Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I was the Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825. He was Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first king of Congress Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825. Born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich Emperor Paul I, he succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered, he ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. As prince and during the early years of his reign, Alexander used liberal rhetoric, but continued Russia's absolutist policies in practice. In the first years of his reign, he initiated some minor social reforms and major, liberal educational reforms, such as building more universities. Alexander appointed the son of a village priest, as one of his closest advisors; the Collegia was abolished and replaced by the State Council, created to improve legislation. Plans were made to set up a parliament and sign a constitution. In foreign policy, he changed Russia's position relative to France four times between 1804 and 1812 among neutrality and alliance.
In 1805 he joined Britain in the War of the Third Coalition against Napoleon, but after suffering massive defeats at the battles of Austerlitz and Friedland he switched sides and formed an alliance with Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit and joined Napoleon's Continental System. He fought a small-scale naval war against Britain between 1807 and 1812 as well as a short war against Sweden after Sweden's refusal to join the Continental System. Alexander and Napoleon hardly agreed regarding Poland, the alliance collapsed by 1810. Alexander's greatest triumph came in 1812 when Napoleon's invasion of Russia proved to be a catastrophic disaster for the French; as part of the winning coalition against Napoleon, he gained some spoils in Poland. He formed the Holy Alliance to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe that he saw as immoral threats to legitimate Christian monarchs, he helped Austria's Klemens von Metternich in suppressing all liberal movements. In the second half of his reign he was arbitrary and fearful of plots against him.
He purged schools of foreign teachers, as education became more religiously oriented as well as politically conservative. Speransky was replaced as advisor with the strict artillery inspector Aleksey Arakcheyev, who oversaw the creation of military settlements. Alexander died of typhus in December 1825 while on a trip to southern Russia, he left no children. Neither of his brothers wanted to become emperor. After a period of great confusion, he was succeeded by his younger brother, Nicholas I. Alexander was born on 23 December 1777 in Saint Petersburg, he and his younger brother Constantine were raised by their grandmother, Catherine; some sources allege. From the free-thinking atmosphere of the court of Catherine and his Swiss tutor, Frédéric-César de La Harpe, he imbibed the principles of Rousseau's gospel of humanity, but from his military governor, Nikolay Saltykov, he imbibed the traditions of Russian autocracy. Andrey Afanasyevich Samborsky, whom his grandmother chose for his religious instruction, was an atypical, unbearded Orthodox priest.
Samborsky had long lived in England and taught Alexander excellent English uncommon for potential Russian autocrats at the time. On 9 October 1793, when Alexander was still 15 years old, he married 14-year-old Princess Louise of Baden, who took the name Elizabeth Alexeievna, his grandmother was the one. Until his grandmother's death, he was walking the line of allegiance between his grandmother and his father, his steward Nikolai Saltykov helped him navigate the political landscape, engendering dislike for his grandmother and dread in dealing with his father. Catherine had the Alexander Palace built for the couple; this did nothing to help his relationship with her, as Catherine would go out of her way to amuse them with dancing and parties, which annoyed his wife. Living at the palace put pressure on him to perform as a husband, when he only had a brother's love for the Grand Duchess, he began to sympathize more with his father, as he saw visiting his father's fiefdom at Gatchina as a relief from the ostentatious court of the empress.
