Vättern is the second largest lake by surface area in Sweden, after Vänern, the sixth largest lake in Europe. It is a long, finger-shaped body of fresh water in south central Sweden, to the southeast of Vänern, pointing at the tip of Scandinavia. One of the etymologies for the name Vättern is from the Swedish word for water; this origin is, unclear and in dispute. It has been suggested that the archaic term "vätter", meaning forest or lake spirits, is the origin of the lake's name; the lake's total surface area is about 1,912 km2, with a drainage basin a little over double that, about 4,503 km2. The deepest known point, located to the south of the island of Visingsö, is 128 meters; the average depth is 41 meters. The lake has a perimeter of about 642 km; the volume is 77.0 km3. These numbers tend to be fixed. Situated in Götaland, the lake is drained by Motala ström, starting at Motala, flowing through a controlled canal into the Baltic Sea; the lake includes the scenic island of Visingsö, located outside Gränna.
Other towns on the lake include Vadstena, Jönköping, Askersund, Åmmeberg and Karlsborg. It is bounded by the Provinces of Närke, Östergötland and Småland. In the north there is a scenic but not Alsen. About 62% of the drainage basin is still covered with spruce and deciduous forest. About 26.7% is dedicated to agriculture. While many of smaller lakes in southern Sweden are thought to have originated by glacial stripping of an irregular weathering mantle in the last 2.5 million years Vättern formed by tectonics as a graben 700 to 800 million years ago in the Neoproterozoic. Granitic basement rocks in the lake are deformed by the Protogine Zone; the basin is filled by sedimentary rock of the Visingsö Group of Neoproterozoic age. This group include rocks such as conglomerate, sandstone and carbonates; the older of these sediments deposited. Acritarch microfossils such as Chuaria circularis are common in Visingsö Group. Vättern is located in a graben, formed by crustal movements in the east-west direction 40 to 50 Mya.
During the most recent millions of years multiple glaciations have covered the lake and its surroundings, leaving glacial striations and drumlins as they receded. The present-day lake began as an independent body of water left by the receding Scandinavian glacier after the last glacial period around 10,000 BP, it became a minor bay of the Baltic ice lake. Most of the lake's relict species date from that time. Subsequently, it was a bay of Yoldia Sea and became connected to Ancylus Lake, discharging from the north end of its extent. At about 8000 BP an accident of the uneven Scandinavian isostatic land rise brought Vättern above Ancylus and the two became distinct; the annual post-glacial rebound today is 3.5 mm in northeastern Motala and 2.6 mm in southern Jönköping. This means; the lake contains both zooplankton, such as Copepoda and Cladocera. The benthos species include Crustacea, Oligochaeta and Bivalvia. In addition are several species of fish, including Salvelinus salvelinus, Coregonus lavaretus and Salmo salar.
The lake is known for its Vättern char, as it is called, Salvelinus alpinus. The Vättern char is genetically close to the Sommen char in nearby Lake Sommen and chars of Lake Ladoga in Russia, it is said. It is however not nearly as famous as the one living in Storsjön. Vättern has been famous for the excellent quality of its transparent water. Many of the municipalities in the area receive their drinking water directly from Vättern; the lake water requires little treatment before being pumped into the municipal systems and the natural, untreated water can be safely drunk from any point in the lake. It has been suggested; the surrounding municipalities process 100% of their sewage. Vättern is known for the annual recreational cycling race Vätternrundan, attracting some 20,000 participants to finish the 300 km trip around the shores of the lake. Vättern is noted for its fishing, serving people in the nearby districts. Tourist sport fishermen and vacationers are free to fish in the lake; the lake is used for commercial fishing.
A number of industries provide employment in the drainage basin: mining, manufacturing and paper. Agriculturalists raise cattle, sheep and poultry. According to the Catholic Church, Saint Catherine of Vadstena performed a miracle involving three people in peril on lake ice. Thomas Nashe mentions this lake in his Terrors of the Night, although he mistakenly locates the lake in Iceland: Admirable, above the rest, are the incomprehensible wonders of the bottomless Lake Vether, over which no fowl flies but is frozen to death, nor any man passeth but he is senselessly benumbed like a statue of marble. All the inhabitants round about it are deafened with the hideous roaring of his waters when the winter breaketh up, the ice in his dissolving gives a terrible crack like to thunder, whenas out of the midst of it, as out of Mont-Gibell, a sulphureous stinking smoke issues, that wellnigh poisons the whole country. Lake Vether is mentioned in Samuel Johnson's essay for The Idler No. 96, on Hacho of Lapland.
