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V-1 flying bomb

The V-1 flying bomb —also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, in Germany as Kirschkern or Maikäfer, as well as by its official RLM aircraft designation of Fi 103—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power. The V-1 was the first of the so-called "Vengeance weapons" series deployed for the terror bombing of London, it was developed at Peenemünde Army Research Center in 1939 by the Nazi German Luftwaffe at the beginning of the Second World War, during initial development was known by the codename "Cherry Stone". Because of limited range, thousands of V-1 missiles launched into England were fired from launch facilities along the French and Dutch coasts; the Wehrmacht first launched the V-1 to target London on 13 June 1944, one week after the successful Allied landings in Europe. At peak, more than one hundred V-1s a day were fired at south-east England, 9,521 in total, decreasing in number as sites were overrun until October 1944, when the last V-1 site in range of Britain was overrun by Allied forces.

After this, the Germans directed V-1s at the port of Antwerp and at other targets in Belgium, launching 2,448 V-1s. The attacks stopped only a month before the war in Europe ended, when the last launch site in the Low Countries was overrun on 29 March 1945; as part of Operation Crossbow, the British operated an arrangement of air defences, including anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft, to intercept the bombs before they reached their targets, while the launch sites and underground V-1 storage depots became targets for Allied strategic bombing. In late 1936, while employed by the Argus Motoren company, Fritz Gosslau began work on the further development of remote-controlled aircraft. On 9 November 1939, a proposal for a remote-controlled aircraft carrying a payload of 1,000 kg over a distance of 500 km was forwarded to the RLM. Argus worked in co-operation with Lorentz AG and Arado Flugzeugwerke to develop the project as a private venture, in April 1940, Gosslau presented an improved study of Project "Fernfeuer" to the RLM, as Project P 35 "Erfurt".

On 31 May, Rudolf Bree of the RLM commented that he saw no chance that the projectile could be deployed in combat conditions, as the proposed remote-control system was seen as a design weakness. Heinrich Koppenberg, the director of Argus, met with Ernst Udet on 6 January 1941 to try to convince him that the development should be continued, but Udet decided to cancel it. Despite this, Gosslau was convinced that the basic idea was sound and proceeded to simplify the design; as an aircraft engine manufacturer, Argus lacked the capability to produce a fuselage for the project, Koppenberg sought the assistance of Robert Lusser, chief designer and technical director at Heinkel. On 22 January 1942, Lusser took up a position with the Fieseler aircraft company, he was informed of Gosslau's project. Gosslau's design used two pulsejet engines. A final proposal for the project was submitted to the Technical Office of the RLM on 5 June and the project was renamed Fi 103, as Fieseler was to be the chief contractor.

On 19 June, Generalfeldmarschall Erhard Milch gave Fi 103 production high priority, development was undertaken at the Luftwaffe's Erprobungsstelle coastal test centre at Karlshagen, part of the Peenemünde-West facility. By 30 August, Fieseler had completed the first fuselage, the first flight of the Fi 103 V7 took place on 10 December 1942, when it was airdropped by a Fw 200; the V-1 was named by The Reich journalist Hans Schwarz Van Berkl in June 1944 with Hitler's approval. The V-1 was designed under the codename Kirschkern by Lusser and Gosslau, with a fuselage constructed of welded sheet steel and wings built of plywood; the simple, Argus-built pulsejet engine pulsed 50 times per second, the characteristic buzzing sound gave rise to the colloquial names "buzz bomb" or "doodlebug". It was known in Germany as Maikäfer and Krähe. Ignition of the Argus pulsejet was accomplished using an automotive-type spark plug located about 76 cm behind the intake shutters, with current supplied from a portable starting unit.

Three air nozzles in the front of the pulsejet were at the same time connected to an external high-pressure air source, used to start the engine. Acetylene gas was used for starting the engine, often a panel of wood or similar material was held across the end of the tailpipe to prevent the fuel from diffusing and escaping before ignition; the V-1 was fuelled by 625 litres of 75-octane gasoline. Once the engine had been started and the temperature had risen to the minimum operating level, the external air hose and connectors were removed and the engine's resonant design kept it firing without any further need for the electrical ignition system, used only to ignite the engine when starting; the Argus As 014 could operate at zero airspeed because of the nature of its intake shutters and its acoustically tuned resonant combustion chamber. However, because of the low static thrust of the pulsejet engine and the high stall speed of the small wings, the V-1 could not take off under its own power in a short distance, thus needed to be ground-launched by aircraft catapult or air-launched from a modified bomber aircraft such as a Heinkel He 111.



