Provinces of Sweden
The provinces of Sweden are historical and cultural regions. Sweden has 25 provinces and they have no administrative function, but remain historical legacies and the means of cultural identification. Dialects and folklore rather follows the provincial borders than the borders of the counties. Several of them were subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden; some were conquered on from Denmark–Norway. Others, like the provinces of Finland, were lost. Lapland is the only province acquired through colonization. In some cases, the administrative counties correspond exactly to the provinces, as is Blekinge to Blekinge County and Gotland, a province, county and a municipality. While not corresponding with the province, Härjedalen Municipality is beside Gotland the only municipality named after a province. In other cases, they do not, which enhances the cultural importance of the provinces. In addition, the administrative units are subject to continuous changes–several new counties were for instance created in the 1990s–while the provinces have had their historical borders outlined for centuries.
Since 1884 all the provinces are ceremonial duchies, but as such have no administrative or political functions. The provinces of Sweden are still used in colloquial speech and cultural references, can therefore not be regarded as an archaic concept; the main exception is Lapland where the population see themselves as a part of Västerbotten or Norrbotten, based on the counties. Two other exceptions are Stockholm and Gothenburg, where the population see themselves as living in the city, not in a province, since both cities have province borders through them. English and other languages use Latin names as alternatives to the Swedish names; the name Scania for Skåne predominates in English. Some purely English exonyms, such as the Dales for Dalarna, East Gothland for Östergötland, Swedish Lapland for Lappland and West Bothnia for Västerbotten are common in English literature. Swedes writing in English have long used Swedish-language name forms only; the origins of the provincial divisions lay in the petty kingdoms that became more and more subjected to the rule of the Kings of Sweden during the consolidation of Sweden.
Until the country law of Magnus Ericson in 1350, each of these lands still had its own laws with its own assembly, in effect governed themselves. The historical provinces were considered duchies, but newly conquered provinces added to the kingdom either received the status of a duchy or a county, depending on their individual importance. After the separation from the Kalmar Union in 1523 the Kingdom incorporated only some of its new conquests as provinces; the most permanent acquisitions stemmed from the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, in which the former Danish Scanian lands – the provinces of Skåne, Blekinge and Gotland – along with the Norwegian Bohuslän, Jämtland and Härjedalen, became Swedish and integrated. Other foreign territories were ruled as Swedish Dominions under the Swedish monarch, in some cases for two or three centuries. Norway, in personal union with Sweden from 1814 to 1905, never became an integral part of Sweden; the division of Västerbotten that took place with the cession of Finland caused Norrbotten to emerge as a county, to be recognized as a province in its own right.
It was granted a coat of arms as late as in 1995. Some scholars suggest. Sweden was seen as containing four "lands": Götaland Svealand Österland Norrland In the Viking age and earlier, Götaland and Svealand consisted of a number of petty kingdoms that were more or less independent; the leading tribe of Götaland in the Iron Age was the Geats. "Norrland" was the overall denomination for all of the unexplored northern parts, the outward boundaries of which and control by the Swedish king were weakly defined into the early modern age. Österland in southern and central Finland formed an integral part of Sweden. In 1809 Finland was annexed by Russia, reunited with some frontier counties annexed several decades earlier to form the Grand Duchy of Finland, becoming in 1917 the independent country of Finland; the borders of these regions have changed several times throughout history, adapting to changes in national borders, Norrland, Svealand and Götaland are only parts of Sweden and have never superseded the concept of the provinces.
At the funeral of King Gustav Vasa in 1560 some early versions of coats of arms for 23 of the provinces listed below were displayed together for the first time, most of them having been created for that particular occasion. Erik XIV of Sweden modeled the funeral processions for Gustav Vasa on the continental renaissance funerals of influential German dukes, who in turn may have styled their display of power on Charles V's funeral procession, where flags were used to represent each entry in the long list of titles of the dead. Having only three flags as a representation of the entities Svealand, Götaland and Wends mentioned in Vasa's title, "King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends", would have been diminutive in comparison with the pompous displays of ducal power on the continent, so flags were promptly created to represent each of the provinces. At the funer
Härnösand Municipality is a municipality in Västernorrland County, northern Sweden. Its seat is located in Härnösand; the present municipality was formed in 1969 through the amalgamation of the City of Härnösand with Säbrå and Högsjö. Its coat of arms depict a beaver with a pike in its mouth. Härnösand Ramvik Utansjö Älandsbro Ramsås Härnösand - Official site
Jämtland County is a county or län in the middle of Sweden consisting of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, along with minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland, plus two small uninhabited strips of Lapland and Dalarna. Jämtland County constitutes 12 percent of Sweden's total area, 49,443 km2 and is the third largest county in the country; the county capital is Östersund and the county governor, appointed by the Swedish government, is Jöran Hägglund, who leads the administrative board. Jämtland County borders the counties of Dalarna, Gävleborg, Västernorrland, Västerbotten, it shares a border with the Norwegian county of Trøndelag. The county was established in 1810 and its foundation has both domestic and foreign causes. Upon formation it only consisted of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, why the coat of arms is a shield parted per fess with their provincial arms. For History and Culture see: Jämtland and HärjedalenJämtland County consists of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, though minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland are included, along with small uninhabited areas in Lapland and Dalarna.