The 854th Bombardment Squadron is a former United States Army Air Forces unit. It was activated in October 1943 as a heavy bomber unit. After training in the United States, the squadron deployed to the European Theater of Operations, where it participated in the strategic bombing campaign against Germany, earning a Distinguished Unit Citation in an attack against Misburg. Following V-E Day, the squadron returned to the United States and was inactivated at McChord Field, Washington in September 1945; the 854th Bombardment Squadron was activated 1 October 1943 at Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona as one of the four squadrons of the 491st Bombardment Group. The following month, the squadron moved to El Paso Army Air Field and began training with Consolidated B-24 Liberator heavy bombers. In January, most of the ground echelon of the squadron was withdrawn and reassigned to Boeing B-29 Superfortress units being organized by Second Air Force, with the largest group moving to Pratt Army Air Field, Kansas.
Many of the unit's remaining personnel were transferred to other B-24 groups as well, by the end of December, the squadron had no assigned aircraft. While the air echelon continued training in the United States, Eighth Air Force began organizing a new ground echelon in England, directing each of the four groups assigned to its 2d Bombardment Division to form a squadron ground echelon; the air echelon moved to Pueblo Army Air Base, Colorado to complete its training with the 471st Bombardment Group. Key personnel of the unit departed the United States on 11 April, while the crews began ferrying the squadron's B-24s via the southern ferry route on 21 April; the squadron was assembled at RAF Metfield with the arrival of the air echelon by 15 May 1944, although the last plane of the 491st Group did not arrive until the 30th. It began operations starting on 2 June, with an attack on Bretigny Airfield, it attacked airfields, coastal defenses and lines of communication to support Operation Overlord, the invasion of France.
After the D-Day landings, the squadron concentrated on the strategic bombing missions. Its targets included communications centers, oil refineries, shipyards and other industrial targets. While targets included Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg, Hanover and Magdeburg. On one occasion, the squadron was tasked with attacking German General Staff headquarters at Zossen, south of Berlin. In August 1944, the 492d Bombardment Group was taken off normal operations and moved on paper to replace the 801st Bombardment Group on Operation Carpetbagger operations; as a result, the 491st group, including the squadron, moved to the 492d's base at RAF North Pickenham. On 26 November 1944, the group raided an oil refinery at Misburg, it was attacked by large numbers of enemy interceptors, which shot down half of the aircraft in the 491st Group formation. The remaining aircraft fought off the enemy planes and bombed the target, earning the unit a Distinguished Unit Citation; the squadron was diverted from the strategic bombing campaign.
It supported ground forces during Operation Cobra the breakout at Saint Lo. It supported Operation Varsity, the airborne assault across the Rhine and Allied forces driving across Germany; the squadron's final combat mission was flown on 25 April 1945. Following V-E Day, the squadron began flying its aircraft back to the United States on 17 June 1945; the ground echelon sailed on the RMS Queen Mary on 6 July, arriving in New York City five days later. The squadron reassembled at McChord Field, Washington that month and was inactivated there on 8 September. Constituted as the 854th Bombardment Squadron, Heavy on 14 September 1943Activated on 1 October 1943 Inactivated on 8 September 1945 491st Bombardment Group, 1 October 1943 – 8 September 1945 Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona, 1 October 1943 El Paso Army Air Field, Texas, 11 November 1943 – 1 January 1944 Ketteringham Hall, England, 1 January 1944 RAF North Pickenham, March 1944 Pueblo Army Air Base, Colorado, 1 January 1944 RAF Metfield, England, c. 25 April 1944 RAF North Pickenham, England, 15 August 1944 – 5 July 1945 McChord Field, Washington, 17 July-8 September 1945 Consolidated B-24 Liberator, 1943–1945 B-24 Liberator units of the United States Army Air Forces Explanatory notes Citations This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.
