The Zakarpattia Oblast is an administrative oblast located in southwestern Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia. Its administrative centre is the city of Uzhhorod. Other major cities within the oblast include Mukachevo, Khust and Chop, home to railroad transport infrastructure. Zakarpattia Oblast was established on 22 January 1946, after the resignation of Czechoslovakia on the territory of Subcarpathian Ruthenia, annexed forcibly by the Soviet Union and attached to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, under a treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union; some scholars say that during the Ukrainian independence referendum held in 1991, Zakarpattia Oblast voters were given a separate option on whether or not they favoured autonomy for the region. Although a large majority favoured autonomy, it was not granted. However, this referendum was about self-government status, not about autonomy. Situated in the Carpathian Mountains of western Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast is the only Ukrainian administrative division which borders upon four countries: Poland, Slovakia and Romania.
The Carpathian Mountains play a major part in the oblast's economy, making the region an important tourist and travel destination housing many ski and spa resorts. With its 13,000 square kilometres, the oblast is ranked 23rd by area and 15th by population as according to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of Zakarpattia Oblast is 1,254,614; this total includes people of many different nationalities of which Hungarians and Rusyns constitute significant minorities in some of the province's cities, while in others, they form the majority of the population. The oblast is referred to as the Transcarpathian Oblast, Zakarpattia, or as Subcarpathian Rus'. In other languages the oblast is named: Rusyn: Подкарпатьска област, translit. Podkarpat’ska oblast. Hungarian: Kárpátalja or translit. From the official Ukrainian Kárpátontúli terület Czech: Zakarpatská oblast Slovak: Zakarpatská oblasť Polish: Obwód zakarpacki Romanian: Maramureșul de Nord or Regiunea Transcarpatia Russian: Закарпатская область, translit.
Zakarpatskaya oblastWhile the name Transcarpathia is a translation of the Ukrainian version of the name, the Hungarian name translates as Subcarpathia, following the Hungarian language logic "feet of the mountains", naming a territory after its geographic location at the lower section of a mountain range. The Transcarpathia name and its versions reflect the East Slavic language logic, while some Western languages follow the same logic as the Hungarian: English: Subcarpathia, Subcarpathian Rus', Subcarpathian Ruthenia, Sub-Carpathian Ukraine French: Ukraine Subcarpathique, Russie subcarpathiqueOther Western languages follow their own logic in creating a name for the region: German: Karpatenrussland, Karpathenland, Karpatho-Russland, Karpato-UkraineThe coat of arms of Zakarpattia was created in the end of the 1910s in the Czechoslovakia; the Zakarpattia Oblast has a total area of 12,800 km2 and is located on southwestern slopes and foothills of the Carpathian Mountains covering around 80% of area in the region.
The rest of the region is covered by the Transcarpathian Lowland, part of the Pannonian plain. Zakarpattia is the only Ukrainian oblast to have boundaries with four countries: Poland, Slovakia and Romania. On the West it borders the Prešov and Košice Regions of Slovakia and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Counties of Hungary, on the South—the Satu Mare and Maramureş Counties of Romania, on the East and Northeast—Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, on the North—Lviv Oblast and the Subcarpathian Voivodeship of Poland; the Zakarpattia Oblast consists of mountains and small hills covered with deciduous and coniferous forests, as well as alpine meadows. Mountains cover about 80% of the oblast's area, cross from North-East to South-East; the Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians, part of which are located within Zakarpattia Oblast, were recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007. The largest rivers that flow through the oblast include the Tysa and the Tereblia. A high altitude lake is located in Rakhiv Raion, the highest in the region.
It is called Nesamovyte. The lake is located in the Hoverla preserve on the slopes of Turkul mountain; the lake's area is 3,000 square metres and it is located 1,750 metres above sea level. The region's climate is continental with about 700 -- 1,000 mm of rainfall per year; the average temperature in summer is − 4 ° С in winter. With an elevation of 2,061 metres above sea level, part of the Chornohora mountain range, is the highest point in the oblast; the lowest point, 101 m above sea level, is located in the village of Ruski Heyevtsi in the Uzhhorodskyi Raion. Four of the oblast's historical-cultural sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine competition in 2007: Palanok Castle, Museum upon the Chorna River, Mykhailiv Orthodox Church, the Nevytsky Castle; the lands of Transcarpathia were part of the Kingdom of Hungary since 895. In 895 the Hungarian tribes entered the Carpathian Basin from here through the Verecke pass; as such, it formed part of Austria-Hungary until the latter's demise at the end of World War I.