There, they wore simple Prussian military uniforms, instead of the gaudy clothing popular at the French court they had to wear when visiting Catherine. So, visiting the tsarevich did not come without a bit of travail. Paul liked to have his guests perform military drills, which he pushed upon his sons Alexander and Constantine, he was prone to fits of temper, he went into fits of rage when events did not go his way. Catherine's death in November 1796, before she could appoint Alexander as her successor, brought his father, Paul, to the throne. Alexander disliked him as tsar more than he did his grandmother, he wrote that Russia had become a "plaything for the insane" and that "absolute power disrupts everything". It is that seeing two previous rulers abuse their autocratic powers in such a way pushed him to be one of the more progressive Romanov tsars of the 19th and 20th centuries. Among the rest of the country, Paul was unpopular, he accused his wife of conspiring to become another
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Southwest Finland or Varsinais-Suomi known as Finland Proper is a region in the south-west of Finland. It borders the regions of Satakunta, Tavastia Proper, Uusimaa; the region's capital and most populous city is Turku. The area comprising the southwest is the same as the historical province of Finland Proper, so named because it is the original home of the tribe known as the Finns; the name of Finland Proper has a historical function. In historic times, in the area of the present southern Finland lived three tribes, which were the Finns, the Tavastians and the Karelians; the southwestern part of the country, the province where the Finns lived, was called Finland. In the 17th century the name began to be used to refer to the whole land and a specified name for the lesser Finland was required; the first notes Fennigia specialiter dicta and Fennigia presse dicta were recorded in Latin in the 1650s and the Swedish Finland för sig sielft and Egenteliga Finland in the 18th century the modern form Egentliga Finland being in official use at the end of the century.
The Finnish term Varsinais-Suomi became established only around the 1850s. The region of Southwest Finland is made up of 27 municipalities. Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2015 in Finland Proper: National Coalition Party 21.0% Finns Party 19.3% Centre Party 16.2% Social Democratic Party 15.5% Left Alliance 10.3% Green League 8.7% Swedish People's Party 5.0% Christian Democrats 2.4% Other parties 1.6% The region uses the coat of arms of the historical province of Finland Proper. Finland Proper travel guide from Wikivoyage Regional Council of Southwest Finland – official website South Finland EU Office
Porvoo is a city and a municipality situated on the southern coast of Finland 50 kilometres east of Helsinki. It is one of the six medieval towns in Finland, first mentioned as a city in texts from the 14th century. Porvoo is the seat of the Swedish-speaking Diocese of Borgå of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland; the Porvoo Old Town is a popular tourist destination, known for its well-preserved 18th and 19th century buildings and 15th century cathedral, the Porvoo Cathedral. The Old Town is recognized as and culturally significant as one of the National landscapes of Finland; the municipality's official languages are Swedish. In 2014, 64.6% of the population spoke Finnish as their native language, while 30.1% were Swedish speakers. 5.4% had a different native language. Porvoo's neighbouring municipalities are Askola, Myrskylä, Sipoo; the town received its name from a Swedish medieval fortress near the river Porvoonjoki, which flows through the town. The name Porvoo is the Fennicised version of the Swedish name and its parts of borg, meaning "castle", å, "river".
The area of Porvoo has been inhabited since the Stone Age. In pre-historic times, the river Porvoonjoki was a route of commerce for Finnish tribal Tavastians who inhabited the inland regions; the Tavastians had some permanent settlements in the area, such as the village of Hattula, named after an inland Tavastian village. The original name of the river Porvoonjoki was Kukinjoki; the name derives from the name of the trade vessel cog, a common merchant ship in the Baltic Sea in medieval times. The early center of the area was Saksala, meaning "the place of the Germans", deriving from the merchants who were trading in Saksala. Porvoo was colonised by Swedes in the 13th and 14th centuries after the so-called Second Crusade against Tavastians in 1249-1250; the colonisation was led by the kingdom of Sweden. The colonists originated from Svealand, were provided with seeds, cattle and, tax exemption for four years. Porvoo was first mentioned in documents in the early 14th century, it was given city rights around 1380, although according to some sources the city was founded in 1346.
The old city of Porvoo was formally disestablished and the new city of Porvoo founded in 1997, when the city of Porvoo and the rural municipality of Porvoo were consolidated. When Sweden lost the city of Viborg to Russia in 1721, the episcopal see. At this time, Porvoo was the second largest city in Finland. In 1760 two thirds of all buildings in Porvoo burned to the ground in a conflagration. During rebuilding, the city planning wasn't altered, instead new buildings were built upon the existing medieval foundations. After the conquest of Finland by Russian armies in 1808, Sweden had to cede Finland to Russia in 1809; the Diet of Porvoo in 1809 was a landmark in the History of Finland. The Tsar Alexander I confirmed the new Finnish constitution, made Finland an autonomous Grand Duchy; the Porvoo Common Statement is a report issued at the conclusion of theological conversations by official representatives of four Anglican churches and eight Nordic and Baltic Lutheran churches in 1989–1992. It established the Porvoo Communion, so named after the Porvoo Cathedral where the Eucharist was celebrated on the final Sunday of the conversations leading to the Statement.
