Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal. The sport is considered a form of hockey and has a common background with association football, ice hockey and field hockey. Like football, the game is played in halves of 45 minutes each, there are eleven players on each team, the bandy field is about the same size as a football pitch, it is played on ice like ice hockey, but like field hockey, players use bowed sticks and a small ball. A variant of bandy, rink bandy, is played to the same rules but on a field the size of an ice hockey rink, with ice hockey goal cages and with six players on each team, or five in USA Rink Bandy League. Traditional eleven-a-side bandy and rink bandy are recognized by the International Olympic Committee. More informal varieties exist, like seven-a-side bandy with sized goal cages but without corner strokes; those rules were applied at Davos Cup in 2016. Rink bandy has in turn led to the creation of the sport rinkball.
Bandy is the predecessor of floorball, invented when people started playing with plastic bandy-shaped sticks and lightweight balls when running on the floors of indoor gym halls. Based on the number of participating athletes, bandy is the world's second-most participated winter sport after ice hockey. Bandy is ranked as the number two winter sport in terms of tickets sold per day of competitions at the sport's world championship. However, compared with the seven Winter Olympic sports, bandy's popularity among other winter sports across the globe is considered by the International Olympic Committee to have a, "gap between popularity and participation and global audiences", a roadblock to future Olympic inclusion; the earliest origin of the sport is debated. Though many Russians see their old countrymen as the creators of the sport – reflected by the unofficial title for bandy, "Russian hockey" – Russia and Holland each had sports or pastimes which can be seen as forerunners of the present sport.
English bandy developed as a winter sport in the Fens of East Anglia. Large expanses of ice would form on the flooded meadows or shallow washes in cold winters, skating has been a tradition. Members of the Bury Fen Bandy Club published rules of the game in 1882, introduced it into other countries; the first international match took place in 1891 between Bury Fen and the Haarlemsche Hockey & Bandy Club from the Netherlands. The same year, the National Bandy Association was started in England; the match dubbed "the original bandy match", was held in 1875 at The Crystal Palace in London. However, at the time, the game was called "hockey on the ice" as it was considered an ice variant of field hockey; the first national bandy league was started in Sweden in 1902. Bandy was played at the Nordic Games in Stockholm and Kristiania in 1901, 1903, 1905 and between Swedish and Russian teams at similar games in Helsinki in 1907. A European championship was held in 1913 with eight countries participating. In modern times, Russia has held a top position in the bandy area, both as a founding nation of the International Federation in 1955 and fielding the most successful team in the World Championships.
The highest altitude where bandy has been played is in the capital of the Tajik autonomous province of Gorno-Badakhshan, Khorugh. As a precursor to ice hockey bandy has influenced its development and history – in European and former Soviet countries. While modern ice hockey was created in Canada, a game more similar to bandy was played after British soldiers introduced the game in the late 19th century. At the same time as modern ice hockey rules were formalized in British North America, bandy rules were formulated in Europe. A cross between English and Russian bandy rules developed, with the football-inspired English rules dominant, together with the Russian low border along most of the two sidelines, this is the basis of the present sport since the 1950s. Before Canadians introduced ice hockey into Europe in the early 20th century, "hockey" was another name for bandy, still is in parts of Russia and Kazakhstan. With football and bandy being dominant sports in parts of Europe, it was common for sports clubs to have bandy and football sections, with athletes playing both sports at different times of the year.
Some examples are English Nottingham Forest Football and Bandy Club and Norwegian Strømsgodset IF and Mjøndalen IF, with the latter still having an active bandy section. In Sweden, most football clubs which were active during the first half of the 20th Century played bandy; as the season for each sport increased in time, it was not as easy for the players to engage in both sports, so some clubs came to concentrate on one or the other. Many old clubs still have both sports on their program. Both bandy and ice hockey were played in Europe during the 20th century in Sweden and Norway. Ice hockey became more popular than bandy in most of Europe because it had become an Olympic sport, while bandy had not. Athletes in Europe who had played bandy switched to ice hockey in the 1920s to compete in the Olympics; the smaller ice fields needed for ice hockey made its rinks easier to maintain in countries with short winters. On the other hand, ice hockey was not played in the Soviet Union until the 1950s when the USSR wanted to compete internationally.
The typical European style of ice hockey, with flowing, less physical play, represents a heritage of bandy. The sp
Örebro County is a county or län in central Sweden. It borders the counties of Västra Götaland, Värmland, Dalarna, Västmanland, Södermanland and Östergötland, it is culturally divided into the hilly northern region of Bergslagen, where mining and metallurgic industry have been important since the Middle Ages, the southern Mälardalen of lakes and farms. Sweden's counties are administrative units, whereas the provinces of Sweden fit cultural and historical boundaries. Örebro County consists of the province of Närke, the western half of Västmanland and minor parts of eastern Värmland and northeastern Västergötland. Örebro County is named after its capital city, Örebro, which in 2010 was the sixth largest city of Sweden. Official 2010 numbers sourced in the localities section indicate that 38% of the county population is living in the city of Örebro alone. Örebro itself contains just as many inhabitants as the 23 other largest localities put together, has grown ever since the official statistics began in the late 1960s.