Oryol or Orel is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, located on the Oka River 360 kilometers south-southwest of Moscow. Population: 317,747 . While there are no historical records, archaeological evidence shows that a fortress settlement existed between the Oka and Orlik Rivers as early as the 12th century, when the land was a part of the Principality of Chernigov; the name of the fortress is unknown. In the 13th century the fortress became a part of the Zvenigorod district of the Karachev Principality. In the early 15th century, the territory was conquered by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the city was soon abandoned by its population, after being sacked either by Lithuanians or the Golden Horde. The territory became a part of the Tsardom of Russia in the 16th century. Ivan the Terrible decreed that a new fortress be built on the spot in 1566, for the purpose of defending the southern borders of the country; the fortress was built speedily, work starting in the summer of 1566 and ending in the spring of 1567.
The location chosen was less than ideal strategically, as the fortress was located on a seasonally flooded low ground targeted from the neighboring high ground. False Dmitry I and his army passed through Oryol in 1605. Polish intervention sacked it in 1611 and 1615. Orlovsky Uyezd nonetheless continued to exist on paper. Oryol was rebuilt in 1636; the question of moving the fortress to the more advantageous high ground was in the air up until the 1670s, but the move was never made. The fortress was taken apart in the early 18th century. In the mid-18th century Oryol became one of the major centers of grain production, with the Oka River being the major trade route until the 1860s when it was replaced by a railroad. Oryol was granted town status in 1702. In 1708, Oryol was included as a part of Kiev Governorate; the Province was transferred to the newly created Belgorod Governorate in 1727. On March 11, 1778 Oryol Vice-Royalty was created from parts of Belgorod Governorates. In 1779, the city was entirely rebuilt based on a new plan.
After the October Revolution of 1917, the city was in Bolshevik hands, except for a brief period between October 13 and October 20, 1919, when it was controlled by Anton Denikin's White Army. Oryol was once again moved between different oblasts in the 1920s and 1930s becoming the administrative center of its own Oryol Oblast on September 27, 1937; the Oryol Prison was a notable place of incarceration for political prisoners and war prisoners of the Second World War. Christian Rakovsky, Maria Spiridonova, Olga Kameneva and 160 other prominent political prisoners were shot on September 11, 1941 on Joseph Stalin's orders in the Medvedev Forest massacre outside Oryol. During World War II, Oryol was occupied by the Wehrmacht on October 3, 1941, liberated on August 5, 1943, after the Battle of Kursk; the city was completely destroyed. In February 2012, the city duma abolished the direct election of mayor. In December 2013, a referendum was held, which 71% of the people supported the return of direct mayoral election.
Oryol is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Orlovsky District though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Oryol—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Oryol is incorporated as Oryol Urban Okrug. The city is served by the Oryol Yuzhny Airport. Since 1868, there has been a railway connection between Moscow. Oryol is a major transport hub on the borders of the Central and Central Black Earth economic regions. Through the city converge 7 important highways of federal and republican values: M2, P92, R119, R120, A142, 5 railway lines: on Yelets, Kursk, Mikhailovsky mine; the city has an airport. The formation of the Oryol as an important transportation hub is due to the favorable geographical position of the city on the borders of economic regions.
