In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as "me" or "here", that cannot be understood without additional contextual information—in this case, the identity of the speaker and the speaker's location. Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denotational meaning varies depending on time and/or place. Words or phrases that require contextual information to convey any meaning—for example, English pronouns—are deictic. Deixis is related to anaphora, as will be further explained below. Although this article deals with deixis in spoken language, the concept is sometimes applied to written language and communication media as well. In linguistic anthropology, deixis is treated as a particular subclass of the more general semiotic phenomenon of indexicality, a sign "pointing to" some aspect of its context of occurrence. Although this article draws examples from English, deixis is believed to be a feature of all natural languages; the term's origin is Ancient Greek: translit.
Deixis, lit.'display, demonstration, or reference', the meaning point of reference in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus. Fillmore termed the most common categories of contextual information of person and time the "major grammaticalized types". Similar categorizations can be found elesewhere. Personal deixis concerns itself with the grammatical persons involved in an utterance, those directly involved, those not directly involved, those mentioned in the utterance. In English, the distinctions are indicated by pronouns; the following examples show how. I am going to the movies. Would you like to have dinner? They tried to hurt me. In languages with gendered pronouns, the third-person masculine pronoun has traditionally been used as a default when using "it" is inappropriate but the gender of its antecedent is unknown or inapplicable. For example: To each his own. In English, it is now common to use the third-person plural when the antecedent is singular: To each their own.
In languages that distinguish between masculine and feminine plural pronouns, such as French or Serbo-Croatian, the masculine is again used as default. "Ils vont à la bibliothèque", "Oni idu u biblioteku" may refer either to a group of masculine nouns or a group of both masculine and feminine nouns. "Elles vont...", "One idu..." would be used only for a group of feminine nouns. In many such languages, the gender of a noun is only tangentially related to the gender of the thing the noun represents. For example, in French, the generic personne, meaning a person is always a feminine noun, so if the subject of discourse is "les personnes", the use of "elles" is obligatory if the people being considered are all men. Spatial deixis concerns itself with the spatial locations relevant to an utterance. To person deixis, the locations may be either those of the speaker and addressee or those of persons or objects being referred to; the most salient English examples are the adverbs "here" and "there" and the demonstratives "this" and "that"—although those are far from being the only deictic words.
Some examples: I enjoy living in this city. Here is, she was sitting over there. Unless otherwise specified, place deictic terms are understood to be relative to the location of the speaker, as in The shop is across the street.where "across the street" is understood to mean "across the street from where I am right now." Although "here" and "there" are used to refer to locations near to and far from the speaker "there" can refer to the location of the addressee, if they are not in the same location as the speaker. So, although Here is a good spot. Deictic projection: In some contexts, spatial deixis is used metaphorically rather than physically, i.e. the speaker is not speaking as the deictic centre. For example:I am coming home now; the above utterance would be considered as the speaker's expression of his/her going home, yet it appears to be normal for one to project his physical presence to his home rather than away from home. Here is another common example: I am not here, please leave a message.
Despite its common usage to address people who call with no one answering the phone, the here here is semantically contradictory to one's absence. This is considered normal for most people as speakers have to project themselves as answering the phone when in fact they are not physically. Languages show at least a two-way referential distinction in their deictic system: proximal, i.e. near or closer to the speaker. English exemplifies this with such pairs as this and that and there, etc. In other languages, the distinction is three-way or higher: proximal, i.e. near the speaker. This is the case in a few Romance languages and in Serbo-Croatian, Japanese, Filipino and Turkish; the archaic English forms yon and yonder once represented a distal category that has now been subsumed by the medial "there". In the Sinhala language, there is a four-way deixis syst
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in spoken languages and signs in sign languages. It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages, but it may cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning. Sign languages have a phonological system equivalent to the system of sounds in spoken languages; the building blocks of signs are specifications for movement and handshape. The word'phonology' can refer to the phonological system of a given language; this is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax and its vocabulary. Phonology is distinguished from phonetics. While phonetics concerns the physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning.