The county was named Värmland County until 1779 when Värmland County seceded. The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests of the county, to promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case; the County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Örebro Governors; the County Council of Örebro or Örebro läns landsting, appointed by the electorate of the county, is responsible for health care and public transportation. The southern Närke plain, the forested north and the highland to the west makes for a varying landscape. Örebro County has coastlines on two of them. Capital Örebro is alongside Hjälmaren, located inland along Svartån; the southern area of the county has a transitional climate between oceanic and continental, with warm summers and cold, variable winters.
Örebro has a July high of around 23 °C and winter highs around 0 °C with frosts being frequent from November to April. The proximity to the major lakes moderates winter temperatures somewhat, undermining the continental effects of its inland position; the northern areas of the county are cooler year-round. The summer temperatures on the Närke Plain are some of the warmest in all of Scandinavia and by extension Northern Europe. Örebro County is divided into 12 municipalities. The arms for the County of Örebro is a combination of the arms of Västmanland and Värmland; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Duke of Närke, a title for members of the royal family County Administrative Board of Örebro
Mälaren referred to as Lake Malar in English, is the third-largest freshwater lake in Sweden. Its area is 1,140 km² and its greatest depth is 64 m. Mälaren spans 120 kilometers from east to west; the lake drains, from south-west to north-east, into the Baltic Sea through its natural outlets Norrström and Söderström and through the artificial Södertälje Canal and Hammarbyleden waterway. The easternmost bay of Mälaren, in central Stockholm, is called Riddarfjärden; the lake is located in Svealand and bounded by the provinces of Uppland, Södermanland, Närke, Västmanland. The two largest islands in Mälaren are Svartsjölandet; the Viking Age settlements Birka on the island of Björkö and Hovgården on the neighbouring island Adelsö have been an UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993, as has Drottningholm Palace on the island of Lovön. The barrow of Björn Ironside is within the lake; the etymological origin of the name Mälaren stems from the Old Norse word mælir appearing in historical records in the 1320s and meaning gravel.
The lake was known as Lǫgrinn, Old Norse for "The Lake". By the end of the last ice age about 11,000 years ago, much of northern Europe and North America was covered by ice sheets up to 3 km thick. At the end of the ice age when the glaciers retreated, the removal of the weight from the depressed land led to a post-glacial rebound; the rebound was rapid, proceeding at about 7.5 cm/year. This phase lasted for about 2,000 years, took place as the ice was being unloaded. Once deglaciation was complete, uplift slowed to about 2.5 cm/year, decreased exponentially after that. Today, typical uplift rates are of the order of 1 cm/year or less, studies suggest that rebound will continue for about another 10,000 years; the total uplift from the end of deglaciation can be up to 400 m. In the Viking Age Mälaren was still a bay of the Baltic Sea, seagoing vessels could sail up it far into the interior of Sweden. Birka was conveniently near the trade routes through the Södertälje Canal. Due to the post-glacial rebound, Södertälje canal and the mouth of Riddarfjärden bay had become so shallow by about the year 1200 that ships had to unload their cargoes near the entrances, progressively the bay became a lake.
The decline of Birka and the subsequent foundation of Stockholm at the choke point of Riddarfjärden were in part due to the post-glacial rebound changing the topography of the Mälaren basin. The lake's surface averages 0.7 meters above sea level. According to Norse mythology as contained in the thirteenth-century Icelandic work Prose Edda, the lake was created by the goddess Gefjon when she tricked Gylfi, the Swedish king of Gylfaginning. Gylfi promised Gefjon as much land as four oxen could plough in a day and a night, but she used oxen from the land of the giants, moreover uprooted the land and dragged it into the sea, where it became the island of Zealand. Snorra Edda says that'the inlets in the lake correspond to the headlands in Zealand'. A selection, in alphabetical order: The most common nesting birds on the skerries of Mälaren are the most common in the Baltic Sea. After a survey in 2005, the ten most common species were found to be common tern, herring gull, black-headed gull, common gull, tufted duck, Canada goose, common goldeneye, lesser black-backed gull and common sandpiper.