The town has trolley and bus systems. These kinds of public transport cover the entire territory of the city; each bus and trolley is equipped with route indicators that inform about the route through the city, designated stops. There is a waterbus on the Oka River. In the city there are taxis and shuttles, rental cars. Intercity transport terminals: Oryol Station, Station Luzhki-Oryol, Oryol Bus Station, as well as federal highway M2, P92, R119, R120, A142. On November 3, 1898 Orel inaugurated an electric tram; the draft was prepared by the Belgian entrepreneur FF Gilon and firm «Compagnie mutuelle de tramways», which won the right to build not only a tram, but lighting in the city. Oryol has a humid continental climate. 1991–1997: Alexander Kislyakov 1997–2002: Yefim Velkovsky 2002–2006: Vasily Uvarov 2006–2009: Alexander Kasyanov 2009–2010: Vasily Eremin 2010–2012: Viktor Safianov 2012: Mikhail Bernikov 2012–2016: Sergey Stupin 2016–present: Vasily Novikov Oryol is twinned with: Brest, Belarus Ke
Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946)
The Kingdom of Hungary, sometimes referred to as the Regency, existed as a country from 1920 to 1946 under the rule of Regent Miklós Horthy. Horthy represented the Hungarian monarchy of Charles IV, Apostolic King of Hungary. Attempts by Charles IV to return to the throne were prevented by threats of war from neighbouring countries and by the lack of support from Horthy; some historians consider that the country was a client state of Germany from 1938 to 1944. The Kingdom of Hungary under Horthy was an Axis Power during most of World War II. In 1944, after Horthy's government negotiated secretly with the Allies, considered leaving the war, Hungary was occupied by Nazi Germany and Horthy was deposed; the Arrow Cross Party's leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new Nazi-backed government turning Hungary into a German-occupied puppet state. After World War II, Hungary fell within the Soviet Union's sphere of interest. In 1946, the Second Hungarian Republic was established under Soviet influence. In 1949, the communist Hungarian People's Republic was founded.
Upon the dissolution and break-up of Austria-Hungary after World War I, the Hungarian Democratic Republic and the Hungarian Soviet Republic were proclaimed in 1918 and 1919, respectively. The short-lived communist government of Béla Kun launched what was known as the "Red Terror", involving Hungary in an ill-fated war with Romania. In 1920, the country fell into a period of civil conflict, with Hungarian anti-communists and monarchists violently purging the nation of communists, leftist intellectuals, others whom they felt threatened by Jews; this period was known as the "White Terror". In 1920, after the pullout of the last of the Romanian occupation forces, the Kingdom of Hungary was restored. On February 29, 1920, a coalition of right-wing political forces united and returned Hungary to being a constitutional monarchy. However, it was obvious that the Allies would not accept any return of Charles IV. With civil unrest too great to choose a new king, it was decided to select a regent to represent the monarchy.
Miklós Horthy, the last commanding admiral of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, was chosen for this position on 1 March. Sándor Simonyi-Semadam was the first Prime Minister of Horthy's regency. Horthy's rule as Regent possessed characteristics such; as a counterpoint, his powers were a continuation of the constitutional powers of the King of Hungary, adopted earlier during the federation with the Austrian Empire. As Regent, Horthy had the power to dissolve the Hungarian Diet at his own discretion; the succession after Horthy's death or abdication was never established. In January 1942, Parliament appointed Horthy's eldest son István as Deputy Regent and expected successor. Whether this represents an attempt to re-establish monarchy in Hungary is unclear. During his first ten years, Horthy led increased repression of Hungarian minorities. In 1920, the numerus clausus law formally placed limits on the number of minority students at university, legalized corporal punishment. Although the law applied in equal measure to all minorities, the ethnicity quota system was never introduced and the law acted to conceal anti-Jewish action from foreign observers.
Limitations were relaxed in 1928. Racial criteria in admitting new students were replaced by social criteria. Five categories were set up: civil servants, war veterans and army officers, small landowners and artisans and the merchant classes. Under István Bethlen as Prime Minister the electoral system was changed to reintroduce an open vote system outside Budapest and its vicinity and cities with county municipal rights, his political party, the Party of Unity, won repeated elections. Bethlen pushed for revision of the Treaty of Trianon. After the collapse of the Hungarian economy from 1929 to 1931, national turmoil pushed Bethlen to resign as Prime Minister. In 1938 the changes to the electoral system were reversed. Social conditions in the kingdom did not improve as time passed, as a small proportion of the population continued to control much of the country's wealth. Jews were continually pressured to assimilate into Hungarian mainstream culture; the desperate situation forced the Regent, Horthy, to accept the far-right politician Gyula Gömbös as Prime Minister.
