Václav Havel was a Czech statesman and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003. As a writer of Czech literature, he is known for his plays and memoirs, his educational opportunities having been limited by his bourgeois background, Havel first rose to prominence as a playwright. In works such as The Garden Party and The Memorandum, Havel used an absurdist style to criticize communism. After participating in the Prague Spring and being blacklisted after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, he became more politically active and helped found several dissident initiatives, including Charter 77 and the Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted, his political activities brought him under the surveillance of the secret police and he spent multiple stints in prison, the longest being nearly four years, between 1979 and 1983. Havel's Civic Forum party played a major role in the Velvet Revolution that toppled communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989.
He assumed the presidency shortly thereafter, was re-elected in a landslide the following year and after Slovak independence in 1993. Havel was instrumental in expanding NATO membership eastward. Many of his stances and policies, such as his opposition to Slovak independence, condemnation of the Czechoslovak treatment of Sudeten Germans after World War II, granting of general amnesty to all those imprisoned under communism, were controversial domestically; as such, at the end of his presidency, he enjoyed greater popularity abroad than at home. Havel continued his life as a public intellectual after his presidency, launching several initiatives including the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, the VIZE 97 Foundation, the Forum 2000 annual conference. Havel's political philosophy was one of anti-consumerism, environmentalism, civil activism, direct democracy, he supported the Czech Green Party from 2004 until his death. He received numerous accolades during his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Gandhi Peace Prize, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, the Order of Canada, the Four Freedoms Award, the Ambassador of Conscience Award, the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award.
The 2012–2013 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. He is considered by some to be one of the most important intellectuals of the 20th century; the international airport in Prague was renamed to Václav Havel Airport Prague in 2012. Havel was born in Prague on 5 October 1936 into a wealthy family celebrated in Czechoslovakia for its entrepreneurial and cultural accomplishments, his grandfather, Vácslav Havel, a real estate developer, built a famous entertainment complex on Prague's Wenceslas Square. His father, Václav Maria Havel, was the real estate developer behind the suburban Barrandov Terraces, located on the highest point of Prague—next door to which his uncle, Miloš Havel, built one of the largest film studios in Europe. Havel's mother, Božena Vavrečková came from an influential family. In the early 1950s, because of his class background, Havel entered into a four-year apprenticeship as a chemical laboratory assistant and took evening classes at a gymnasium, he completed his secondary education in 1954.
For political reasons, he was not accepted into any post-secondary school with a humanities program. On 9 July 1964, Havel married Olga Šplíchalová; the intellectual tradition of his family was essential for Havel's lifetime adherence to the humanitarian values of the Czech culture. After finishing his military service, Havel had to bring his intellectual ambitions in line with the given circumstances with the restrictions imposed on him as a descendant of a former middle-class family, he found employment in Prague's theatre world as a stagehand at Prague's Theatre ABC – Divadlo ABC, at the Theatre On Balustrade – Divadlo Na zábradlí. He was a student of dramatic arts by correspondence at the Theatre Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, his first own full-length play performed in public, besides various vaudeville collaborations, was The Garden Party. Presented in a series of Theatre of the Absurd, at the Theatre on Balustrade, this play won him international acclaim; the play was soon followed by The Memorandum, one of his best known plays, The Increased Difficulty of Concentration, all at the Theatre on Balustrade.
In 1968, The Memorandum was brought to The Public Theater in New York, which helped to establish Havel's reputation in the United States. The Public Theater continued to produce his plays in the following years. After 1968, Havel's plays were banned from the theatre world in his own country, he was unable to leave Czechoslovakia to see any foreign performances of his works. During the first week of the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Havel assisted the resistance by providing an on-air narrative via Radio Free Czechoslovakia station. Following the suppression of the Prague Spring in 1968, he was banned from the theatre and became more politically active. Short of money, he took a job at Krakonoš brewery in Trutnov, an experience he wrote about in his play Audience; this play, along with two other "Vaněk" plays, became distributed in samizdat form across Czechoslovakia
Nemaha is a village in Nemaha County, United States. The population was 149 at the 2010 census. Nemaha was incorporated as a village in 1856, it was named from the Nemaha River. Nemaha is located at 40°20′20″N 95°40′31″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.30 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 149 people, 71 households, 36 families residing in the village; the population density was 496.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 90 housing units at an average density of 300.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.3 % 0.7 % African American. There were 71 households of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.8% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 49.3% were non-families. 43.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the village was 46.2 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.3 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 178 people, 76 households, 51 families residing in the village; the population density was 576.0 people per square mile. There were 91 housing units at an average density of 294.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 1.12 % Asian. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.56% of the population. There were 76 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.6% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.88. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 21.9% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $29,375, the median income for a family was $35,938. Males had a median income of $31,563 versus $23,125 for females; the per capita income for the village was $13,409. About 6.8% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under the age of eighteen and 11.1% of those sixty five or over. Lunsford E. Oliver, former major general who commanded the 5th Armored Division during World War II
Sir Henry Farnham Burke, was a long-serving Anglo-Irish officer of arms at the College of Arms in London. A son of Sir Bernard Burke, Henry Burke was appointed Rouge Croix Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary in 1880. In 1887, Burke was promoted to the office of Somerset Herald of Arms in Ordinary. On 26 October 1911, Burke was promoted to Norroy King of Arms to replace Sir William Henry Weldon. In 1913 he was given the additional appointment of Genealogist of the Order of the Bath. On 22 January 1919, he was promoted to the office of Garter Principal King of Arms on the death of Sir Alfred Scott-Gatty, he held this office until his own death in 1930. Burke was invested as a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 11 August 1902, was promoted to become Knight Commander of the Order, he was awarded CB in the 1911 Coronation Honours. Heraldry Pursuivant Herald King of Arms www.burkespeerage.com CUHAGS Officer of Arms Index Works by or about Henry Farnham Burke in libraries