White-tailed eagle, greylag goose, barnacle goose, black-throated diver, red-breasted merganser and gadwall are less common, some of these latter are endangered in the Mälaren area. Since 1994 a subspecies of great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, has nested there as well. A 2005 survey tallied 23 breeding colonies with 2178 nests, of which the largest colony had 235 nests. Most experts believe the great cormorant population has peaked and will stabilize at around 2000 nests. One of the characteristic species is the osprey which has one of its strongest presences in Lake Mälaren; the osprey nests in all bays of the lake. The Zebra mussel is causing some problems in Lake Mälaren. Mälardrottningen is a poetic name for Stockholm well known in Swedish literature. Utter Inn, an underwater hotel designed by the artist Mikael Genberg, is in the lake; the area around the lake hosted the cycling events at the 1912 Summer Olympics. Mälaren Valley Lakes of Sweden Geography of Stockholm Almarestäket Kanaanbadet Mälarguiden - Guide to Mälaren Castles around Mälaren
Västerås Municipality is a municipality in Västmanland County in central Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Västerås; the municipality prefers to use the denomination Västerås stad for the whole territory, including rural areas. The municipality evolved during the municipal reforms in Sweden. Most of the amalgamations took place in 1967 and the municipality in its present form was created in 1971. There are 30 original local government units within the present municipality; the largest towns with pop. Figures from 2005: Västerås 107,000 Skultuna 3,200 Hökåsen 2,800 Irsta 2,500 Kvicksund 1,700 Dingtuna 1,000 Furby Västerås is twinned with: Lahti, Finland 1940 Randers Municipality, Denmark 1947 Ålesund, Norway 1947 Akureyri, Iceland 1953 České Budějovice, Czech Republic 1964 Banja Luka and Herzegovina 1969 Kassel, Germany 1972 Phenix City, United States Gaborone, Botswana 2011 Västerås Municipality - Official site
Skinnskatteberg Municipality is a municipality in Västmanland County in central Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Skinnskatteberg. In 1952 a new greater municipality was created when "old" Skinskatteberg was merged with Gunnilbo and Hed; the next subdivision reform of 1971 did not affect this entity. Riddarhyttan Skinnskatteberg Färna Karmansbo Kärrbo 8% of the area consists of water. Good possibilities for outdoor activities such as walking and fishing; the area was known as Skinnsäckeberg in the medieval age, which translates to "Skinsack mountain" referring to skinsacks used to carry material up to the mountains, but no one known for sure. The area, located within the Mining district of Central Sweden was a mining district since the 14th century for iron, but copper was mined for; the municipality has a fl owering cultural life with several theatre groups. There is an annual choral meeting, among other music activities. A pride is Galleri Astley in Uttersberg, an internationally renowned art center and gallery with around 100 000 visits annually.
Ekomuseum Bergslagen shows the culture of iron. It is a museum without walls consisting more than 50 different objects, extending through six municipalities. Twelve of those objects are situated in Skinnskatteberg. Röda Jorden is Sweden’s to date oldest iron preparation site, active between 700 BC to 200 AD. There is a reconstruction of a roasting hearth used to demonstrate the process. You can book a day for a shorter guidetour. You can discover the area by yourself. Kopparverket at Riddarhyttan has seen industrial activity since the Middle Ages. There are many buildings and ruins standing and a posted path to show the way. Lienshyttan is from 1847; the Bastnäs mineral and mine area is one of the world’s richest mineral sites. Färna bruk is an ironworks from the 16th century with a stately manor. There is a remarkable mausoleum and a pavilion with lovely paintings; the manor house is a hotel sometime visited by the King of Sweden Carl XlV Gustav. The Karmansbo bruksmiljö is a well-preserved industrial area with a mansion, workers residences, Lancashire forges and works office.
The manor house is a hotel there too. You can see the forges in work in one day in July every year or you can book it for a day of your own. Ebba Brahes pavilion lies on an island below the Bockhammar manor the oldest pavilion in the country; this one is an pink pavilion built in the 17th century. There is a summer café close; the area has great possibilities for a rich outdoor life. There are 244 lakes and most of them are available for fi shing. Fishing is a spread activity in the district and attracts a lot of visitors. In most of the lakes you can take a swim. You can walk the Bruksleden Trail or the Ormdalen path in the Ormdalen area, a geologically interesting phenomenon. You can take a trip along the canoe trails; the municipality has 13 nature reserves of diff erent kinds. You can walk in the footsteps of the Pilgrims. Romboleden, the trail of Rombo, leads from Köping to Trondheim in Norway where Saint Olov is buried, passes Skinnskatteberg on its way; the municipality has among the most mansions of Sweden's municipalities: Baggå, Bernshammars, Färna, Jönsarbo, Nyhammars and Uttersberg.