He pledged to retain the existing political system. Gömbös agreed to allow some Jews into the government. In power, Gömbös moved Hungary towards a one-party government like those of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Pressure by Nazi Germany for extreme anti-Semitism forced Gömbös out and Hungary pursued anti-Semitism under its “Jewish Laws”; the government passed laws restricting Jews to 20 percent in a number of professions. It scapegoated the Jews for the country's failing economy. In 1944, responding to the advancing Soviet forces, the Regent Miklós Horthy deposed the pro-German Prime Minister and installed a more balanced government in an effort to engage with the Allies and avoid occupation by the Soviet Union. Shortly afterward, German forces invaded Hungary, deposed Horthy as Regent, installed a puppet regime led by Ferenc Szálasi of the anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party; the Arrow Cross Party never abolished the Monarchy as a form of government, Hungarian newspapers continued to refer to the country as the Kingdom o
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Békéscsaba is a city in Southeast Hungary, the capital of the county Békés. Békéscsaba is located in 215 km southeast from Budapest. Highway 44, 47, Békéscsaba beltway and Budapest-Szolnok-Békéscsaba-Lökösháza high speed railway line cross the city. Highway 44 is a four-lane expressway between Gyula. According to the 2011 census, the city has a total area of 193.93 km2. Csaba is popular Hungarian given name for boys, of Turkic origin, while prefix Békés refers to the county name Békés, which means peaceful in Hungarian. Other names derived from the Hungarian one; the area has been inhabited since the ancient times. In the Iron Age the area had been conquered by the Scythians, by the Celts by the Huns. After the Hungarian Conquest, there were many small villages in the area; the medieval Hungarian village of Csaba was established in the 13th century, first mentioned in the 1330s. Besides Csaba, eight other villages stood. According to the Hungarian Royal Treasury, Békéscsaba was an ethnic Hungarian settlement in 1495.
When the Turks conquered the southern and central parts of Hungary, these territories became part of the Ottoman Empire, the town survived, but it became extinct during the fights against the Turks in the 17th century. In 1715, Csaba is mentioned as a deserted place, but only one year its name can be found in a document mentioning the tax-paying towns, it is that the new Csaba was founded by János György Harruckern, who earned distinction in the liberation fights against the Ottoman Empire and bought the area of Békés county. In 1718, Harruckern invited Slovak settlers from Upper Hungary to the deserted area. By 1847, the town was among the twenty largest towns of Hungary, with a population of 22,000. Csaba was still like a large village, with muddy streets and crowded houses. By 1858, the railway line reached the town; this brought development. Still, by the end of the 19th century the unemployment caused great tension, in 1891 a revolt was oppressed by the help of Romanian soldiers. One of the most important person in the politics of the town was András L. Áchim, who founded a peasants' party and succeeded in having Békéscsaba elevated to the rank of "city with council".
World War I brought suffering to the town. Between 1919 and 1920, Békéscsaba was under Romanian occupation. After the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost its most important Southern cities and Nagyvárad, Békéscsaba had to take over their roles, becoming the most important town of the area. Hungarians overtook Slovaks in the 1920s, become the majority according to the census was held in 1930. Between the two world wars the recession caused poverty and unemployment, a flood in 1925 did not help either. Battles were not fought in the area during World War II. However, several events occurred in the town in 1944: between 24 and 26 June 1944, over 3,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz. On 21 September 1944, the British and American Air Force bombed the railway station and its surroundings, killing more than 100 people. On 6 October 1944, the Soviet army occupied Békéscsaba. During the Socialist times, Békéscsaba became the county seat of Békés and began to develop into one of the most important centres of food industry of Hungary.
After the fall of the Communism in 1989, the industry nearly collapsed and many people lost their jobs. However, today the crisis seems to be over and Békéscsaba remained one of the most important centers of the Hungarian food industry. According to the 2011 census, the total population of Békéscsaba was 62,050, 99.8% speak Hungarian, 16.3% English, 34% German, 0.3 speak Slovak According to the 2017 census, there were 95.6% Hungarians, 0.3% Slovaks, 1% Roma, 0.5% Romanians, 2.6% Germans in Békéscsaba. According to the 1869 census, Békéscsaba had 30,022 inhabitants, of whom there were 21,988 Evangelical, 5,880 Roman Catholic, 1,043 Jewish, 520 Orthodox, 436 Hungarian Reformed; the 1949 census showed 45,892 people, 25,661 Evangelical, 14,216 Roman Catholic, 4,750 Hungarian Reformed, 498 Jewish. In 2011, there were 10,694 Roman Catholic, 8,012 Evangelical, 4,408 Hungarian Reformed in Békéscsaba. 19,650 people 1,027 Atheist. According to the 2017 census, there were 40.2% Hungarian Reformed, 34.7% Evangelical, 20% Roman Catholic, 4.4% Jewish and 0.7% Atheist or irreligious.
