Uzbekistan Republic of Uzbekistan, is a country in Central Asia. It is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north. Along with Liechtenstein, it is one of the world's only two doubly landlocked countries; as a sovereign state, Uzbekistan is unitary constitutional republic. It comprises one autonomous republic; the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan is Tashkent. What is now Uzbekistan was in ancient times part of the Iranian-speaking region of Transoxiana and Turan; the first recorded settlers were Eastern Iranian nomads, known as Scythians, who founded kingdoms in Khwarezm, Sogdia and Margiana. The area was incorporated into the Iranian Achaemenid Empire and, after a period of Macedonian Greek rule, was ruled by the Iranian Parthian Empire and by the Sasanian Empire, until the Arab conquest of Iran in the 7th century; the Muslim conquest in the 7th century converted the majority of the population, including the local ruling classes, into adherents of Islam. During this period, cities such as Samarkand and Bukhara began to grow rich from the Silk Road, witnessed the emergence of leading figures of the Islamic Golden Age, including Muhammad al-Bukhari, al-Biruni, Avicenna.

The local Khwarezmian dynasty, Central Asia as a whole, were decimated by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. After the Mongol Conquests, the area became dominated by Turkic peoples; the city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of the Turco-Mongol conqueror Tamerlane, who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan with his capital in Samarkand, which became a world centre of science under the rule of Ulugh Beg. Further conquests by Emperor Babur towards the East led the foundation of India's proto-industrialised Mughal Empire; the territories of the Timurid dynasty were conquered by Uzbek Shaybanids in the 16th century, moving the centre of power from Samarkand to Bukhara. The region was split into three states: Khanate of Khiva, Khanate of Kokand, Emirate of Bukhara, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan. In 1924, after national delimitation, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created.

Following the break-up of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991. Uzbekistan has a diverse cultural heritage due to strategic location, its first major official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by 85% of the population. Russian has widespread use as an inter-ethnic communication language and as a language of governance. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians, Tajiks and others. Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, 16% of the population follow other religions or are non-religious. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS, OSCE, UN, the SCO. While a democratic republic, by 2008 non-governmental human rights organisations defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights". Following the death of Islam Karimov in 2016, the second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, started a new course, described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above.

He stated he intended to abolish cotton slavery, systematic use of child labour, exit visas, to introduce a tax reform, create four new free economic zones, he has amnestied some political prisoners. Relations with the neighbouring countries of Tajikistan and Afghanistan drastically improved. However, the Amnesty International report on human rights in the country for 2017/2018 described continued repressive measures, including forced labour in cotton harvesting, restrictions on the movement of'freed' prisoners; the Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economy, with foreign trade policy being based on import substitution. In September 2017, the country's currency became convertible at market rates. Uzbekistan is a major exporter of cotton. With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia. Renewable energy constitutes more than 23% of the country's energy sector, with hydroelectricity and solar energy having 21.4% and 2% respectively.

As of late 2018, the republic was given a BB - rating by Poor and Fitch. Strengths indicated by Brookings Institution include Uzbekistan having large liquid assets, high economic growth, low public debt. Among the constraints holding the republic back are low GDP per capita, something the government could influence by changing how it accounts for sectors of the economy not included. Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometres, it is the 56th largest country in the 42nd by population. Among the CIS countries, it is the 2nd largest by population. Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37° and 46° N, longitudes 56° and 74° E, it stretches 1,425 kilometres from west to east and 930 kilometres from north to south. Borde


Macroudidae is a family of deep sea fish, a diverse and ecologically important group, which are part of the order of cod-like fish, the Gadiformes. The species in the Macrouridae are characterised by their large heads which have a single barbel on the chin, projecting snouts, slender bodies that taper to whip-like tails, without an obvious caudal fin but what there is of the caudal fin is confluent with the posterior dorsal and anal fins. There are two dorsal fins, the anterior dorsal fin is quite high, the posterior quite low but is longer and takes up a greater proportion of the fish's of the back, species in the subfamily Macrouroidinae have a single dorsal fin; the long anal fin is as long as the second dorsal fin is nearly as long as the posterior dorsal, sometimes it is longer. The pelvic fin is inserted in the vicinity of the thorax and has 5-17 fin rays but are absent in Macrouroides; the body is covered in small scales and if they have a photophore, it is on the midline of the abdomen just in front of the anus.