The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests and promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case. The County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Jämtland Governors. Jämtland County is sparsely populated and more than one third of the population live on the countryside, making Jämtland County the second largest rural region in Sweden, after Gotland County, though a majority of the population live in the rather densely populated region surrounding lake Storsjön called Storsjöbygden, "the Storsjö district/countryside"; the county is dominated by the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Swedish Rural Centre Party, unique in Sweden, but corresponds to the situation in the bordering Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. The county is rather contrastive in the political field.
While the municipality association and a majority of the municipalities are governed by liberal-conservative majorities or by coalitions overstepping the bloc border, the county council is red-green and the Social Democrats receive three out of five mandates to the Riksdag. After the Swedish general election in 2014, the Jämtland County council are represented by the following political parties: The County Council of Jämtland or Jämtlands Läns Landsting. In Härjedalen Province: HärjedalenIn Jämtland Province: Berg Bräcke Krokom Ragunda Strömsund Åre Östersund The arms for the County of Jämtland is a combination of the arms of Jämtland, Härjedalen; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Blazon: "Parted per fess, the arms of Jämtland and the arms of Härjedalen." Duke of Jämtland, a title for members of the royal family, born by Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden before his accession to the throne. Jamtlandic Jämtland County Administrative Board Jämtland County Council Jämtlands Official Site Hammarstrands camping
Gävle is a city in Sweden, the seat of Gävle Municipality and the capital of Gävleborg County. It had 100 603 inhabitants in 2017, it is the oldest city in the historical Norrland, having received its charter in 1446 from Christopher of Bavaria. However, Gävle is far nearer the greater Stockholm region than it is to the other major settlements in Norrland. In recent years, the city has received a lot of international attention due to its large Yule Goat figure made of straw - the Gävle Goat; the goat is erected in December each year and is subsequently vandalised by someone setting it on fire. The goat is being used for various marketing purposes, it is believed that the name Gävle derives from the word gavel, meaning river banks in Old Swedish and referring to the Gavleån. The oldest settlement was called Gävle-ägarna, which means "Gavel-owners"; this name was shortened to Gävle Gefle, Gävle. Gävle is first mentioned as a town in official history books in the year 1413 but only received its official town charters in the year 1446.
For a long time Gävle consisted of small, turf or shingle roofed wooden buildings. Boat-houses lined the banks of Gavleån, Lillån, Islandsån; until the 18th century the town was built, as was the practice around the three most important buildings: the church, the regional palace, the town hall. Over the last 300 years Gävle has been ablaze on three different occasions. After the fire of 1776 the town was rebuilt with rectangular city blocks; the number of stone and brick houses started to increase. The biggest town fire occurred 1869, when out of a population of around 10,000 8,000 inhabitants lost their homes, about 350 farms were destroyed; the whole town north of Gavleån was burnt down. All the buildings south of Gavleån were saved. An area of the old town between the museum and the library has been preserved to this day as a historic reserve, Gamla Gefle. After the catastrophe of the fire Gävle developed its characteristic grid plan with large esplanades and green areas, it is now a green town with wide avenues.
Stopping the spread of future town fires was the main idea behind this development. An extensive redevelopment of the central town area was started during the 1950s. Around 1970 Gävle became a large urban district when it was united with the nearby municipalities of Valbo, Hamrånge and Hille. New suburbs like Stigslund, Sätra and Bomhus have grown up around the central city. In the middle of the 1800s to the beginning of the 1900s there was a bad harvest and a high unemployment rate in Sweden. At the same time and religious oppression occurred, religious encounters outside the State Church were not allowed; this led many Swedes to emigrate to other countries such as the United States. During the early emigration era, Gävle was one of the cities from which people left on their journey to the US. People from different parts of Gästrikland and other neighboring counties made their way to the harbor town of Gävle and commenced their departure to America. In 1986 as a result of the Chernobyl disaster, Gävle was subjected to a severe deposition of radionuclides, exceeding 185 kBq per square meter.
