharashtra. In April 2014, the Save Indian Family Foundation encouraged voters to support the Samajwadi Party or vote None of the above because the Samajwadi Party had stated that it opposed the alleged misuse of gender bias laws.
The Samajwadi Party has called homosexuality "unethical and immoral." The clashes between the Hindu and Muslim communities in Muzaffarnagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India in August - September 2013, resulted in at least 9 deaths and injured 34 after which an indefinite curfew was imposed. By 17 September, the curfew was lifted from all riot affected areas and the army was withdrawn. Several people associated with Bharatiya Janta Party including Sangeet Som were accused; the riot has been described as "the worst violence in Uttar Pradesh in recent history". The Supreme court blamed the ruling government of not handling the situation well. In reaction to this, Akhilesh Yadav warned of strict action against those found guilty, he blamed a political conspiracy behind these riots. He announced jobs to the kins of the people who were killed during the riots In 2014, there was a proposed merger of Samajwadi Party with some other Janata Parivar parties uniting with Lalu Prasad Yadav and Nitish Kumar. Since Akhilesh Yadav became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, the Yadav family has been divided into two feuding groups.
One of the groups is led by him with the support of Ram Gopal Yadav. The rival group is led by a friend, Amar Singh. Akhilesh Yadav has fired his uncle twice from his cabinet as it was seen by many as a direct challenge to his father Mulayam Singh Yadav, who has supported his younger brother Shivpal over him. Battle in the family fired up when Akhilesh Yadav released a parallel list of 235 candidates for 2017 Uttar Pradesh election. Mulayam Singh Yadav and Shivpal Singh Yadav has released list of 325 candidates few days before. On 30 December 2016, Mulayam Singh Yadav expelled his son Akhilesh Yadav and Ram Gopal Yadav from the party for six years on the grounds of indiscipline but re-inducted within 24 hours after a meet of 200 of the party’s 229 MLAs at Akhilesh residence. In a National Convention held on 1 January 2017 called by Ram Gopal Yadav, Akhilesh Yadav was declared the National President of Samajwadi Party. Naresh Chandra Uttam was named as Uttar Pradesh state president of the party.
In the mean time Mulayam Singh Yadav expelled Ram Gopal Yadav for six years for the third time in six months. Expulsion included vice-president Kiranmoy Nanda and state general secretary Naresh Agarwal were expelled for attending the convention. Due to the convention, the party is divided and is headed by two competing presidents. Akhilesh Yadav and his father both are representing themselves as party presidents; however the constitution of the party categorically states that any convention can only be called by its president and if an other member wants a convention to be called, he has to collect the signatures of 40% members and submit it to national president. If the president fails to call the convention that individual member may call for the convention. In this case however, Akhilesh Faction has acted against the party constitution and technically Mulayam Singh Yadav is still the party president. After the national convention was declared illegal by Mulayam Singh Yadav and further truce talks failed Mulayam Singh along with Amar Singh and Jaya Prada decided to go to the Election Commission to sort out the matter.
The Election Commission gave time until 9 January to submit the related documents to both sides to submit required documents that show support of the party members. The Akhilesh camp submitted affidavits showing notable support for the Chief Minister on 7 Ja
Ram Govind Chaudhary
Ram Govind Chaudhary is one of the prominent socialist leader of India who serves as Leader of the Opposition in the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly since 2017. He was in charge of Basic Education and Child Nutrition and Development Ministries in previous Samajwadi Party Government of Uttar Pradesh led by Akhilesh Yadav, he is Member of Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh from Ballia. He had worked with Jayaprakash Narayan and Chandra Shekhar, he is one of the close associate of Samajwadi Party president Mulayam Singh Yadav. Chaudhary was born on 9 July 1953 in Gosaipur, Uttar Pradesh to Dwarika Choudhary. In 1974, he got Bachelor of Arts degree from Gorakhpur University, in 1982, he received a degree in LLB from Lucknow University. Chaudhary has MLA for eight terms. 1977 to 1992 he represented Chilkahar constituency in Ballia of Uttar Pradesh. Since 2002, he represented Bansdih in Ballia as a member of Samajwadi Party, he was Minister of Horticulture and Food Processing in Mulayam Singh Yadav cabinet and Minister of Child Development and Nutrition, Basic Education in Mulayam Singh Yadav cabinet and Akhilesh Yadav cabinet.
Since March 2017, he serve Leader of opposition in Seventeenth Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh as a leader of Samajwadi Party. 1977-1980 Member, 7th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Member, Estimate Committee 1980-1985 Member, 8th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh 1985-1989 Member, 9th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Whip, Janata Party Legislature Party Member, Joint Committee on Welfare of Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and Denotified Tribes 1989-1991 Member, 10th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Minister and Food Processing Member, Joint Committee on Welfare of Scheduled Castes Scheduled Tribes and Denotified Tribes Member, Question & Reference Committee 1991-1992 Member, 11th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh 2002-2007 Member, 14th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Minister, Child Development and Nutrition Member, Joint Committee on Public Undertakings and Corporations 2012-2017 Member, 16th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Minister, Child Development and Nutrition, Basic Education, Social Welfare and Panchayati Raj 2017-Incumbent Member, 17th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Leader of Opposition in Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh.
He is married to Kalawati Devi. They have a son