Umeå is a city in north east Sweden. It is the capital of Västerbotten County; the city is located on the Ume River. Umeå is the largest city in Norrland and the thirteenth biggest in Sweden, with 84,761 inhabitants in 2016; the municipality had 123,382 inhabitants as of 2017. When Umeå University was established in 1965, growth sped up, the amount of housing has doubled in the last 30 years; as of 2011, 700 to 800 new apartments are constructed each year. Umeå is a university town and centre of education and medical research in Sweden, with two universities and over 39,000 students. Umeå was the European Capital of Culture during 2014, along with Riga in Latvia; the first written mention of Umeå is from the 14th century. The northern parts of Sweden, including the counties of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, were settled by nomadic Sami people before this time but not forming any permanent settlement in the city's exact location; the name is believed to be derived from the Old Norse word Úma. The name of the town would therefore mean "The Roaring River.
Therefore, the coast came to be permanently settled by Germanic peoples moving upwards on the Bothnian Bay by boat, hence the Germanic names of towns and villages on the Westrobothnian coast. Some Kven people had permanent settlements in northern Westrobothnia but were assimilated with the Germanic tribes although some Finnish names of lakes and villages survived. Southern Westrobothnia has been a permanent Germanic settlement since at least the 14th century, but since the Viking ages or earlier. Umeå in its first form was a parish with a wooden church and trade post located in the section of town now known as Backen, its location near the coast and on a river was one of the reasons that people chose to settle there. For the next couple of centuries, Umeå was a place consisting of scattered parishes, where merchandise originating with the Sami people was traded, was the last inhabited place before the northern wilderness took over. However, no real city was built at the location selected by the king, it lost its town privileges in the 1590s.
In 1622, a city was again founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. In 1638, it had about 40 houses, it suffered from Russian attacks in 1714 and in 1720 when it was burnt to the ground during the Russian Pillage of 1719-1721. At the close of the Finnish War in 1809 the Russian army under Barclay de Tolly took Umeå and held it from June to August. In 1874 the town improved the plans for its structure. Umeå had started making these changes when on 25 June 1888, a fire devastated the eastern parts of Umeå and at least 2,300 of the 3,000 inhabitants became homeless. In the restoration following the fire, silver birch trees were planted along wide avenues to prevent future fires from spreading. For this reason Umeå is sometimes known as "Björkarnas Stad", the "City of Birches". and the name of the Umeå ice-hockey team, Björklöven, means "The Birch Leaves". Umeå is situated on the inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia at the mouth of the Ume River, in the south of Västerbotten. Umeå is about 400 km south of the Arctic Circle.
It is the largest city north of the Stockholm-Uppsala region, is sometimes referred to as the regional centre of northern Sweden. The nearby community of Holmsund serves as its port. From here a ferry line connects it with the neighbouring city of Vaasa in Finland; the near connections to Finland affects the population of the city - several Sweden Finns live in Umeå. The climate of Umeå is bordering on a humid continental and a subarctic climate, with short and warm summers. Winters are lengthy and freezing but considering the latitude mild due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. Average January temperature is about −8 °C, July is 16 °C. Considering its proximity to a major water body and its latitude, summers are warmer than would be expected; the record high of 32.2 °C was recorded on 23 July 2014, during a warm summer in Sweden. The record low of −38.2 °C was recorded on 15 February 1978. The population of Umeå has grown since the 1960s, when the university was built. In part because of the university, the town has attracted many residents from outside of Sweden, as well as students from other regions of Sweden.
As of 2015, 10.4% of the population in the municipality of Umeå were foreign-born. The largest national origin group is from Finland, followed by Iraq and Somalia. In April 2017 the Jewish association in Umeå closed after receiving multiple threats from neo-Nazis associated with the Nordic Resistance Movement; the road infrastructure includes two European highways. The local bus system is centred at Vasaplan in the city centre, has multiple routes travelling throughout the city. About 4 kilometres from the city centre is Umeå Airport, it is the 7th largest airport in Sweden by number of passengers, with 844,932 passengers in 2010. The Bothnia Line connects to Umeå from the south, it runs along the High Coast via Örnsköldsvik to Umeå; this railway was opened on 28 August 2010. The new railway line is 190 km long, containing 25 kilometres of tunnels, it provides Umeå with a fast train connection to Stockholm. A new railway station, Umeå East Station, was built in connection to Norrland's University Hospital and Umeå University.