MilSim, an abbreviation of military simulation, refers to armed confrontation scenarios conducted by civilians for entertainment and mental health purposes. MilSim, in general, is an activity that strives to realistically simulate the experience of armed conflict. There are several forms of MilSim: airsoft and video games, simulating military scenarios and tactics. Weapons used in real-life MilSim are replica toy guns. Airsoft guns are used more in MilSim than paintball guns, due to their realism and inexpensive ammunition. MilSim events can span between historic military battles, law enforcement-style engagements, or small skirmishes. Large events have rigid requirements for entry, can span between hours and several days without leaving the battlefield; the experience includes camping, food preparation, transportation logistics. MilSim differs from the sports of airsoft or paintball - though both rely on tactics and marksmanship, MilSim has a focus on real-world accuracy. There are fireteams with designated roles, such as simulated combat medics and support gunners.

Loosely originating in Japan in the 1980s, MilSim events are now worldwide, bolstered by an active and expanding Internet scene. American presenter MSATO claims that MilSim is "fastest-growing extreme sport worldwide." The largest events can attract hundreds or thousands of attendees, though players must source their own equipment, such as specific uniforms and weapons. The attendees are diverse, consisting of hobbyists, military veterans, or those as young as 13. Events range in requirements. In the United Kingdom, airsoft event organizers run in conjunction with Live Action Role-Players at British Army training facilities, such as Copehill Down and Catterick Garrison. Other combat stages are salvaged from private woodland. Many of the larger playfields are leased to ROTC groups or civilian first-responders for simulation training. Similar to historical reenactments, MilSim reenactments have a focus on historical accuracy to a specific event. All weaponry and equipment are required or suggested to be period-accurate.

Food and living arrangements can be inspired by the period. Events can be ` themed', such as Desert Storm, or the Yugoslav Wars. Sides are not glorified, attendees are encouraged to see battles through the eyes of a soldier. Unlike historical reenactments, which use choreographed actors, the general public is participating under a set of rules; the outcome of battles can change. When attendees must source their own equipment, costs can sometimes be thousands of dollars. Loaner equipment is provided to beginners; the world's largest D-Day reenactment, Oklahoma D-Day, features parades, flag raisings and reunions, culminating in a "5,000-player rally for the climactic surge at Colleville". War historians are consulted to help stage the field. Military veterans from several nations will attend or organize events, giving further accuracy to first-aid training, current terminology and tactics; some event organizers those located in the former Soviet Bloc, have access to genuine military tanks, APCs, helicopters, which are employed on the field.

MilSim simulations are fictionalized scenarios with a realistic objective. Simulations can include hostage rescue, bomb defusal, or fictionalized skirmishes, include law enforcement or militia-themed scenarios; these promote a "tactical playstyle" above casual airsoft. Players are given an extensive briefing, containing storylines, mission tactics, rules of engagement. Most simulations strive for tension in players. MilSim simulations are smaller and more frequent than reenactments. Robert Silverman of Vocativ, embedded in a two-day MilSim, writes that "the appeal is in... the realism of an unreal world, plus a deep desire for the camaraderie and teamwork you'd find in a real military unit." He speculates that the "pure adrenaline free from inflicting actual harm... strikes at something embedded within the core of sports."Places Journal, referring to the presence of veteran and civilian players, describes MilSim as a "ladder leading up to war and a ladder for coming back down". Notably, veterans "use war games as self-administered PTSD treatment".

The movement of troops among the cacophony of heavy machines provides an immersive sensory environment for exposure therapy. With social support, it may be possible for vets to defeat their darkest fears. Advances in airsoft replica authenticity have led numerous law enforcement and military units to train with airsoft guns in CQB/CQC environments. MilSim events have encouraged the US Army to promote enlistment. Mil-sim is a genre of video games, sometimes overlapping with the tactical shooter genre, wherein there are more "realistic" mechanics and consequences compared to other first-person shooters or action games. Games such as ArmA are a realistic simulation of equipment and tactics, rather than pure entertainment, are sometimes used to train soldiers. Other games, such as the Red Orchestra series or the Battlefield series, feature some realistic aspects in their gameplay. Mil-sims can be differentiated from other shooter games in that, usually: Firearms are modelled after real life. Bullets are grouped by magazines, gunshot wounds are fatal, bullets are physically simulated, requiring the player to account for wind and gravity.