The town is famed for its "Old Town", a dense medieval street pattern with predominantly wooden houses from the 17th and 18th centuries. The Old Town came close to being demolished in the 19th century by a new urban plan for the city, but the plan was cancelled due to a popular resistance headed by Count Louis Sparre. With the need for growth, a plan was envisioned for a new town built adjacent to the Old Town, following a grid plan, but with houses built of wood; the central point of the old town is the medieval and brick Porvoo Cathedral. The cathedral gave its name to the Porvoo Communion, an inter-church agreement between a number of Anglican and Lutheran denominations; the cathedral is reminiscent of aged churches across Finland, such as the Church of St. Lawrence, Vantaa, as they were designed by the same person, the anonymous German architect Pernajan mestari; the cathedral was damaged by fire on 29 May 2006. A drunken youth had started a fire at the church, unaware of recent tarwork and nearby tar containers, accidentally causing a large conflagration.
He was sentenced to a short prison term and restitutions of 4.3 million euro. The red-coloured wooden storage buildings on the riverside are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Old Town is a significant source of tourism in the area. Visitors to the capital Helsinki can embark on day trips to visit the older city; the Old Town hosts various events, such as an annual Christmas market. By the end of the 20th century, there was pressure to develop the untouched western side of the river. There was concern that growth would necessitate the construction of a second bridge across the river into the town, thus putting further strain on the aging wooden town. An architectural competition was held in 1990, the winning entry of which proposed building the second bridge. Plans for the western side of the river have progressed under the direction of architect Tuomas Siitonen, both a vehicle bridge and a pedestrian bridge have been built; the design for new housing is based on a typology derived from the old storehouses on the opposite side of the river
Eero Olavi Heinäluoma is a Finnish politician. A former chairman of the Finnish Social Democratic Party, he was replaced in the party's leadership by Jutta Urpilainen in June 2008, he was Speaker of the Parliament of Finland 2011-2015. Heinäluoma was elected Chairman in June 2005, he was the Minister of Finance of Finland from 2005 to 2007. Heinäluoma held various posts in the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions from 1983 to 2003, he was a director in SAK from 2000 to 2003. Heinäluoma was appointed as party secretary in 2002 and in the 2003 Parliamentary election, he was elected as a Member of Parliament from the Electoral District of Uusimaa. Since he took up the post of Party secretary he had, according to many, been groomed as Lipponen's heir, he won on the first ballot. His rivals were Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja, with 138 votes, Minister of Education Tuula Haatainen, with 11 votes; as party chairman, Heinäluoma ordered a reshuffle of SDP cabinet ministers and assumed the position of Minister of Finance on 23 September 2005.
In 2007 elections, the party led by Heinäluoma suffered a significant loss, losing 15% of their seats in the parliament, having the worst result since 1962. The loss led to the resignation of Heinäluoma as the party chairman. Heinäluoma was elected as the chairman of the Social Democratic parliamentary group in February 2010 and served in that position until becoming Speaker in June 2011. Heinäluoma has not finished his degree. Official Website
The Finnish War was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. Other notable effects were the Swedish parliament's adoption of a new constitution and the establishment of the House of Bernadotte, the new Swedish royal house, in 1818. After the Russian Emperor Alexander I concluded the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit with Napoleon, Alexander, in his letter on 24 September 1807 to the Swedish King Gustav IV Adolf, informed the king that the peaceful relations between Russia and Sweden depended on Swedish agreement to abide by the limitations of the Treaty of Tilsit which in practice meant that Sweden would have been required to follow the Continental System; the king, who viewed Napoleon as the Antichrist and Britain as his ally against Napoleon's France, was apprehensive of the system's ruinous consequences for Sweden's maritime commerce.