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Dorotea Municipality is a municipality in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Its seat is located in Dorotea; when the first local government acts were implemented in Sweden in 1863 Dorotea parish was made a rural municipality. In 1974 it was merged into Åsele Municipality. In 1980 it was split off, forming a new Dorotea Municipality, it is the third least populated municipality of Sweden. There is only one locality in Dorotea Municipality: Amongst the industries in the municipality is one of the biggest caravan manufacturers in Scandinavia, now known as SoliferPolar as it has merged with Solifer. Other known industries and companies are Svenska Tält and S-Karosser. In more recent years, several IT-companies have moved to the municipality. In early 2000 the company Spray was located here but moved to Sollefteå; the large house which held the support department and other personnel was taken over by Datakompisen. Haljala Parish, Estonia Dorotea Municipality - Official site Tourist office
Jämtland County is a county or län in the middle of Sweden consisting of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, along with minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland, plus two small uninhabited strips of Lapland and Dalarna. Jämtland County constitutes 12 percent of Sweden's total area, 49,443 km2 and is the third largest county in the country; the county capital is Östersund and the county governor, appointed by the Swedish government, is Jöran Hägglund, who leads the administrative board. Jämtland County borders the counties of Dalarna, Gävleborg, Västernorrland, Västerbotten, it shares a border with the Norwegian county of Trøndelag. The county was established in 1810 and its foundation has both domestic and foreign causes. Upon formation it only consisted of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, why the coat of arms is a shield parted per fess with their provincial arms. For History and Culture see: Jämtland and HärjedalenJämtland County consists of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, though minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland are included, along with small uninhabited areas in Lapland and Dalarna.
The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests and promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case. The County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Jämtland Governors. Jämtland County is sparsely populated and more than one third of the population live on the countryside, making Jämtland County the second largest rural region in Sweden, after Gotland County, though a majority of the population live in the rather densely populated region surrounding lake Storsjön called Storsjöbygden, "the Storsjö district/countryside"; the county is dominated by the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Swedish Rural Centre Party, unique in Sweden, but corresponds to the situation in the bordering Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. The county is rather contrastive in the political field.
While the municipality association and a majority of the municipalities are governed by liberal-conservative majorities or by coalitions overstepping the bloc border, the county council is red-green and the Social Democrats receive three out of five mandates to the Riksdag. After the Swedish general election in 2014, the Jämtland County council are represented by the following political parties: The County Council of Jämtland or Jämtlands Läns Landsting. In Härjedalen Province: HärjedalenIn Jämtland Province: Berg Bräcke Krokom Ragunda Strömsund Åre Östersund The arms for the County of Jämtland is a combination of the arms of Jämtland, Härjedalen; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Blazon: "Parted per fess, the arms of Jämtland and the arms of Härjedalen." Duke of Jämtland, a title for members of the royal family, born by Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden before his accession to the throne. Jamtlandic Jämtland County Administrative Board Jämtland County Council Jämtlands Official Site Hammarstrands camping
Norrbotten County is the northernmost county or län of Sweden. It borders Västerbotten County to the Gulf of Bothnia to the southeast, it borders the counties of Nordland and Troms in Norway to the northwest, Lapland Province in Finland to the northeast. The name "Norrbotten" is used for a province of the same name. Norrbotten province covers only the eastern part of Norrbotten County – the inland belongs to the Swedish Lapland province; the northern part of Norrbotten lies within the Arctic Circle. Norrbotten County consists of the entire province of Norrbotten and about two thirds of Swedish Lapland. Norrbotten County covers one quarter of Sweden's surface, but is sparsely inhabited; this is true for inland parts of Lapland. The climate is harsh, not surprising considering its northern location. However, the long summer days allow crops to ripen within two to three months, agriculture is traditionally important near the coast and along the lower reaches of the Torne River. Grains barley and turnips are grown to some extent, but the most important crop is hay for the livestock.
