Völkisch movement

The Völkisch movement was a German ethnic and nationalist movement active from the late 19th century up until the Nazi era. Erected on the idea of "blood and soil", inspired by the one-body-metaphor and the idea of grown communities in unity, it was characterised by organicism, populism, romantic nationalism and, as a consequence of a growing exclusive and ethnic connotation, by antisemitism from the 1900s onwards; the Völkisch movement was not a homogeneous set of beliefs but rather a "variegated sub-culture" that rose in opposition to the socio-cultural changes of modernity. The "only denominator common" to all Völkisch theorists was the myth of a national rebirth inspired by the traditions of the Ancient Germans; this would have been achieved either by "Germanizing" Christianity—an Abrahamic, i.e. Semitic religion that spread into Europe from the Near East—or by rejecting any Christian heritage found in Germany in order to revive a pre-Christian Germanic paganism. In a narrow definition, the term is used to designate only groups that consider human beings preformed by blood, or by inherited characteristics.

Völkischen are encompassed in a wider Conservative Revolution by scholars, a German national conservative movement that rose in prominence during the Weimar Republic. The adjective Völkisch derives from the German word Volk, corresponding to the concepts of "nation", "race" and "tribe". While Völkisch has no direct English equivalent, it could be loosely translated as "ethno-nationalist" or, closer to its original meaning, as "bio-mystical racialist", but if Völkisch writers used words like Nordische Rasse and Germanentum, their concept of Volk could be more flexible, understood as a Gemeinsame Sprache or an Ausdruck einer Landschaftsseele, in the words of geographer Ewald Banse. The Völkisch movement emerged in the late 19th century, drawing inspiration from German Romanticism and its fascination for a medieval Reich organised into a harmonious hierarchical order, they idealised the myth of an "original nation", that still could be found at their times in the rural regions of Germany, a form of "primitive democracy subjected to their natural elites."

The notion of "people" subsequently turned into the idea of a "racial essence", Völkisch thinkers referred to the term as a birth-giving and eternal entity—in the same way as they would write on "the Nature"—rather than a sociological category. Despite the previous lower-class connotation associated to the word Volk, ideologues from the Völkisch movement loaded the term with a noble overtone which suggested a German superiority over other peoples. Thinkers led by Arthur de Gobineau, Georges Vacher de Lapouge, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Ludwig Woltmann or Alexis Carrel distorted Darwin's theory of evolution in order to advocate a "race struggle" and a hygienist vision of the world, they had conceptualised a racialist and hierarchical definition of the peoples of the world where Aryans had to be at the summit of the "white race". The purity of the bio-mystical and primordial nation theorised by the Völkisch thinkers began to be seen as corrupted by foreign elements, Jewish in particular, it was not a unified movement but rather "a cauldron of beliefs and hopes that found expression in various movements and were articulated in an emotional tone".

As they sought to overcome the malaise of a scientist and rationalist modernity, Volkisch authors imagined a spiritual solution in a Volk's essence perceived as authentic, intuitive "primitive", in the sense of an alignment with life and the cosmic order. The defining idea which the Völkisch movement revolved around was that of a Volkstum the "folkdom" or the "culture of the Volk". Other associated German words include Volksboden, Volksgemeinschaft, as well as Volkstümlich and Volkstümlichkeit; the völkisch movement had its origins in Romantic nationalism, as it was expressed by early Romantics such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte in his Addresses to the German Nation published during the Napoleonic Wars, from 1808 onwards the eighth address, “What is a Volk, in the higher sense of the term, what is love of the fatherland?", where he answered his question of what could warrant the noble individual's striving "and his belief in the eternity and the immortality of his work", by replying that it could only be that "particular spiritual nature of the human environment out of which he himself, with all of his thought and action... has arisen, namely the people from which he is descended and among which he has been formed and grown into that which he is".

The movement combined sentimental patriotic interest in German folklore, local history and a "back-to-the-land" anti-urban populism with many parallels in the writings of William Morris. "In part this ideology was a revolt against modernity", Nicholls remarked. The dream was for a self-sufficient life lived with a mystical relation to the land. Similar feelings were expressed in the US during the 1930s by the populist writers grouped as the Southern Agrarians; the völkisch movement, as it evolved, sometimes combined the arcane and esoteric aspects of folkloric oc

Gig in the Sky

Gig in the Sky was a record-breaking concert performed by the British band Jamiroquai on a private Boeing 757 during February 2007. The concert was organised and promoted by Sony Ericsson for the band's compilation album High Times: Singles 1992-2006; the Gig in the Sky concert began as a competition held by Sony Ericsson that accepted 200 winners onto a private jet to see Jamiroquai play live. The jet was a modified Boeing 757 that contained altered lighting and space for the band. Jamiroquai's unofficial logo, the Buffalo Man, was painted on the exterior; the Gig in the Sky commenced on 27 February 2007. Midway through the flight, at an altitude of 35,000 feet, the concert commenced, with Jamiroquai playing five songs, including two new songs from their compilation album High Times: Singles 1992-2006, released in November the previous year. After touchdown, passengers were invited to attend an after-party held at a nearby hotel in Athens before returning home; as part of the concert's promotion by Sony Ericsson, Jamiroquai additionally aimed to qualify for several unique Guinness World Records.