Anderson, Capt. Barry. Army Air Forces Stations: A Guide to the Stations Where U. S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2017. Blue, Alan G. "Ringmasters: A History of the 491st Bombardment Group". AAHS Journal. American Aviation Historical Society. Vol. 9. Retrieved 4 January 2018. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Watkins, Robert. Battle Colors: Insignia and Markings of the Eighth Air Force In World War II. Vol I Bomber Command. Atglen, PA: Shiffer Publishing
Jahazpur is a city and a municipality in Bhilwara district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is known for its Jain temple and is built around a fort. Jahazpur is located at 25.62°N 75.28°E / 25.62. It has an average elevation of 334 metres. There is a Jain Mandir in the shape of Jahaz being built there popularized as Atishay kshetra dedicated to Bhagwan Munisuvrat Nath; the under construction temple is on the Jahazpur Shahpura State Highway no.39 around 24 km from Deoli a town in Tonk District of Rajasthan on the National Highway running from Jabalpur to Jaipur. As of 2001 India census, Jahazpur had a population of 18,816. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Jahazpur has an average literacy rate of 59%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, female literacy is 45%. In Jahazpur, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Jahazpur is known for its jain temple; this temple is dedicated to Munisuvrata the twentieth Tirthankara of Jainism. The moolnayak is a black coloured idol of Bhagwan Munisuvrata Swami.
This idol is considered miraculous. This temple is being built under the auspicious guidance and supervision of Aryika Swastibhushan Mataji, a pious lady who renunciated the world and all her worldly belongings except pichchi, kamandal and a white robe just to cover herself and treading on the moksh marg based on Jain Philosophy enlightening the people who wish to gain something on spiritualism; this temple is known as Swastidham Mandir comprising an under construction temple in the shape of a Jahaz echoing with the name of town Jahazpur where it is situated, a dharmshala and a Bhojanshala in sprawling piece of land of around 5 hectare. The statue of Bhagwan Munisuvrat Nath was unearthed from the ground dug for construction of house in the Jahazpur city in the year 2013. There is a historical temple of Lord Shiva in Luhari Kalan village. We can see a beautiful view of nature around the temple, it is a famous temple.jahazpur has many antique monumentes Jahazpur State was founded in 1572 by Jagmal Singh Sisodiya brother of Maharana Pratap when he was denied the Kingship so he went to Mughal Service and Akbar gifted him Jahazpur Jagir, he used Rao as his title.
Cayuga Heights is a village in Tompkins County, New York, United States and an upscale suburb of Ithaca. The village is in the Town of Ithaca, directly northeast of the City of Ithaca and Cornell University's main campus; the population was 3,729 at the 2010 census. The village is home to many faculty members including its president. After the Revolutionary War, much of Upstate New York was divided into tracts to be given to veterans. Several veterans received lots in what is now Cayuga Heights, started farms. In the early 1800s, Ithaca started to grow as inland port. In 1865, Ezra Cornell started Cornell University. Students and faculty members lived on campus and in Ithaca, but rapid expansion in the late 1800s and early 1900s spurred new development north of the Fall Creek gorge. Two trolley bridges were built across the gorge, a streetcar connected downtown and the budding residential development north of the gorge. In the 1901, local businessmen Charles Newman and Jared Blood bought nearly 1,000 acres of farmland and started the "Cayuga Heights Land Company."
They hired landscape architect Harold Caparn, who designed the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, to design an organic, park-like layout of roads and trees. Cayuga Heights was incorporated as a village in 1915, consisting of one-half square mile of land from the City of Ithaca line to what is now Upland Road. In 1924, Cayuga Heights Elementary School was built. After World War II, Cayuga Heights continued to expand; the Community Corners Shopping Center was built as a small suburban shopping plaza for residents in 1947, in 1952, the village opened its own wastewater treatment plant on the shore of Cayuga Lake. The village resisted attempts to be annexed by the growing City of Ithaca, instead more than tripled in size in 1954, when it annexed 1.4 square miles of land in the Town of Ithaca extending from Upland Road to the Town of Lansing border. A large addition was built onto Cayuga Heights Elementary School in the late 1950s. In 1969, the First Congregational Church relocated from downtown Ithaca to a new building on the former site of the Country Club of Ithaca, which had relocated a mile east.
The village was a founding member of the Bolton Point water system. In 1980, Cayuga Heights Elementary School closed due to declining enrollment, it reopened in 1988. In 1995, the last large plot of open land in Cayuga Heights, the former Savage Farm, was developed into a retirement community, Kendal at Ithaca, by the Kendal Corporation. Kendal has since become home to many retired Cornell faculty members; the main governmental body of the Village of Cayuga Heights is the board of trustees. Meetings are convened by an appointed deputy; the village offices are in Marcham Hall, a stone mansion built by a granddaughter of Ezra CornellOn January 12, 2015, the board of trustees of the Village of Cayuga Heights unanimously adopted a resolution declaring freedom from domestic violence to be a fundamental human right. Frederick G. Marcham, 1956 - 1987 Ronald Anderson, 1988 - 2002 Walter Lynn, 2003 - 2007 Jim Gilmore, 2008 - 2012 Kate Supron, 2012 – May 2016 Linda Woodard, June 2016 – present The Cayuga Heights Fire Department was founded in 1955 and provides fire, ALS first-response emergency medical services to the village, areas of the Town of Ithaca, parts of Cornell University.