The impact was much greater than experienced by other regions of western Europe and as such, Gävle became one of the most affected areas outside of the Soviet Union. Gävle is situated by the Baltic Sea near the mouth of the river Dalälven. At 60 degrees north and 17 degrees east, Gävle has the same latitude as Helsinki and the same longitude as Vienna and Cape Town. Bordering municipalities are Söderhamn, Sandviken, Tierp and Älvkarleby. Twenty kilometers west of Gävle lies Sandviken. Gävle has a similar climate to the rest of central Sweden, with an average temperature of around −10 °C in January and 20 °C in July. Yearly rainfall is around 600 mm. Under the Köppen climate classification Gävle is classified as humid continental, in spite of the significant maritime influence, it is one of the northernmost cities by significant size in the world with this climate type, since areas north of the 60th parallel for the most part are dominated by various subarctic climate types. Under the 1961-1990 normals, Gävle's fourth warmest month was just around the isotherm of 10 °C to not be classified as subarctic, but temperatures did go up sufficiently to be clear humid continental since.
Trade from the port of Gävle increased markedly during the 15th century when copper and iron began to be exported from the port. In order to ensure that all trade was via Stockholm, sailing to foreign ports from Gävle and a few other ports was forbidden. During the 16th century, Gävle was one of the most important port and merchant towns with many shipping companies and shipyards. In 1787 Gävle was awarded "unrestricted sailing rights" to and from foreign ports; this led to an increase in trade, which in turn led to an increase in buildings, industrial developments and shipping. Today there are few shipping companies or shipyards left, it is among the top ten common ports in Sweden. BillerudKorsnäs Kraft General Foods Scandinavia Leaf AB Gävle Galvan Gävle Stål Gävle Varv Cale Industri Gävle has, considering its size, a large and well nourished cultural life, being a cradle for many musicians such as The Deer Tracks and The Sound of
The krona is the official currency of Sweden. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use. In English, the currency is sometimes referred to as the Swedish crown, as krona means crown in Swedish; the Swedish krona was the ninth-most traded currency in the world by value in April 2016. One krona is subdivided into 100 öre. However, all öre coins have been discontinued as of 30 September 2010. Goods can still be priced in öre, but all sums are rounded to the nearest krona when paying with cash; the word öre is derived from the Roman gold coin aureus, which in itself comes from the Latin word aurum, meaning gold. The introduction of the krona, which replaced at par the riksdaler, was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which came into effect in 1876 and lasted until the beginning of World War I; the parties to the union were the Scandinavian countries, where the name was krona in Sweden and krone in Denmark and Norway, which in English means "crown". The three currencies were on the gold standard, with the krona/krone defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold.
After dissolution of the monetary union in August 1914, Sweden and Norway all decided to keep the names of their respective and now separate currencies. On 11 September 2012, the Riksbank announced a new series of coins with new sizes to replace the 1- and 5-krona coins which arrived in October 2016; the design of the coins follows the theme of singer-songwriter Ted Gärdestad's song, "Sol, vind och vatten", with the designs depicting the elements on the reverse side of the coins. This included the reintroduction of the 2-krona coin, while the current 10-krona coin remained the same; the new coins have a new portrait of the king in their design. One of the reasons for a new series of coins is to end the use of nickel, it is expected that vending machines and parking meters will to a high degree stop accepting coins and accept only bank cards or mobile phone payments. Cash is less used in Sweden, with many young people avoiding cash as much as possible. Between 1873 and 1876, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 öre and 1, 2, 10, 20 kronor were introduced.
The 1, 2 and 5 öre were in bronze, the 10-, 25-, 50-öre and 1-krona and 2-krona were in silver, the 10- and 20-krona were in gold. Gold 5-krona coins were added in 1881. In 1873 the Scandinavian Monetary Union currency was fixed so that 2,480 kronor purchased 1 kg of gold. In 2017 the price of gold is 365,289 kronor per kg. So one öre in 1873 bought as much gold as 1.47 krona in 2017. So if it is reasonable to have the smallest denomination coin 1 krona today, in 1873 a reasonable smallest denomination coin was 1 öre. A 10 kr gold coin weighed 4.4803 grams with 900 finess so that the fine weight was 4.03327 grams or 1/248th of a kilogram. In 1902, production of gold coins ceased, was restarted in 1920 and 1925 before ceasing entirely. Due to metal shortages during World War I, iron replaced bronze between 1917 and 1919. Nickel-bronze replaced silver in the 10, 25 and 50 öre in 1920, with silver returning in 1927. Metal shortages due to World War II again led to changes in the Swedish coinage. Between 1940 and 1947, the nickel-bronze 10, 25 and 50 öre were again issued.