For many linguists, phonetics belongs to descriptive linguistics, phonology to theoretical linguistics, although establishing the phonological system of a language is an application of theoretical principles to analysis of phonetic evidence. Note that this distinction was not always made before the development of the modern concept of the phoneme in the mid 20th century; some subfields of modern phonology have a crossover with phonetics in descriptive disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology. The word phonology comes from phōnḗ, "voice, sound," and the suffix - logy. Definitions of the term vary. Nikolai Trubetzkoy in Grundzüge der Phonologie defines phonology as "the study of sound pertaining to the system of language," as opposed to phonetics, "the study of sound pertaining to the act of speech". More Lass writes that phonology refers broadly to the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language, while in more narrow terms, "phonology proper is concerned with the function and organization of sounds as linguistic items."
According to Clark et al. it means the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. Early evidence for a systematic study of the sounds in a language appears in the 4th century BCE Ashtadhyayi, a Sanskrit grammar composed by Pāṇini. In particular the Shiva Sutras, an auxiliary text to the Ashtadhyayi, introduces what may be considered a list of the phonemes of the Sanskrit language, with a notational system for them, used throughout the main text, which deals with matters of morphology and semantics; the study of phonology as it exists today is defined by the formative studies of the 19th-century Polish scholar Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, who shaped the modern usage of the term phoneme in a series of lectures in 1876-1877. The word phoneme had been coined a few years earlier in 1873 by the French linguist A. Dufriche-Desgenettes. In a paper read at the 24th of May meeting of the Société de Linguistique de Paris, Dufriche-Desgenettes proposed that phoneme serve as a one-word equivalent for the German Sprachlaut.
Baudouin de Courtenay's subsequent work, though unacknowledged, is considered to be the starting point of modern phonology. He worked on the theory of phonetic alternations, may have had an influence on the work of Saussure according to E. F. K. Koerner. An influential school of phonology in the interwar period was the Prague school. One of its leading members was Prince Nikolai Trubetzkoy, whose Grundzüge der Phonologie, published posthumously in 1939, is among the most important works in the field from this period. Directly influenced by Baudouin de Courtenay, Trubetzkoy is considered the founder of morphophonology, although this concept had been recognized by de Courtenay. Trubetzkoy developed the concept of the archiphoneme. Another important figure in the Prague school was Roman Jakobson, one of the most prominent linguists of the 20th century. In 1968 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle published The Sound Pattern of English, the basis for generative phonology. In this view, phonological representations are sequences of segments made up of distinctive features.
These features were an expansion of earlier work by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant, Morris Halle. The features describe aspects of articulation and perception, are from a universally fixed set, have the binary values + or −. There are at least two levels of representation: underlying representation and surface phonetic representation. Ordered phonological rules govern how underlying representation is transformed into the actual pronunciation. An important consequence of the influence SPE had on phonological theory was the downplaying of the syllable and the emphasis on segments. Furthermore, the generativists folded morphophonology into phonology, which both solved and created problems. Natural phonology is a theory based on the publications of its proponent David Stampe in 1969 and in 1979. In this view, phonology is based on a set of universal phonological p
Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin was a Russian philosopher, literary critic and scholar who worked on literary theory and the philosophy of language. His writings, on a variety of subjects, inspired scholars working in a number of different traditions and in disciplines as diverse as literary criticism, philosophy, sociology and psychology. Although Bakhtin was active in the debates on aesthetics and literature that took place in the Soviet Union in the 1920s, his distinctive position did not become well known until he was rediscovered by Russian scholars in the 1960s. Bakhtin was born in Russia, to an old family of the nobility, his father worked in several cities. For this reason Bakhtin spent his early childhood years in Oryol, in Vilnius, in Odessa, where in 1913 he joined the historical and philological faculty at the local university. Katerina Clark and Michael Holquist write: "Odessa... Like Vilnius, was an appropriate setting for a chapter in the life of a man, to become the philosopher of heteroglossia and carnival.
The same sense of fun and irreverence that gave birth to Babel's Rabelaisian gangster or to the tricks and deceptions of Ostap Bender, the picaro created by Ilf and Petrov, left its mark on Bakhtin." He transferred to Petrograd Imperial University to join his brother Nikolai. It is here that Bakhtin was influenced by the classicist F. F. Zelinsky, whose works contain the beginnings of concepts elaborated by Bakhtin. Bakhtin completed his studies in 1918, he moved to a small city in western Russia, where he worked as a schoolteacher for two years. It was at that time; the group consisted of intellectuals with varying interests, but all shared a love for the discussion of literary and political topics. Included in this group were Valentin Voloshinov and P. N. Medvedev, who joined the group in Vitebsk. Vitebsk was “a cultural centre of the region” the perfect place for Bakhtin “and other intellectuals lectures and concerts." German philosophy was the topic talked about most and, from this point forward, Bakhtin considered himself more a philosopher than a literary scholar.