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Inda Ledesma

Inda Ledesma was an Argentine stage and cinema actress who gained prominence as a theatre director and instructor. Inda Ledesma was born as Margarita Rodríguez in the Argentine town of Coronel Suárez to anarchist parents who fled persecution in Buenos Aires. In 1945 she debuted on the stage with a part in an Argentine National Comedy production of Molière's L'Avare; the following year, she was given her first role in the cinema of Argentina, in Pierre Chenal's El viaje sin regreso, by she was known by her pseudonym, Inda Ledesma. Ledesma continued to appear in film, though in subsequent years she became prominent in the theatre, where she was trained by well-known local stage directors such as Antonio Cunill Cabanellas and Augusto Fernándes, she was named artistic director of the Teatro Argentino in 1964. She led productions of, among many other works, Mr Puntila and his Man Matti and Superman, Death of a Salesman, as well as Israfel by Abelardo Castillo, her modernized version of Euripides' Medea.

She starred with director Alejandro Doria in Jacobo Langsner's El tobogán for Alta comedia, a popular theatre showcase program on Argentine television during the early 1970s, numerous similar programs. Her theatre appearances in subsequent years included that of Lady Macbeth in a 1973 Teatro General San Martín production, works by Carlos Gorostiza, Luigi Pirandello, Anton Chekhov, Tennessee Williams, as Mrs. Patrick Campbell in a long-running production of Jerome Kilty's Dear Liar, her prolific work as an actress and director twice earned her a Konex Award, the highest in the Argentine cultural realm, in 1981 and 1991. She continued to appear in film, including roles in Eduardo Mignogna's biopic, as Leonor Acevedo de Borges in Un amor de Borges. Having retired for a number of years, Ledesma appeared in Pietro Silvestri's Ciudad invisible in 2008, she died from cardiopulmonary failure in a Buenos Aires nursing home two years in 2010, aged 83. She was interred in the Actors' Pantheon at Chacarita Cemetery.

The Three Musketeers

The Lost and the Plunderers

"The Lost and the Plunderers" is the tenth episode of the eighth season of the post-apocalyptic horror television series The Walking Dead, which aired on AMC on March 4, 2018. It was written by Angela Kang, Channing Powell and Corey Reed, directed by David Boyd. After burying Carl and Michonne gather their remaining supplies from Alexandria and abandon the community as walkers overrun it. On the road, Rick considers what Carl told him, from his advice, heads to see Jadis and the Scavengers, who had witnessed what happened at the Saviors' Sanctuary. Elsewhere and Aaron are taken to the Oceanside community as prisoners for killing their leader, Natania. Natania's granddaughter Cyndie, after hearing Enid's pleas, decides to let the two live, but orders them to never return. Once escorted outside Oceanside, Aaron insists Enid get back to the Hilltop to let them know what happened while he will try to go back to Oceanside and convince them to help. Meanwhile, at the Sanctuary, Negan orders his men to seek out the Alexandria residents and instructs Simon to go to the Scavengers with his "standard offer", to kill one of them to bring the rest in line, reminding him that he values the people as resources to be saved otherwise.

Just they receive a box sent by the Hilltop community with the message to "stand down", containing the reanimated body of Dean, one of Simon's men. Simon, not pleased with Negan's approach and knowing the Hilltop has the rest of his 38 men in captivity, goes to the Scavengers' junkyard and accuses Jadis of going back on their deal with the Saviors, but gives her Negan's offer of returning to the original terms of their deal and giving over all their guns. Jadis agrees, but Simon does not believe Jadis is showing enough remorse and kills her two lieutenants and Brion, in cold blood, she punches him, causing Simon to order his men to kill the rest of the Scavengers. After, Simon reports back to Negan that all went well, though he spots paint on his shoe from the scuffle with Jadis. By the time Rick and Michonne arrive at the junkyard, all of the Scavengers but Jadis have reanimated, they find Jadis alone. She explains that she had been an artist before the outbreak, having used the junkyard for materials, but afterwards and the Scavengers saw the junkyard as a way to keep themselves isolated from the rest of the world while using the entire yard as their canvas.