Major rivers in Norrbotten County include the Torne River, Lule River, Kalix River, Pite River. Rivers shared with Västerbotten County include Ume River. Other rivers that flow directly to the sea and that are at least 100 km long are the Sangis River, Råne River, Åby River, Byske River; the county includes many islands in the Bay of Bothnia. It is divided into the archipelagos of Luleå, Kalix and Haparanda; the largest island is Rånön in the Kalix archipelago. The population has increased during the last hundred years; the estimated 2002 population was 250,000. In the 1912 census, the population was 166,641, of this, around 120,000 belonged to the Norrbotten province part. Twenty years earlier, in 1892, the population was only 110,000. Since the 1960s, most municipalities of the county have experienced a decrease in population figures in the inland. During the Middle Ages, Norrbotten was considered to be terra nullius; the area was sparsely populated by Sami and different tribes/people related to the Finns.
From the Middle Ages on, the Swedish kings tried hard to Christianise the area. This took time, however. Following the Finnish War in 1809, Västerbotten County was split between Sweden and Finland, with the larger part remaining within the Swedish borders. In 1810, the county was divided again when Norrbotten County was created out of the northern part, on the Swedish side. Most people in Norrbotten County still refer to the entire county, including the areas in Swedish Lapland, when they say'Norrbotten', the name of a smaller province for practical and historical reasons, which do not imply that they would not prefer to use the name Lapland; the natural resources of Norrbotten have played a key role in the industrialization of Sweden, all through the 20th century the region saw strong mobility in and out of the county, many young people moving south and people from other parts of the country moving in. In the 1970s and 1980s the drainage of workers was powerful, due to high unemployment, people in the area began to voice feelings of being misunderstood or economically abused by the south and the capital Stockholm.
The coat of arms of Norrbotten County combines the arms of the provinces Västerbotten and Lappland and was granted in 1949. Since 1995 the province Norrbotten has a coat of arms of its own, but the county arms have not been changed accordingly; when it is shown with a royal crown, it represents the County Administrative Board. Blazon: "Quartered, the arms of Västerbotten and the arms of Lappland." The culture of Norrbotten County is in many ways different from the rest of Sweden, since so many different cultures can be found there. Many of the old local Swedish and Finnish dialects have survived in the area, are spoken by a great number of people; the people of Norrbotten County have a saying: "I am not a Swede. A laconic and, at first glance, uncommunicative way of speaking, coupled with understated irony, is sometimes used as a means to hold off the southerners, who are seen as more slick and deceptive in their ways with words and eager to twist things their way; these contrasts are well known throughout Sweden and appear in TV, films and folklore connected to Norrbotten, for characterizing, satiric or dramatic purposes.
The coast has the historical cities of Luleå and Piteå. Luleå's Gammelstad, 10 km north of the present downtown, has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Languages: Apart from Swedish Sami, Meänkieli, Finnish may be used in dealing with government agencies, municipalities and nursing homes in parts of Norrbotten County. Sami language has an official minority language status in Arjeplog, Gällivare and Kiruna municipalities. Finnish has the same status in Gällivare, Kiruna, Övertorneå municipalities
Robertsfors Municipality is a municipality in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Its seat is located in Robertsfors. In 1759 the small village Edfastmark became Robertsfors Bruk, it was the Irishman John Jennings and his brother-in-law, the Scotsman Robert Finlay, who founded the new ironworks which got its name, from Robert Finlay. There are three localities in Robertsfors Municipality: The municipal seat in bold Frida Hyvönen, artist Maud Olofsson, politician Sahara Hotnights, rock group Robertsfors Municipality – Official site
Government of Sweden
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority of Sweden. The short-form name Regeringen is used both in the Fundamental Laws of the Realm and in the vernacular, while the long-form is only used in international treaties; the Government operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister—appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag —and other cabinet ministers and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Government is responsible for its actions to the Riksdag. Following the adoption of the 1974 Instrument of Government on 1 January 1975—the Government in its present constitutional form was constituted—and in consequence thereof the Swedish Monarch is no longer vested any nominal executive powers at all with respect to the governance of the Realm, but continues to serve as a ceremonial head of state. Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1; the Instrument of Government —one of the Fundamental Laws of the Realm—sets out the main responsibilities and duties of the Government and how it relates to other organs of the State.
Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1. Most state administrative authorities, as opposed to local authorities, sorts under the Government, including the Armed Forces, Coast Guard, Customs Service and the Swedish police. While the Judiciary technically sort under the Government in the fiscal sense, Chapter 11 of the Instrument of Government provides safeguards to ensure its independence. In a unique feature of the Swedish constitutional system, individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; the Government of Sweden is the high contracting party when entering treaties with foreign sovereign states and international organisations, as per 10:1 of the Instrument of Government. In most other parliamentary systems this formal function is vested in the head of state but exercised by ministers in such name. Chapter 6, Article 7 prescribes that laws and ordinances are promulgated by the Government, are subsequently published in the Swedish Code of Statutes.
Following a general election, Speaker of the Riksdag begins to hold talks with the leaders of the parties with representation in the Riksdag, the Speaker nominates a candidate for Prime Minister. The nomination is put to a vote in the chamber. Unless an absolute majority of the members votes "no", the nomination is confirmed, otherwise it is rejected; the Speaker must find a new nominee. This means. After being elected the Prime Minister appoints the cabinet ministers and announces them to the Riksdag; the new Government takes office at a special council held at the Royal Palace before the Monarch, at which the Speaker of the Riksdag formally announces to the Monarch that the Riksdag has elected a new Prime Minister and that the Prime Minister has chosen his cabinet ministers. The Riksdag can cast a vote of no confidence against any single cabinet minister, thus forcing a resignation. To succeed a vote of no confidence must be supported by an absolute majority or it has failed. If a vote of no confidence is cast against the Prime Minister this means the entire government is rejected.
A losing government has one week to call for a general election or else the procedure of nominating a new Prime Minister starts anew. Each appointment of a new Prime Minister is considered to result in a new cabinet, irrespective if the Prime Minister is reappointed or not. However, there is no automatic resignation following a defeat in a general election, so an election does not always result in a new cabinet. Known as the Royal Chancery, the name was changed to the Government Offices on 1 January 1975 with the current Instrument of Government entering into effect; the Instrument of Government mentions in Chapter 7, Article 1 that there is a staff organization supporting the Government known as the Government Offices. The present organizational charter for the Government Offices is found in the ordinance named Förordning med instruktion för Regeringskansliet. Since the issuance of that ordinance in 1996, all the ministries are technically entities within the Government Offices, rather than as separate organisations though they operate as such.
Below follows a short summary of the current structure. Only current ministries and offices are listed below: Government Offices Prime Minister's Office Ministry of Justice Ministry for Foreign Affairs Ministry of Defence Ministry of Health and Social Affairs
Bjurholm Municipality is a municipality in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Its seat is located in Bjurholm; the present municipality has the same territory as the one instituted in 1863, when the municipal system was implemented in Sweden. Between 1974 and 1983 it was, part of Vännäs Municipality; the split in 1983 made Bjurholm the least populated of all Swedish municipalities, the population is still decreasing. There is only one locality in Bjurholm Municipality: Bjurholm Municipality has two sister cities: Bardu, Norway Kuivaniemi, Finland Warner Oland, actor Result of the 2010 election Moderate Party 26,58% Centre Party 14,13% Liberal People's Party 8,07% Christian Democrats 6,50% Swedish Social Democratic Party 36,15% Left Party 3,56% Green Party 1,94% Sweden Democrats 2,44% Other Parties 0,63% Bjurholm Municipality - Official site