It was in Nevel that Bakhtin worked tirelessly on a large work concerning moral philosophy, never published in its entirety. However, in 1919, a short section of this work was published and given the title "Art and Responsibility"; this piece constitutes Bakhtin's first published work. Bakhtin relocated to Vitebsk in 1920, it was here, in 1921. In 1923, Bakhtin was diagnosed with osteomyelitis, a bone disease that led to the amputation of his leg in 1938; this illness rendered him an invalid. In 1924, Bakhtin moved to Leningrad, where he assumed a position at the Historical Institute and provided consulting services for the State Publishing House, it is at this time that Bakhtin decided to share his work with the public, but just before "On the Question of the Methodology of Aesthetics in Written Works" was to be published, the journal in which it was to appear stopped publication. This work was published 51 years later; the repression and misplacement of his manuscripts was something that would plague Bakhtin throughout his career.
In 1929, "Problems of Dostoevsky’s Art", Bakhtin's first major work, was published. It is here. However, just as this book was introduced, on 8 December 1928, right before Voskresenie's 10th anniversary, Bakhtin and a number of others associated with Voskresenie were apprehended by the Soviet secret police, the OGPU, the leaders being sentenced up to ten years in labor camps of Solovki, though after an appeal to consider the state of his health his sentence was commuted to exile to Kazakhstan, where he and his wife spent six years in Kustanai, after which in 1936 they moved to Saransk where he taught at the Mordovian Pedagogical Institute. During the six years he spent working as a book-keeper in the town of Kustanai he wrote several important essays, including "Discourse in the Novel". In 1936, living in Saransk, he became an obscure figure in a provincial college, dropping out of view and teaching only occasionally. In 1937, Bakhtin moved to a town located one hundred kilometers from Moscow.
Here, Bakhtin completed work on a book concerning the 18th-century German novel, subsequently accepted by the Sovetskii Pisatel' Publishing House. However, the only copy of the manuscript disappeared during the upheaval caused by the German invasion. After the amputation of his leg in 1938, Bakhtin's health improved and he became more prolific. In 1940, until the end of World War II, Bakhtin lived in Moscow, where he submitted a dissertation on François Rabelais to the Gorky Institute of World Literature to obtain a postgraduate title, a dissertation that could not be defended until the war ended. In 1946 and 1949, the defense of this dissertation divided the scholars of Moscow into two groups: those official opponents guiding the defense, who accepted the original and unorthodox manuscript, those other professors who were against the manuscript's acceptance; the book's earthy, anarchic topic was the cause of many arguments that ceased only when the government intervened. Bakhtin was denied a higher doctoral degree (Doctor of
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology and anthropology. Unlike semantics, which examines meaning, conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge of the speaker and listener, but on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, other factors. In this respect, pragmatics explains how language users are able to overcome apparent ambiguity, since meaning relies on the manner, time, etc. of an utterance. The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; the word pragmatics derives via Latin pragmaticus from the Greek πραγματικός, meaning amongst others "fit for action", which comes from πρᾶγμα, "deed, act", that from πράσσω, "to do, to act, to pass over, to practise, to achieve".
Pragmatics was a reaction to structuralist linguistics. In many cases, it expanded upon his idea that language has an analyzable structure, composed of parts that can be defined in relation to others. Pragmatics first engaged only in synchronic study, as opposed to examining the historical development of language. However, it rejected the notion that all meaning comes from signs existing purely in the abstract space of langue. Meanwhile, historical pragmatics has come into being; this field only gained linguists' attention in the 70s. This is; the study of the speaker's meaning, not focusing on the phonetic or grammatical form of an utterance, but instead on what the speaker's intentions and beliefs are. The study of the meaning in context, the influence that a given context can have on the message, it requires knowledge of the speaker's identities, the place and time of the utterance. The study of implicatures, i.e. the things that are communicated though they are not explicitly expressed. The study of relative distance, both social and physical, between speakers in order to understand what determines the choice of what is said and what is not said.