The bioluminescence of these fish is produced by symbiotic bioluminescent bacteria. The structure of the skull has been used to show their placing in the Gadiformes, but they differ from the typical cods in that they possess one stout spine in the anterior dorsal fin; the species in this family are benthopelagic, they are found at depths of 200-2000 m, they occur on the sea bed and have a wide distribution from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The species in the Macrouridae live near the sea bed on the continental slope, some species are bathypelagic or mesopelagic, other species occur on the outer continental shelf, their bodies are loose in texture rather than firm and they are weak swimmers. Some species are of commercial importance to fisheries. There are four subfamilies within the Macrouridae: Bathygadinae: contains 2 genera and 26 species Macrourinae: contains 28 genera and 370 species Macrouroidinae: contains 2 monotypic genera Trachyrincinae contains 2 genera and 7 species

Harry Hadden-Paton

Harry Frederick Gerard Hadden-Paton is a British actor. He is best known for his television role as Herbert Pelham, 7th Marquess of Hexham, in the television series Downton Abbey. Hadden-Paton played the lead role of Henry Higgins in the Lincoln Center Theater revival of My Fair Lady on Broadway, a performance for which he was nominated for the 2018 Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical. Hadden-Paton was born at Westminster Hospital in London, the son of former Cavalry officer Nigel Hadden-Paton, head of a landed gentry family of Rossway, near Berkhamsted and Sarah, daughter of Brigadier Frederick Mellor, of The Cottage, Surrey, he has three sisters: Polly and Alice, married to Nicholas van Cutsem, son of millionaire banker and horse breeder Hugh van Cutsem. He is the godson of Duchess of York, he is married to fellow actor Rebecca Night, whom he met while performing in The Importance of Being Earnest. They have been married since 2010 and have two daughters and Audrey. Hadden-Paton and Night are co-starred in the fall of 2019 in The King's Speech at the Chicago Shakespeare Theater.

Hadden-Paton was educated at Eton College and Durham University. He trained at the London Academy of Dramatic Art. Since leaving LAMDA in 2006, Hadden-Paton has established himself as a leading stage actor, he was commended in the 2007 Ian Charleson Awards for his appearances in Romeo and Juliet at the Battersea Arts Centre and as John Worthing in The Importance of Being Earnest, directed by Peter Gill. His stand-out performances continued with Captain Jack Absolute in The Rivals at the Southwark Playhouse, as Hohenzollern in The Prince of Homburg at the Donmar Warehouse, as Harry Villiers in the 2010 première of Posh at the Royal Court. In 2011 he appeared as Teddy Graham in the Olivier Award-winning revival Flare Path at the Theatre Royal Haymarket and as Jackie Jackson in a film adaptation of The Deep Blue Sea, both marking the centenary of their author, the English playwright Terence Rattigan. Following the success of Flare Path he has appeared as Michael Palin in the premiere of Steve Thompson's No Naughty Bits at the Hampstead Theatre, as Marlow in Jamie Lloyd's production of She Stoops to Conquer at the National Theatre, as Alsamero in the Young Vic's iconic production of The Changeling, as Phillip in the hit revival of Alexi Kaye Campbell's The Pride at the Trafalgar Studios.

Hadden-Paton made his Broadway debut playing Henry Higgins in a revival of My Fair Lady, for which he received a Tony Award nomination. In 2020, Hadden-Paton will originate a leading role in the new musical Flying Over Sunset, directed by James Lapine; the production will begin in March 2020 at Lincoln Center Theater. On television, he is best known for playing Bertie Pelham, the Marquess of Hexham, suitor of Lady Edith Crawley on Downton Abbey, he has starred in Midsomer Murders, The Amazing Mrs. Pritchard, Hotel Babylon, Waking the Dead, Walter and Grantchester, he is notable for appearances in the Oscar-winning La Vie en Rose, The Deep Blue Sea, The Hollow Crown, About Time. From 2016 to 2017, he played the role of Martin Charteris in the first two seasons of the Netflix series The Crown. Harry Hadden-Paton on IMDb