The mansion of Skinskatteberg is well known. It was constructed in 1779 by architect Wilhelm Hising; every year a choir assembly is held by the mansion. Mining in Sweden Skinnskatteberg Municipality - Official siteHotells and restaurants Tre Kolare pub and motell Färna Mansion Karmansbo Mansion List of hotells and cultural heritage in the areaOther sights and landmarks Galleri Astley The eco museum Bergslagen The old school museum in Hed Gunnilbo's Church Hed's ChurchRecreation Kulturhuset Korpen Lurbohallen
Västerås is a city in central Sweden, located on the shore of Lake Mälaren in the province Västmanland, some 100 kilometres west of Stockholm. The city had a population of 119,372 inhabitants in 2016, out of the municipal total of 150,000. Västerås is the seat of Västerås Municipality, the capital of Västmanland County and an episcopal see. Västerås is one of the oldest cities in Northern Europe; the name originates from Västra Aros. The area has been populated since the Nordic Viking Age, before 1000 AD. In the beginning of the 11th century it was the second largest city in Sweden, by the 12th century had become the seat of the bishop. Anundshög is located just outside the City of Västerås. Anundshög is Sweden's largest burial mound. "Hög" is derived from the Old Norse word haugr meaning barrow. It was built about 500 AD and is over 74 yards wide and is 10 yd high. In the ensuing centuries, a cathedral and a monastery were built; the first City Arms date from the end of the 13th century. A castle commands the town from an eminence.
Gustav called together the riksdag in Västerås. During the riksdag assembly, the decision was made to convert Sweden into a Protestant state and to remove the power of the Catholic Church. Rudbeckianska gymnasiet, the oldest gymnasium in Sweden, was built in Västerås by Johannes Rudbeckius in 1623. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the growing of cucumber became popular, Västerås received the nickname Gurkstaden, which it still retains today. Västerås is predominantly known as an industrial city, but a retailing and logistics city; the city wants to distinguish itself as Västerås – Mälarstaden, meaning "Västerås—the city by Lake Mälaren", in order to attract tourists and new inhabitants, as well as students to the local university college, Mälardalen University. To this effect, the city has started using a designed logo as branding in some official contexts replacing the coat of arms, as well as rebuilding several old harbor areas to make them more attractive to live in. Västerås has the largest lakeside commercial and recreational port in Scandinavia on Lake Mälaren.
The city has a skyscraper cordially nicknamed "Skrapan" which has Sweden's highest-located cocktail bar, called Sky Bar, on the 24th floor of the building. Västerås hosts an annual event where owners of high-powered American cars can meet. According to the Köppen climate classification, Västerås experiences a humid continental climate with cold winters and warm summers. Summers tend to be quite unpredictable with sunny spells but with a risk of sudden showers; the sunniest weather occurs when high-pressure systems are blocking the low-pressure systems that move in from the Atlantic Ocean. Daytime temperatures in July hover around 22 °C, but may sometimes exceed 25 °C and even 30 °C. Winters are cold with a snow cover that lasts for several months; some winters can be mild with longer spells without snow on the ground. The weather differs a lot whether the air masses are coming from the Atlantic Ocean or from the Eurasian continent. In the first case, temperatures over 5 °C might be expected. In the second case, the temperature may not rise above −15 °C in the middle of the day.
Lake Mälaren is frozen from December until the end of March. The highest official temperature reading of 36.0 °C was recorded on July 9, 1966. The lowest temperature of −36.5 °C was recorded on January 24, 1875. In 1891, the Turbine House, a small hydroelectric dam was built in central Västerås; this early electrification encouraged ASEA, a large electricity equipment manufacturer, to concentrate its operations in Västerås, shifting focus away from Arboga. After the 1988 merger with the power systems company Brown, Boveri & Cie, ASEA became ABB Group; as a result, Västerås is home to its ABB AB Swedish subsidiary headquarters. ABB in Västerås produces e.g. robots and drive systems for the industry, high-voltage direct current transmission and power grids. Since the Westinghouse takeover of ABB's nuclear business it is owned by Westinghouse Electric Company, it is situated in Finnslätten, an industrial area in the northern part of Västerås. Westinghouse Sweden produces nuclear fuel and offers nuclear services for Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized water reactors.
As of 2014, Westinghouse Sweden had more than 1000 employees. The plant has provided fuel for Ukraine since 2005. On 11 April 2014, after the Russian annexation of Crimea, the contract with Energoatom for the South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant was extended through 2020. Mälarenergi AB is a city-owned district heating and electric power provider for Västerås and surrounding area. Mälarenergi owns and operates a number of plants of which the biggest one is the heat and power plant in Västerås, it is Sweden’s largest combined heat and power plant, the latest unit uses waste as fuel. Other major industries include Bombardier Transportation, active in railway business with production of propulsion systems for trains with world wide customers, GE Power Sweden and Quintus Technologies AB. One of the historical reasons t