The study of what is not meant, as opposed to the intended meaning, i.e. that, unsaid and unintended, or unintentional. Information structure, the study of how utterances are marked in order to efficiently manage the common ground of referred entities between speaker and hearer Formal Pragmatics, the study of those aspects of meaning and use for which context of use is an important factor, by using the methods and goals of formal semantics; the sentence "You have a green light" is ambiguous. Without knowing the context, the identity of the speaker or the speaker's intent, it is difficult to infer the meaning with certainty. For example, it could mean: the space that belongs to you has green ambient lighting; the sentence "Sherlock saw the man with binoculars" could mean that Sherlock observed the man by using binoculars, or it could mean that Sherlock observed a man, holding binoculars. The meaning of the sentence depends on an understanding of the speaker's intent; as defined in linguistics, a sentence is an abstract entity—a string of words divorced from non-linguistic context—as opposed to an utterance, a concrete example of a speech act in a specific context.
The more conscious subjects stick to common words, idioms and topics, the more others can surmise their meaning. This suggests that sentences do not have intrinsic meaning, that there is no meaning associated with a sentence or word, that either can only represent an idea symbolically; the cat sat on the mat is a sentence in English. If someone were to say to someone else, "The cat sat on the mat," the act is itself an utterance; this implies that a sentence, expression or word cannot symbolically represent a single true meaning. By contrast, the meaning of an utterance can be inferred through knowledge of both its linguistic and non-linguistic contexts. In mathematics, with Berry's paradox, there arises a similar systematic ambiguity with the word "definable"; the referential uses of language are. A sign is the link or relationship between a signified and the signifier as defined by Saussure and Huguenin; the signified is some concept in the world. The signifier represents the signified. An example would be: Signified: the concept cat Signifier: the word "cat"The relationship between the two gives the sign meaning.
This relationship can be further explained by considering what we mean by "meaning." In pragmatics, there are two different types of meaning to consider: semantico-referential meaning and indexical meaning. Semantico-referential meaning refers to the aspect of meaning, which describes events in the world that are independent of the circumstance they are uttered in. An example would be propositions s
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of, or in conjunction with, speech. Gestures include movement of face, or other parts of the body. Gestures differ from physical non-verbal communication that does not communicate specific messages, such as purely expressive displays, proxemics, or displays of joint attention. Gestures allow individuals to communicate a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection together with body language in addition to words when they speak. Gesture processing takes place in areas of the brain such as Broca's and Wernicke's areas, which are used by speech and sign language. In fact, language is thought by some scholars to have evolved in Homo sapiens from an earlier system consisting of manual gestures; the theory that language evolved from manual gestures, termed Gestural Theory, dates back to the work of 18th-century philosopher and priest Abbé de Condillac, has been revived by contemporary anthropologist Gordon W. Hewes, in 1973, as part of a discussion on the origin of language.
Gestures have been studied throughout time from different philosophers. Marcus Fabius Quintilianus was a Roman Rhetorician who studied in his Institution Oratoria on how gesture can be used on rhetorical discourses. One of his greatest works and foundation for communication was the "Institutio Oratoria" where he explains his observations and nature of different oratories. A study done in 1644, by John Bulwer an English physician and early Baconian natural philosopher wrote five works exploring human communications pertaining to gestures. Bulwer analyzed dozens of gestures and a provided a guide under his book named Chirologia which focused on hand gestures. In the 19th century, Andrea De Jorio an Italian antiquarian, a considered a of research about body language published an extensive account of gesture expressions. Andrew N. Meltzoff an American psychologist conducted who's internationally renown on infant and child development conducted a study in 1977 on the imitation of facial and manual gestures by new born.
The study concluded that "infants between 12 and 21 days of age can imitate the facial and manual gestures of parents". In 1992, David Mcneill a professor of linguistics and psychology at the University of Chicago wrote a book based on his ten years of research and concluded that "gestures do not form a part of what is said, but have an impact on thought itself." Meltzoff argues that gestures directly transfer thoughts into visible forms, showing that ideas and language cannot always be express. A peer-reviewed journal Gesture has been published since 2001, was founded by Adam Kendon and Cornelia Müller; the International Society for Gesture Studies was founded in 2002. Gesture has been taken up by researchers in the field of dance studies and performance studies in ways that emphasize the ways they are culturally and contextually inflected. Performance scholar, Carrie Noland, describes gestures as "learned techniques of the body" and stresses the way gestures are embodied corporeal forms of cultural communication.