The department is an all-volunteer agency with response times averaging under three minutes. This is due to the department's dedicated volunteers, as well as the innovative and successful "bunker program" that allows for 7-8 Firefighter/EMT's to live in a second floor dormitory and provide duty shifts in exchange for their room in the station. Unlike conventional membership recruiting/acceptance methods, the department recruits and restricts new member acceptance to bi-annual "recruit classes" in tandem with the academic semesters; as a result, many firefighters are Cornell students. The department's current home, the Ronald E. Anderson Fire Station, was built in 2000 and named after the then-mayor; the Cayuga Heights Police Department is a small department consisting of a chief, a sergeant, four full-time officers, a clerk, several part-time officers and school crossing guards. Cayuga Heights is located at 42°27′59″N 76°29′19″W, on the eastern slope of Cayuga Lake; the elevation ranges from 900 feet near the Community Corners to 400 feet near the lake.
Several streams and steep gorges cut through the village. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all of it land. The village is at the south end of one of the Finger Lakes. Cayuga Heights borders, on its north, the Village of Lansing. Two examples of old-growth oak/hickory forest are in the village: Palmer Woods, on the south side of the village near Cornell campus, Renwick Slope, on the far western part of the village by Cayuga Lake. Both are managed by Cornell Plantations; the village has gotten national attention for its large population of white-tailed deer. In addition to deer, the village hosts foxes, wild turkeys, squirrels and rabbits; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,273 people, 1,497 households, 772 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,850.9 people per square mile. There were 1,584 housing units at an average density of 895.8 per square mile (
Lew Russell Robinson, nicknamed "Sneaky Pete", was an American drag racer. Robinson was born in Georgia, he started drag racing in 1950, at the wheel of a Buick-engined B/Gas 1940 Ford, which he continued to campaign until 1961. Robinson purchased his first slingshot rail from a wealthy friend, unable to persuade his father it was a go kart. Robinson, obsessive about lightening his cars began trimming weight off the car, reducing it from 1,256 to 1,120 lb over the course of three months, he improved its performance from a previous quickest pass of 9.50 seconds to a 9.13. It was the focus on weight reduction that prompted him to switch to a 289 cu in Cobra engine, 50 lb lighter than the Chevrolet, he gained national attention at NHRA's 1961 Nationals at Indianapolis Raceway Park in his small-block Dragmaster-chassied gas dragster, eliminating Tom McEwen to win AA/GD before beating Dode Martin to take the Top Eliminator title. Along the way, he set low e.t. of the meet with an 8.68 second pass, which contributed to his "Sneaky Pete" appellation.
At the 1962 NHRA Winternationals, Robinson reached the semi-final in Top Eliminator before being defeated by eventual event winner Nelson. Robinson attended the 1963 NHRA U. S. Nationals at IRP. Robinson moved up to Top Fuel in 1964, he did compete in Top Gas at the 1964 NHRA U. S. Nationals. Relying on a new 427 cu in Ford "Cammer", he reached TF/D final the 1965 Springnationals at Bristol Motor Speedway, being eliminated by Maynard Rupp. In Top Gas at that event, he lost to Collett again, he started his 1966 Top Fuel season at the AHRA Winter Nationals at Irwindale Dragway in Irwindale, California. He was eliminated in the second round at Pomona by Mike Snively, he was eliminated in round one at Bristol. At the NASCAR Summer Nationals, held at Dragway 42 in West Salem, Ohio, he qualified #2, defeated Joe Jacono in round 1, Chris "The Greek" Karamesines in round two, #16 qualifier Connie Kalitta in the semi-final, before losing in the final to #1 qualifier Nick Marshall. At the Nationals, he lost in round one to Nick Marshall.