Rick, tired of Jadis' double-crosses, decides to abandon her as Michonne escape. Jadis lures the remaining walkers into an industrial shredder to protect herself, crying to herself as she watches her former friends be destroyed; as they drive away, Rick takes a moment to stop and read Carl's letters, including one he wrote to Negan. Inclined to contact Negan over walkie-talkie, Rick decides to inform him that Carl is dead and that his son wrote a letter to Negan, asking him to stop fighting. Negan receives the news. Saddened by Carl's death, Negan retorts that it was Rick's intense focus on his war with Negan that led to it and that Rick failed as both a leader and father; the episode received positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, it holds an 81% with an average rating of 6.71 out of 10, based on 21 reviews. The site's consensus reads: ""The Lost and the Plunderers" takes a segmented approach to focus on individual characters—albeit with mixed results." The episode drew a total viewership of 6.82 million with a 2.9 rating in adults aged 18-49.

This marked the series' lowest adults 18-49 rating since season one and its smallest audience since the season two episode "Judge, Executioner", which had 6.77 million viewers. "The Lost and the Plunderers" at AMC "The Lost and the Plunderers" on IMDb "The Lost and the Plunderers" at

1948 Los Gatos DC-3 crash

On January 28, 1948, a DC-3 plane carrying 32 persons Mexican farm laborers, including some from the bracero guest worker program, crashed in the Diablo Range, 20 miles west of Coalinga, California. The crash, which killed everyone aboard the plane, inspired the song "Deportee" by Woody Guthrie; some of the passengers were being returned to Mexico at the termination of their bracero contracts, while others were illegal immigrants being deported. Initial news reports listed only the pilot, first officer, stewardess, with the remainder listed only as "deportees." Only 12 of the victims were identified. The Hispanic victims of the accident were placed in a mass grave at Holy Cross Cemetery in Fresno, with their grave marked only as "Mexican Nationals"; the Douglas DC-3 aircraft, owned by Airline Transport Carriers of Burbank, was chartered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service to fly twenty-eight Mexican citizens, who were being deported to the INS Deportation Center in El Centro, California.

For reasons never explained, pilot Frank Atkinson and co-pilot Marion Ewing took a DC-3 that had seats for only twenty-six passengers for the flight, instead of an aircraft certified to carry thirty-two passengers. Arriving in Oakland, after a routine flight, the crew was joined by INS guard Frank Chaffin; the flight was to refuel at Burbank, before continuing to El Centro. At 10:30am, workers at the Fresno County Industrial Road Camp, located 21 mi northwest of Coalinga, noticed the DC-3 trailing white smoke from its port engine; the port wing ripped off, spilling nine passengers out of the gaping hole in the fuselage. The aircraft caught fire and spiralled to the ground near Los Gatos Creek, exploding in a ball of fire; the investigation by the Civil Aeronautics Authority discovered that a fuel leak in the port engine's fuel pump ignited and the slip-stream fanned the flames to a white hot intensity, acting like an oxy-acetylene torch, burning through the main-spar, causing the crash. Initial news reports listed only the pilot, first officer and the immigration guard, with the remainder listed only as "deportees".

Only 12 of the victims were identified. The Hispanic victims of the accident were placed in a mass grave at Holy Cross Cemetery in Fresno, with their grave marked only as "Mexican Nationals"; the grave is 84 by 7 ft with two rows of caskets and not all of the bodies were buried the first day, but the caskets at the site did have an overnight guard. Singer-songwriter Woody Guthrie wrote a poem in 1948 lamenting the anonymity of the workers killed in the crash, identified only as "deportees" in media reports; when Guthrie's poem was set to music a decade by college student Martin Hoffman, it became the folk song "Deportee". The song was popularized by Pete Seeger, was subsequently performed by Arlo Guthrie Joan Baez, Judy Collins, Julie Felix, Cisco Houston, Willie Nelson, Dolly Parton, Johnny Cash, Bruce Springsteen, Paul Kelly, Martyn Joseph, The Byrds, Richard Shindell and Ani DiFranco among others. Cesar Chavez to become founder of the United Farm Workers union, learned of the tragic crash while serving in the US Navy, helping convince him that farm workers should be treated "as important human beings and not as agricultural implements".

