The Corrèze is a 95 km long river in south-western France, left tributary of the river Vézère. Its source is in the north-western Massif Central, it flows south-west through the cities Tulle and Brive-la-Gaillarde. A few km after Brive-la-Gaillarde, the Corrèze flows into the Vézère. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Corrèze at the Sandre database
Le Bugue is a commune in the Dordogne department in southwestern France. Le Bugue is located on the banks of the Vézère River a few kilometres before the confluence of the Vézère with the Dordogne River at Limeuil. Le Bugue is on two national routes. Le Bugue has been inhabited since prehistoric times. In 964 a Benedictine monastery was founded in Le Bugue under the name of Saint Marcel and Saint Salvador; the monastery had disappeared by the late 19th century. Le Bugue enjoyed a period of prosperity until 1154, when the province of Périgord came under English control. Le Bugue was disputed between British troops and those of the King of France, therefore suffered greatly. One of the most important dates in the history of Le Bugue is November 1319, when the King of France, Philippe Le Long, ordered by deed that the market be perpetually held on Tuesday; this act is still presently in force. Le Bugue was a quiet commercial town until the French Revolution. However, it endured some fratricidal struggles between the lords of Fleurac.
The end of the 19th century was marked by the construction of the local bridge and the arrival of the railroad. Le Bugue owes part of its fame to the chemist and physician Jean Rey who discovered the Law of Conservation of Mass 200 years before Lavoisier. Jean Rey invented the "Thermoscope", the forerunner of the modern thermometer. Communes of the Dordogne department Jean Rey was chemist. Jean Kerebel was a French track and field athlete who competed in the 400 metres. INSEE
Terrasson-Lavilledieu is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. The Gardens of the Imagination —classified as a remarkable garden by the French Ministry of Culture—are situated in Terrasson, it was designed in 1996 by landscape architect Kathryn Gustafson to present thirteen tableaux of the myths and legends of the history of gardens. It uses simple natural elements, it uses a symbolic sacred wood, a rose garden, topiary art, fountains to tell the story. Communes of the Dordogne department INSEE "Terrasson". Office of Tourism. Retrieved 26 December 2008
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Cro-Magnon rock shelter
Cro-Magnon is an Aurignacian site, located in a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, a hamlet in the commune of Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil, southwestern France. Abri de Cro-Magnon is part of the UNESCO World Heritage of the Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley. Most notably, it is the site of the discovery of anatomically modern human remains buried at the site, dated to about 28,000 years ago. In 1868, workmen found animal bones, flint tools, human skulls in the rock shelter. French geologist Louis Lartet was called for excavations, found the partial skeletons of four prehistoric adults and one infant, along with perforated shells used as ornaments, an object made from ivory, worked reindeer antler; these "Cro-Magnon men" were identified as the prehistoric human race of Europe, as distinct from Neanderthal Man, described a few years earlier by William King based on the Neanderthal 1 fossil discovered in Germany in 1856. Lartet proposed the subspecies name Homo sapiens fossilis in 1869.
The term "Cro-Magnon Man" soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe. By the 1970s, the term was used for any early modern human wherever found, as was the case with the far-flung Jebel Qafzeh remains in Israel and various Paleo-Indians in the Americas; the term "Cro-Magnon" remains in use, but since the late 1990s has been restricted to European early modern humans. Cro-Magnon 1 consists of a skull and partial skeletal remains belonging to a male individual 40 years old, it is dated to 27,680 ± 270 Before Present. The cranial cavity measures 1,600 cubic centimetres; the capacity of a modern adult anatomically modern human's cranial cavity is 1,200 to 1,700 cubic centimetres. Cro-Magnon 2 is a preserved female skull with marked facial similarities to Mladeč 2. Cro-Magnon 3 is a partial skull of a male adult; the remains are thought to represent adults who died at an advanced age, who were placed at the site, along with pieces of shell and animal teeth in what appear to have been pendants or necklaces, in an apparent intentional burial.
The presence of necklaces and tools suggests the concept of grave goods. Analysis of the pathology of the skeletons shows that the humans of this period led a physically difficult life. In addition to infection, several of the individuals found at the shelter had fused vertebrae in their necks, indicating traumatic injury; as these injuries would be life-threatening today, this suggests that Cro-Magnons relied on community support and took care of each other's injuries. In addition, Cro-Magnon 1 suffered from a genetic condition called Neurofibromatosis type I, which would have led him to have large cysts or tumours on his face, evident in the depression in the frontal bone and pits of the eyebrows and cheek bones. Compared to Neanderthals, the skeletons showed the same high forehead, upright posture and slender skeleton as modern humans; the other specimens from the site are a female, Cro-Magnon 2, male remains, Cro-Magnon 3. Archaic human admixture with modern humans List of human evolution fossils Neanderthal extinction Peopling of Europe Cro-Magnon 1: Smithsonian Institution – The Human Origins Program