During the concert, an adjudicator from Guinness World Records was present on the plane in order to present the records to Jay Kay of Jamiroquai at the end of the performance. The band broke six records, including the highest and fastest concert and gig in a plane; these were not the first records received by the band - Jamiroquai held the record for the greatest-selling funk album of all time, Travelling Without Moving. Since The Black Eyed Peas took the world record for highest concert in an aircraft, at 41,000 ft on 9 September 2009, in conjunction with the world's highest recorded track; the event was awarded the Guinness World Record certificate. Since the altitude records have been equalled by English pop/rock artist James Blunt in 2010, who performed a concert at the altitude of 42,080 feet. Subsequently, this record was broken in 2013 by Kim Wilde at 43000 ft. On board the plane: Radio Feels Just Like It Should High Times If I Like It, I Do It Travelling Without Moving RunawayAthens: Cosmic Girl Space Cowboy High Times Black Capricorn Day Little L Radio Feels Just Like It Should Use The Force If I Like It, I Do It Travelling Without Moving Love Foolosophy Time Won't Wait Deeper Underground Guinness World Records

1965–66 Mersin İdmanyurdu season

Mersin İdmanyurdu Sports Club. The 1965–66 season was the 3rd season of Mersin İdmanyurdu football team in Second League, the second level division in Turkey; the club finished 5th. On 20 July 1965 fans celebrated the 40th anniversary of their foundation. Executive committee comprised Mehmet Karametmet, Halit Gazioğlu, Sezai Sak. At the beginning of the season Fahrettin Cansever was the coach of the team. In the half season Lefter Küçükantonyadis became the manager of the team. Lefter signed for four months. One month Lefter had been stabbed by a fan and hospitalized. Many citizens, pupils, NGO representatives and sports people visited him in hospital and his room was filled with flowers. Lefter declared. Fahrettin Cansever became the trainer of Beykozspor. On 7 June 1966 before the last match of the season, Lefter left Mersin, he said. Preparation game: ÇİY-Türkocağı: 4-1. Spor-Toto Cup: 15 August 1965 - Adana Demirspor-ÇİY: 0-2. Sunday, 17:00. City Stadium, Adana. Goals: Mehmet. Spor-Toto Cup: 22 August 1965 - ÇİY-Adana Demirspor: 0-0.

Sunday. Mersin. Preparation game: 29 September 1965. ÇİY-Adana Milli Mensucat. Sunday. Second League 1965 -- 66 was played by 22 teams in 11 in each. Top four teams played. Bottom teams played relegation play-out. Top two teams promoted to First League 1966–67. Mersin İdmanyurdu 1965–66 Second League summary: The 1965–66 season Red Group matches of Çukurova İdmanyurdu vs other team are shown in league table below. Two points for a win. Rules for classification: 1) points. First team is ÇİY in both cases and away.: Qualified for Final Group. Sources: 1965–66 Turkish Second Football League Cem Pekin Archives. Ranking group games The 1965–66 season promotion group matches of Çukurova İdmanyurdu vs other team are shown in league table below. Two points for a win. Rules for classification: 1) points. First team is ÇİY in both cases and away.: Promoted to 1966–67 Turkish First Football League. Sources: 1965-66 Turkish Second Football League Cem Pekin Archives. Final group games 1965–66 Turkish Cup was the fourth cup and played by 71 teams: 16 First League teams, 20 Second League teams, 19 teams from regional leagues, 16 amateur teams.

Galatasaray has won the cup for the fourth time consecutively and became eligible for playing ECW next year. ÇİY and Yeşildirek were penalized due to last season draw outs. So ÇİY couldn't participated in fourth cup. Executive committee: President: Halit Gazioğlu. Deputy President: Mehmet Mehmetoğlu. General Secretary: Aydın Özlü. Members: Mahir Turan, Erol Tarhan, Sezai Sak, Victor Venüs, Sedat Gülergün. Head Coach: Fahrettin Cansever.1965–66 Mersin İdmanyurdu head coaches: Stats are counted for 1965–66 Second League matches. In the team rosters four substitutes were allowed to appear. Only the players who appeared in game rosters were listed in the order of appearance. Football in Turkey 1965–66 Turkish Second Football League 1965–66 Turkish Cup