Great Lutheran Church Small Lutheran Church Saint Anthony of Padua Cathedral City hall Mihály Munkácsy Museum Mihály Munkácsy Memorial House Mór Jókai Theatre Slovak County House The current mayor of Békéscsaba is Péter Szarvas. The local Municipal Assembly has 17+1 members divided into this political parties and alliances: András L. Áchim, Hungarian politician Ján Valašťan Dolinský, Slovak composer Gyula Hegyi, politician Károly Klimó, artist Enikő Mihalik, supermodel Henrietta Ónodi, gymnast Béla Szabados, swimmer Ádám Szepesi, high jumper László Vidovszky and pianist Ágnes Késmárki and songwriter András Mengyán, Fine arti
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area. Darmstadt had a population of around 157,437 at the end of 2016; the Darmstadt Larger Urban Zone has 430,993 inhabitants. Darmstadt holds the official title "City of Science" as it is a major centre of scientific institutions and high-technology companies; the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and the European Space Operations Centre are located in Darmstadt, as well as GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research, where several chemical elements such as bohrium, hassium, darmstadtium and copernicium were discovered. The existence of the following elements were confirmed at GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research: nihonium, moscovium and tennessine; the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research is an international accelerator facility under construction. Darmstadt is the seat of the world's oldest pharmaceutical company, the city's largest employer. Darmstadt was the capital of a sovereign country, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and its successor, the People's State of Hesse, a federal state of Germany.
As the capital of an prosperous duchy, the city gained some international prominence and remains one of the wealthiest cities in Europe. In the 20th century, industry, as well as large science and electronics sectors became important, are still a major part of the city's economy, it is home to the football club SV Darmstadt 98. The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century as Darmundestat, its origins are unknown.'Dar-mund' in Middle Low German is translated as "Boggy Headlands", but it could be a misspelling in local dialect of another name. It is sometimes stated that the name derives from the'Darmbach'. In fact, the stream received its current name much after the city, not vice versa. Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen; the city called Darmstait, became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle established at the site of the current, much larger edifice.
When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse, was seat of the ruling landgraves and thereafter of the grand dukes of Hesse. The city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants. A polytechnical school, which became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt, was established in 1877. In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil, the German variant of Art Nouveau. Annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. During this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch, working for the pharmaceutical company Merck, first synthesised the chemical MDMA in Darmstadt. Darmstadt's municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district. Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany.
The shops were only closed for one day, for "endangering communal order and tranquility". In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt were first forced into a collection camp located in the Liebigschule, deported to concentration camps where most died. Several prominent members of the German resistance movement against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt, including Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach, both executed for their opposition to Hitler's regime. Darmstadt was first bombed on 30 July 1940, 34 other air raids would follow before the war's end; the old city centre was destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September 1944. This attack was an example of the firestorm technique, subsequently used against the historic city of Dresden in February 1945. To create a firestorm, a number of incendiary bombs are dropped around the city before the explosive blast bombs are dropped, thus beginning a self-sustaining combustion process in which winds generated by the fire ensure it continues to burn until everything possible has been consumed.
Darmstadt was selected as the secondary target for the raid, but was promoted to the primary target after clouds were observed over the primary which would have hindered any reconnaissance of the after-effects. During this fire attack an estimated 11,000 to 12,500 of the inhabitants burned to death, 66,000 to 70,000 were left homeless. Over three-quarters of Darmstadt's inner city was destroyed. Post-war rebuilding was done in a plain architectural style, although a number of the historic buildings were rebuilt to their original appearance following the city's capture on 20 March 1945 by the American 4th Armored Division. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt became home to many technology companies and research institutes, has been promoting itself as a "city of science" since 1997, it is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt Airport, with important activities in spacecraft operations, pharmacy, in
Corvallis is a city in central western Oregon, United States. It is the county seat of Benton County and the principal city of the Corvallis, Oregon Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Benton County; as of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 54,462. Its population was estimated by the Portland Research Center to be 55,298 in 2013. Corvallis is the location of Oregon State University, a large Hewlett-Packard research campus, Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center. At a longitude of 123° 17' west, the city is the westernmost city in the contiguous 48 states with a population larger than 50,000. In October 1845, Joseph C. Avery arrived in Oregon from the east. Avery took out a land claim at the mouth of Marys River, where it flows into the Willamette River, in June 1846 took up residence there in a log cabin hastily constructed to hold what seemed a lucrative claim. Avery's primitive 1846 dwelling was the first home within the boundaries of today's Corvallis and his land claim included the southern section of the contemporary city.