The names of all the victims were published in local papers in 1948. In 2009, writer Tim Z. Hernandez began to seek out those names. With the help of others, by July 2013 all had been identified, the money raised for a more fitting memorial. On September 2, 2013, a Deportee Memorial Headstone was unveiled at a mass in the Holy Cross Cemetery in Fresno attended by more than 600; the memorial includes all twenty-eight names of the migrant workers, which included three women, one man born in Spain, not Mexico as reported. Jason Daley: One Man's Search to Find the Families of the “Deportees” in the Famous Woody Guthrie Song

Arne Nordheim

Arne Nordheim was a Norwegian composer. Nordheim received numerous awards for his compositions, from 1982 lived in the Norwegian government's honorary residence, next to the Royal Palace in Oslo, he was elected an honorary member of the International Society for Contemporary Music in 1997. On 18 August 2006, Arne Nordheim received a doctor honoris causa degree at the Norwegian Academy of Music, he was given a state funeral. At the Oslo Conservatory of Music, where Nordheim studied from 1948 to 1952, he started out as a theory and organ student, but changed to composition, studying with Karl August Andersen, Bjarne Brustad, Conrad Baden. In 1955 he studied with Vagn Holmboe in Copenhagen, studied musique concrète in Paris, he studied electronic music in Bilthoven, paid many visits to the Studio Eksperymentalne of Polish Radio, where many of his early electronic works were realised. In 2005, many lost and forgotten tapes of electronic compositions for radio drama for the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation were rediscovered, reminding us that Nordheim developed his electronic musical language in his home country.

His Essay for string quartet was first performed in Stockholm in 1954, but Nordheim always considered his String Quartet of 1956 as his Opus 1. His musical output is focused around themes of'solitude, death and landscape'; the 1961 Canzona per orchestra was his international breakthrough. Inspired by Giovanni Gabrieli's canzone, the work showcases Nordheim's historical leanings, as well as his occupation with space as a parameter of music. Nordheim's spatial concerns, coupled with his focus on death and human suffering, are brought together in what is arguably his most famous work, Epitaffio per orchestra e nastro magnetico. Written in memory of the Norwegian flautist Alf Andersen, who died that year at a young age, the work incorporated Salvatore Quasimodo's poem Ed è sùbito sera. Conceived for orchestra and chorus, Nordheim realised that his wish to have the whole performance space'singing' was better achieved with the use of electronic means; the result is a remarkable imperceptible, blending of the orchestral sounds with the choral sounds of the tape, where the final line'ed è sùbito sera' is the only part of the text that can be heard.

His compositions include The Tempest, Magma, the Violin Concerto and Fonos for trombone and orchestra. Arne Norheim was inspired by the neumes and the sound of the medieval bells in Kaupanger stave church in composing the work Klokkesong, first performed in the church. In The Tempest, a ballet based on Shakespeare's play and orchestral sounds are again mixed, while the focus is more on vocal music, while Nordheim's continued use of historical elements is shown by the incorporation of Leonardo da Vinci's musical rebus, which solved reads Amore sol la mi fa remirare, la sol mi fa sollecita.1968 saw Arne Nordheim being bestowed with the Nordic Council Music Prize for his Eco for soprano, two choirs and orchestra. The work marks the start of a new development phase, in which Nordheim proved that he could create electrophonic-sounding timbres from conventional instruments. Throughout his career, Nordheim would receive a number of commissions which would result in such works as Greening written for Zubin Mehta and Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra.

Additional major works include Wirklicher Wald for soprano, cello and orchestra commissioned for the centenary anniversary for the Oslo Music Conservatory and Boomerang for oboe and chamber orchestra written for the Norwegian Chamber Orchestra. Draumkvedet is a monumental stage work for orchestra, chamber choir and dancers, was performed 40 times in 1994 with the Broadcasting Corporation Radio Orchestra and Grex Vocalis. A recording featuring these performing forces conducted by Ingar Bergby was made in 2001, released in 2006 as a two-CD set on the Simax label. Based on a medieval Norwegian poem, the work was composed in honor of the millennium of the city of Trondheim in 1997. Nordheim was a great admirer of playwright Henrik Ibsen and devoted time to study his life and literary output. Nordheim composed music for Den Nationale Scene’s performance of Peer Gynt. On a number of occasions, Nordheim held talks titled “Thre composers' approaches to Peer gynt” which featured a highlight where Edvard Grieg’s music for Aase’s Death was sampled and spliced with Nordheim’s own composition.

Both composers had elected to compose their scores for this scene in b minor. To commemorate Nordheim’s 70th birthday in 2001, a celebratory concert was held, featuring the Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra; the Norwegian ministry of culture and church affairs would celebrate the composer, established the Arne Nordheim Composer’s Prize, bestowed on an annual basis to a composer of Norwegian residence. In years, Nordheim suffered from dementia, expired early on Saturday 5 June 2010, following a prolonged bout of illness; the state funeral was held at th