He instead entered into negotiations with Britain in order to prepare a joint attack against Denmark, whose Norwegian possessions he coveted. In the meantime, the Royal Navy attacked the Anglo-Russian War was declared. Referring to the treaties of 1780 and 1800, the emperor demanded that Gustav Adolf close the Baltic Sea to all foreign warships. Although he reiterated his demand on November 16, 1807, it took two months before the king responded that it was impossible to honor the previous arrangements as long as the French were in control of the major Baltic ports. King Gustav Adolf did this after securing an alliance with England on 8 February 1808. Meanwhile, on 30 December 1807 Russia announced that should Sweden not give a clear reply Russia would be forced to act. Although most Swedish officers were skeptical about their chances in fighting the larger and more experienced Russian army, Gustav Adolf had an unrealistic view of Sweden's ability to defend itself against Russia. In Saint Petersburg, his stubbornness was viewed as a convenient pretext to occupy Finland, thus pushing the Russo-Swedish frontier to the west of the Russian capital and safeguarding it in case of any future hostilities between the two powers.
The situation was problematic for Sweden, since it once again faced both Denmark and Russia as potential enemies requiring the Swedes to split their forces. The king had thought it impossible to defend Finland should the enemy attack during the winter and chose to ignore the repeated warnings of the Russian threat he received in early 1808. Most of the Swedish plans assumed that warfare would be impossible during winter, disregarding the lessons from recent wars. In addition, several new good roads had been built into Finland reducing the earlier dependency on naval support for any large operation in Finland; the Swedish plan was based on passively defending and on holding on to the critical fortifications in southern Finland and counterattacking with naval support in the spring and retaking the lost areas. Some advocates for taking a more active approach existed, namely Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Möller who advocated for taking an immediate offensive and Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt who supported delaying the advancing enemies in co-operation with the garrisons in the southern coast.
In the end instructions which the new Swedish commander in Finland, General Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor, received from the king were an unsuccessful and open-ended mixture of ideas from these different plans. Russia had gathered a wealth of information from Finland using other sources; the level of detail was so great that Russian maps of Finland were in many respects more accurate than their Swedish counterparts. The Russians used the services of General Georg Magnus Sprengtporten. Sprengtporten suggested going on to an offensive during the winter since Finland would be isolated when seas were frozen, his ideas were further developed by General Jan Pieter van Suchtelen before General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden was appointed as the commander of the Russian army in Finland in December 1807. The plan involved using the series of fortifications built after 1790 as staging grounds for the Russian advances into Finland. In southern Finland, armies were to isolate the fortifications and first take control of the whole of southern Finland before advancing further to the north.
Forces in Savolax were to press hard against the Swedes and reach the Gulf of Bothnia towards Uleåborg and Vasa to cut off the retreat of the main body of the Swedish army. On February 21, 1808, 24,000 Russian troops under Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoevden crossed the border in Ahvenkoski and took the town of Lovisa. Since Klingspor had not arrived Lieutenant General Karl Nathanael af Klercker acted as Swedish commander in Finland, he was notified of the Russian invasion on 21 February and since it was impossible to hold the predefined defense lines as the army had not yet assembled he ordered the army to assemble at Tavastehus. Before the engagement started Klingspor arrived on 2 March and assumed command. Instead of facing the Russians at Tavastehus he ordered the army to withdraw. In Savolax the Russians forced the Swedes to withdraw; the king was quite unprepared for the attack as war was not declared until April. About 21,000 Swedish troops were stationed in various fortresses in Finland, while the rest of his army was unable to leave southern Sweden for fear of Danish attack.