Avery was joined by other settlers along the banks of the Willamette River, including a 640-acre claim directly to his north taken in September 1846 by William F. Dixon; the discovery of gold in California in 1848 temporarily stalled development of a township, with Avery leaving his Oregon claim to try his hand at mining in the fall of that year. His stay proved to be brief, in January 1849, Avery returned to Oregon with a small stock of provisions with a view to opening a store. During 1849, Avery opened his store at the site, platted the land, surveyed a town site on his land claim, naming the community Marysville; the city was named after early settler Mary Lloyd, but now the name is thought to be derived from French fur trappers' naming of Marys Peak after the Virgin Mary. In the summer of 1851, Joseph Avery and William Dixon each granted back-to-back 40-acre land parcels from their land holdings for the establishment of a county seat. Avery's holding lay to the south and Dixon's to the north, with the Benton County Courthouse marking the approximate line of demarcation between these two land parcels.
In December 1853 the 5th Oregon Territorial Legislature met in Salem, where a petition was presented seeking to change the name of that city to either "Thurston" or "Valena". At the same time, another petition was presented seeking to change the name of Salem to "Corvallis", from the Latin meaning "heart of the valley", while a third resolution was presented to the upper house seeking to change the name of Marysville to Corvallis. A heated debate followed, with the name awarded to Corvallis in an act passed on December 20 of that same year. By way of rationale, the name "Marysville" was argued to duplicate the moniker of a town in California, located on the same stagecoach route and that a name change was thus necessary to avoid confusion. A faction within the divided legislature sought to make Corvallis the capital of the Oregon Territory, in December 1855 the 6th Territorial Legislature convened there before returning to Salem that month — the town which would be selected as the permanent seat of state government.
Corvallis was incorporated as a city on January 29, 1857. Corvallis had a three-year boom beginning in 1889, which began with the establishment of a owned electrical plant by L. L. Hurd. A flurry of publicity and public and private investment followed, including construction of a grand county courthouse and first construction of a new street railway, construction of a new flour mill along the river between Monroe and Jackson Avenues, construction of the Hotel Corvallis, today known as the Julian Hotel. In addition, a carriage factory was launched in the city and the town's streets were improved, while the size of the city was twice enlarged through annexation. Bonds were issued for a city-owned water works, a sewer system, for public ownership of the electric plant. A publicity campaign was launched to attempt to expand the tax base through new construction for new arrivals; this effort proved unsuccessful, in 1892, normalcy returned, with the city saddled with about $150,000 in bonded debt. Corvallis is at an elevation of 235 feet above sea level.
Situated midway in the Willamette Valley, Corvallis is about 46 miles east of Newport and the Oregon Coast, 85 miles south of Portland, 30 miles south of the state capital, Salem, 10 miles southwest of Albany, about 10 miles west of Interstate 5 at its closest point, 48 miles north of Eugene/Springfield. Oregon Route 99W, a secondary north–south route runs through Corvallis. U. S. Route 20 and Oregon Route 34 both secondary East-West routes run through Corvallis from the Oregon Coast. Corvallis is at river mile 131–32 of the Willamette River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.30 square miles, of which 14.13 square miles are land and 0.17 square miles is covered by water. Like the rest of the Willamette Valley, Corvallis falls within the dry-summer temperate climate zone referred to as cool-summer Mediterranean. Temperatures are mild year round, with warm, sunny summers and mild, wet winters with persistently overcast skies. Spring and fall are moist seasons with varied cloudiness, light rain falling for extended periods.
Winter snow is rare, but does fall, amounts can range between a dusting and a few inches that do not persist on the ground for more than a day. The northwest hills will experience more snow. During the midwinter months after ext