He took his first Top Fuel win just over a month at the World Finals, at Tulsa Raceway Park in Tulsa, Oklahoma. He eliminated Kalitta in round one and Wayne Burt in the semi-final, before defeating Dave Beebe in the final with a 7.17 second pass. Robinson started the 1967 season with a victory over Jerry "King" Ruth, but a loss in the semi-final to Kalitta, at Pomona, he suffered a broken arm in tire testing early in the year, but still made it to the TF/D final of the1967 Springnationals at Bristol, eliminating Tom Hoover in round one and Leroy Goldstein in the semi-final, before being beaten in the final by Don "The Snake" Prudhomme. During the 1967 season, he tied McEwen's record 6.92 second pass. Beeline Dragway in Scottsdale, Arizona hosted the AHRA Winter Nationals to start the 1968 season. With the field including Tom Hoover, Frank Pedgregon, Leroy Goldstein, Danny Ongais, Tom "Mongoo$e" McEwen, Chris "The Greek" Karamesines, Robinson again lost to Prudhomme in the final. At a match race at OCIR in March, Robinson joined Larry Dixon, Kalitta, McEwen, Don "Big Daddy" Garlits.
At the Springnatls at Englishtown, again facing the likes of Karamesines, Prudhomme and Garlits, Robinson failed to qualify. Opening the 1969 season, Robinson returned to Beeline, qualifying #30 for the AHRA Winter Nationals, in a field that included Goldstein, Karamesines, Prudhomme and Dixon; the AHRA Spring Nationals featured a field of sixteen, again hosting Goldstein and Prudhomme. At the NHRA Nationals, he was eliminated in round one by eventual winner Prudhomme; the event was marred by John "The Zookeeper" Mulligan's wreck. The 1970 AHRA Winter Nationals saw Robinson qualify #14 in a field of 16, only to lose in round one to #3 qualifier John Wiebe. Robinson won TF/D at the Summernationals, at York U. S. 30 Dragway in Thomasville, Pennsylvania, by beating Jim Nicoll in the final It earned him US$7250. That year, he won the 1970 AHRA World Championship at Bristol, beating Jimmy King in the final. Before the year ended, he went back to IRP for the 1970 NHRA Nationals, eliminating Chip Woodall in round 1 and Bob Murray in round two before losing in round three to Prudhomme.
Robinson attended the 1970 NHRA World Finals in Lewisville, Texas. Robinson failed to make the field. Following his successful 1970 season, now being the only driver left running a 427 Cammer, having lost factory support, Robinson decided to retire and concentrate on building lightweight casings for superchargers and similar components, he hired Bud Dabler to drive his new ground effect-equipped dragster, instead. Dabler disliked the car. Entering at Lions for a 1971 AHRA TF/D event, Robinson was eliminated in round one by Rick Ramsey, which paid just US$200. At the first ANRA Grand American Series event of the 1971 season, Robinson clocked the quickest pass of his career, a 6.50, in the new car, decided to enter at the 1971 Winternats, only three weeks away. At Pomona on 6 February, he qualified with low e.t. of the day. On a subsequent pass, the chass
Norman Bethune Square is a small urban square located in Downtown Montreal at the northwest intersection of Guy Street and De Maisonneuve Boulevard West. It is located close to Concordia University's Sir George Williams campus and is opposite the Guy-Concordia metro station; the main feature of the square is the statue of Norman Bethune, as well as trees, benches and an expanded sidewalk. Inaugurated on March 23, 1976, Norman Bethune Square is named after Norman Bethune, a Canadian doctor from Montreal. Although he was born in Gravenhurst and died in China, it was in Montreal than Norman Bethune resided the longest — for eight years, from 1928 to 1936, it was during his stay in Montreal that he became a renowned thoracic surgeon, that his socialist ideas and convictions took shape, guiding him to a profound commitment towards social and humanitarian causes including joining the Communist Party of Canada. While living in the city, Bethune innovated a number of ground-breaking medical instruments against tuberculosis.
During the Great Depression, Bethune worked with Lea Roback and others to open a public clinic for the unemployed and poor as party of his cross-Canada advocacy for socialized medicine or public health care. After joining the Communist Party of Canada, he traveled to Spain as part of the International Brigades where he created one of the first mobile blood transfusion services during the Spanish Civil War. Bethune returned to Montreal to campaign for Republican Spain before leaving for China. Between 1938–1939, on the eve of World War II, Bethune traveled with the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army and he contracted blood poisoning and died in China; the People's Republic of China offered the statue of Norman Bethune to the city of Montreal. At the time of the 70th anniversary of the Bethune's participation in the World War II in China, the City of Montreal undertook a major renovation project of the square at a cost of C$3 million dollars; the site was under substantial renovations as part of the redevelopment of De Maisonneuve Boulevard.
The newly restored statue of Norman Bethune was unveiled on October 14, 2008. The square was completed in 2009. Bethune Memorial House Ville de Montréal, Les rues de Montréal, Répertoire historique. Éditions du Méridien. 1995. Norman Bethune