In 1942, iron again replaced the silver content of the other coins was reduced. In 1962, cupronickel replaced silver in the 25-öre and 50-öre coins. In 1968, the 2 kronor switched to cupronickel and the 1-krona switched to cupronickel-clad copper. Nonetheless, all previous mintages of 1- and 2-krona coins are still legal tender, since 1875 and 1876 though 2-krona coins are rarely seen in circulation as they have not been issued since 1971; the 2-krona coins contained 40% silver until 1966, which meant they had been for several years worth much more than two kronor, so most have been bought and melted down by arbitrageurs, the rest are kept by collectors). A new design of 2-krona coins will be issued in 2016. In 1954, 1955 and 1971, five-krona silver coins were produced, with designs similar to contemporary 1- and 2-krona coins. In 1972, a new, smaller 5-krona coin was struck in cupronickel-clad nickel; the current design has been produced since 1976. Five-krona coins minted since 1954 are legal tender but tend to be kept by collectors for their silver content.
In 1971, the 1- and 2-öre, as well as the 2-krona coins ceased production. The size of the 5-öre coin was reduced in 1972. In 1984, production of the five- and 25-öre coins came to an end, followed by that of the 10-öre in 1991. In 1991, aluminium-brass 10-krona coins were introduced. Previous 10-krona coins are not legal tender. In 1991, bronze-coloured 50-öre coins were introduced. Jubilee and commemorative coins have been minted and those since 1897 or are legal tender; the royal motto of the monarch is inscribed on many of the coins. The 5-krona coin was designed in 1974, at a time when there were political efforts to abandon the monarchy, when there was a new young inexperienced king; the monarchy remained. Coins minted before 1974 have the same size, but contain the portrait of King Gustav VI Adolf and his royal motto. On 18 December 2008, the Riksbank announced a proposal to phase out the 50-öre, the final öre c
Government of Sweden
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority of Sweden. The short-form name Regeringen is used both in the Fundamental Laws of the Realm and in the vernacular, while the long-form is only used in international treaties; the Government operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister—appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag —and other cabinet ministers and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Government is responsible for its actions to the Riksdag. Following the adoption of the 1974 Instrument of Government on 1 January 1975—the Government in its present constitutional form was constituted—and in consequence thereof the Swedish Monarch is no longer vested any nominal executive powers at all with respect to the governance of the Realm, but continues to serve as a ceremonial head of state. Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1; the Instrument of Government —one of the Fundamental Laws of the Realm—sets out the main responsibilities and duties of the Government and how it relates to other organs of the State.
Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1. Most state administrative authorities, as opposed to local authorities, sorts under the Government, including the Armed Forces, Coast Guard, Customs Service and the Swedish police. While the Judiciary technically sort under the Government in the fiscal sense, Chapter 11 of the Instrument of Government provides safeguards to ensure its independence. In a unique feature of the Swedish constitutional system, individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; the Government of Sweden is the high contracting party when entering treaties with foreign sovereign states and international organisations, as per 10:1 of the Instrument of Government. In most other parliamentary systems this formal function is vested in the head of state but exercised by ministers in such name. Chapter 6, Article 7 prescribes that laws and ordinances are promulgated by the Government, are subsequently published in the Swedish Code of Statutes.
Following a general election, Speaker of the Riksdag begins to hold talks with the leaders of the parties with representation in the Riksdag, the Speaker nominates a candidate for Prime Minister. The nomination is put to a vote in the chamber. Unless an absolute majority of the members votes "no", the nomination is confirmed, otherwise it is rejected; the Speaker must find a new nominee. This means. After being elected the Prime Minister appoints the cabinet ministers and announces them to the Riksdag; the new Government takes office at a special council held at the Royal Palace before the Monarch, at which the Speaker of the Riksdag formally announces to the Monarch that the Riksdag has elected a new Prime Minister and that the Prime Minister has chosen his cabinet ministers. The Riksdag can cast a vote of no confidence against any single cabinet minister, thus forcing a resignation. To succeed a vote of no confidence must be supported by an absolute majority or it has failed. If a vote of no confidence is cast against the Prime Minister this means the entire government is rejected.
A losing government has one week to call for a general election or else the procedure of nominating a new Prime Minister starts anew. Each appointment of a new Prime Minister is considered to result in a new cabinet, irrespective if the Prime Minister is reappointed or not. However, there is no automatic resignation following a defeat in a general election, so an election does not always result in a new cabinet. Known as the Royal Chancery, the name was changed to the Government Offices on 1 January 1975 with the current Instrument of Government entering into effect; the Instrument of Government mentions in Chapter 7, Article 1 that there is a staff organization supporting the Government known as the Government Offices. The present organizational charter for the Government Offices is found in the ordinance named Förordning med instruktion för Regeringskansliet. Since the issuance of that ordinance in 1996, all the ministries are technically entities within the Government Offices, rather than as separate organisations though they operate as such.
Below follows a short summary of the current structure. Only current ministries and offices are listed below: Government Offices Prime Minister's Office Ministry of Justice Ministry for Foreign Affairs Ministry of Defence Ministry of Health and Social Affairs