But rather than just residing within one cultural context, she describes how gesture migrate across bodies and locations to create new cultural meanings and associations. She posits how they might function as a form of "resistance to homogenization" because they are so dependent on the specification of the bodies that perform them. Gesture has been taken up within queer theory, ethnic studies and their intersections in performance studies, as a way to think about how the moving body gains social meaning. José Esteban Muñoz uses the idea of gesture to mark a kind of refusal of finitude and certainty and links gesture to his ideas of ephemera. Muñoz draws on the African-American dancer and drag queen performer Kevin Aviance to articulate his interest not in what queer gestures might mean, but what they might perform. Juana María Rodríguez borrows ideas of phenomenology and draws on Noland and Muñoz to investigate how gesture functions in queer sexual practices as a way to rewrite gender and negotiate power relations.
She connects gesture to Giorgio Agamben's idea of "means without ends" to think about political projects of social justice that are incomplete and legibile within culturally and defined spheres of meaning. Within the field of linguistics, the most hotly contested aspect of gesture revolves around the subcategory of Lexical or Iconic Co-Speech Gestures. Adam Kendon was the first linguist to hypothesize on their purpose when he argued that Lexical gestures do work to amplify or modulate the lexico-semantic content of the verbal speech with which they co-occur. However, since the late 1990s, most research has revolved around the contrasting hypothesis that Lexical gestures serve a cognitive purpose in aiding the process of speech production; as of 2012, there is research to suggest that Lexical Gesture does indeed serve a communicative purpose and cognitive only secondary, but in the realm of socio-pragmatic communication, rather than lexico-semantic modification. Humans have the ability to communicate through language, but they can express through gestures.
In particular, gestures can be transmitted through movements of body parts and body expressions. Researchers Goldin Meadow and Brentari D. conducted research in 2015 and concluded that communicating through sign language is no different from spoken language. The first way to distinguish between categories of gesture is to differentiate between communicative gesture and informative gesture. While most gestures can be defined as happening during the course of spoken utterances, the informative-communicative
A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program or video game. These screenplays can be original adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated. A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay; the format is structured so that one page equates to one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ballpark estimate and bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 10 pitch Courier Typeface; the major components are dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects; the dialogue is the words the characters speak, is written in a center column. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines. A slug line called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene and contains three pieces of information: whether the scene is set inside or outside, the specific location, the time of day.
Each slug line begins a new scene. In a "shooting script" the slug lines are numbered consecutively for ease of reference. American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size, they are held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to read the script. In the United Kingdom, double-hole-punched A4 paper is used, taller and narrower than US letter size; some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper. Because each country's standard paper size is difficult to obtain in the other country, British writers send an electronic copy to American producers, or crop the A4 size to US letter. A British script may be bound by a single brad at the top left hand side of the page, making flicking through the paper easier during script meetings.
Screenplays are bound with a light card stock cover and back page showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script, covers are there to protect the script during handling which can reduce the strength of the paper. This is important if the script is to pass through the hands of several people or through the post. Reading copies of screenplays are distributed printed on both sides of the paper to reduce paper waste, they are reduced to half-size to make a small book, convenient to read or put in a pocket. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Screenplays and teleplays use a set of standardizations, beginning with proper formatting; these rules are in part to serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies, to serve as a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known as the studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, transitions, character names and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as font size and line spacing.
One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of one page per minute. This rule of thumb is contested — a page of dialogue occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood. There is no single standard for studio format; some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. The Nicholl Fellowship, a screenwriting competition run under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has a guide to screenplay format. A more detailed reference is The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats. A "spec script" or speculative screenplay is a script written to be sold on the open market with no upfront payment, or promise of payment; the content is invented by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can be based on established works, or real people and events.
For American TV shows, the format rules for hour-long dramas and single-camera sitcoms are the same as for motion pictures. The main difference is. Multi-camera sitcoms use a specialized format that derives from stage plays and radio. In this format, dialogue is double-spaced, action lines are capitalized, scene headings, character entrances and exits, sound effects are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs, many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format; that is, the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to di