The Russian advance was swift. On the first day of the war they had captured the town of Lovisa and besieged the Swedish seafortress of Svartholm. Borgå was captured on 24 February and Helsingfors on 2
Grand Duchy of Finland
The Grand Duchy of Finland was the predecessor state of modern Finland. It existed between 1917 as an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. Originating in the 16th century as a titular grand duchy held by the King of Sweden, it became autonomous after the Russian annexation in the Finnish War; the Grand Duke of Finland was the Romanov Emperor of Russia, represented by the Governor-General. Due to the governmental structure of the Russian Empire and Finnish initiative, the grand duchy's autonomy expanded until the end of the 19th century; the Senate of Finland was founded in 1809, which became the most important governmental organ and the precursor to the modern Government of Finland, Supreme Court of Finland and the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland. The economic and political changes in the Grand Duchy of Finland were connected with those in the Russian Empire and the rest of Europe; the economy grew during the first half of the 19th century. The reign of Alexander II after 1855 saw significant cultural and intellectual progress and an industrializing economy.
Tensions increased after the Russification policies were enacted in 1889, which saw the introduction of limited autonomy and reduction of Finnish cultural expression. The unrest in Russia and Finland during World War I and the subsequent collapse of the Russian Empire resulted in the Finnish Declaration of Independence and the end of the Grand Duchy. An extended Southwest Finland was made a titular grand duchy in 1581, when King Johan III of Sweden, who as a prince had been the Duke of Finland, extended the list of subsidiary titles of the Kings of Sweden considerably; the new title Grand Duke of Finland did not result in any Finnish autonomy, as Finland was an integrated part of the Kingdom of Sweden with full parliamentary representation for its counties. During the next two centuries, the title was used by some of Johan's successors on the throne, but not all, it was just a subsidiary title of the King, used only on formal occasions. However, in 1802, as an indication of his resolve to keep Finland within Sweden in the face of increased Russian pressure, King Gustav IV Adolf gave the title to his new-born son, Prince Carl Gustaf, who died three years later.
During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of occupied Finland were assembled at the Diet of Porvoo on 29 March 1809 to pledge allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia, who in return guaranteed that the area's laws and liberties as well as religion would be left unchanged. Following the Swedish defeat in the war and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on 17 September 1809, Finland became a true autonomous grand duchy within the autocratic Russian Empire; the title "Grand Duke of Finland" was added to the long list of titles of the Russian Tsar. After his return to Finland in 1812, the Finnish-born Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt became counsellor to the Russian emperor. Armfelt was instrumental in securing the Grand Duchy as an entity with greater autonomy within the Russian realm, restoring the so-called Old Finland, lost to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721; the formation of the Grand Duchy stems from the Treaty of Tilsit between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon Bonaparte of France.
The treaty mediated peace between Russia and France and allied the two countries against Napoleon's remaining threats: Great Britain and Sweden. Russia invaded Finland in February 1808, claimed as an effort to impose military sanctions against Sweden, but not a war of conquest, that Russia decided to only temporarily control Finland. Collectively, the Finnish were predominately Anti-Russian, Finnish guerillas and peasant uprisings were a large obstacles for the Russians, forcing Russia to use various tactics to quash armed Finnish rebellion. Thus, in the beginning of the war, General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden, with permission of the Tsar, issued an oath of fealty on Finland, in which Russia would honor Finland's Lutheran faith, the Finnish Diet, the Finnish estates as long as the Finns would remain loyal to the Russian crown; the oath dubbed anyone person who gave aid to the Swedish or Finnish armies a rebel. The Finns complied, bitter over Sweden abandoning the country for their war against Denmark and France, begrudgingly embraced Russian conquest.
The Diet of Finland was now to only meet whenever requested, was never mentioned in the manifesto published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Further on, Alexander I requested a deputation of the four Finnish estates, as he expressed concern over continued Finnish resistance; the deputation refused to act without the Diet, to which Alexander agreed with, promised the Diet would shortly be summoned. By 1809, all of Finland had been conquered and The Diet was summoned in March. Finland was united through Russia via crown, Finland was able to keep the majority of its own laws, giving it autonomy; the earlier years of the Grand Duchy can be seen as uneventful. In 1812, the area of Old Finland, known as the Viipuri Province was returned to Finland after being annexed by Russia in the Great Northern War and the Russo-Swedish War; this surprising action by the Tsar was met with anger from certain parts of the Russian government and aristocracy, who wished to either return to the previous border or annex the communities west of St. Petersburg.
Despite the outcry, the borders remained set until 1940. The gesture can b