William Selvamurthy is presently working with Amity University as President of Amity Science and Innovation Foundation and Director General for Amity Directorate of Science and Innovation. Selvamurthy is a Distinguished Scientist and served as a Chief Controller, Research & Development at Defence Research and Development Organisation, Government of India, he is a post-graduate in Human Physiology from Christian Medical College, Vellor and PhD from University of Delhi and Doctorate of Science from Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bangalore. He has been awarded the Degree of Doctorate of Science in recognition of his eminent attainment in the field of science and his distinctive place in the scientific world by Fakir Mohan University, Balasore, he has been awarded Doctor of Science from Fakir Mohan University, Bharathiar University, Amity University and Karunya University. He is spearheading the research and development activities for the health and wellbeing of the armed forces.
He did his post-graduation in Human Physiology from Christian Medical College, Vellore and PhD from University of Delhi and Doctorate of Science from Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bangalore. He was awarded the Degree of Doctor of Science in recognition of his eminent attainment in the field of science and his distinctive place in the scientific world by Fakir Mohan University, Balasore, he was awarded another honorary degree of Doctor of Science from Coimbatore. Amity University and Karunya University. Selvamurthy Joined Amity in 2013 as President for Amity Science and Innovation foundation before that W. Selvamurthy rendered his services in DRDO in 1973 and during the 40 years of service in DRDO he has had a meritorious career and became Director of two DRDO institutes i.e. Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences and Defence Institute of Psychological Research in 1992 and held this position for over 10 years, he has made significant research contributions for the benefit of the soldiers in the fields related to: Physiological acclimatisation at high altitude Application of yoga for the Armed forces Discovered a drug to save war casualties subjected to severe hemorrhage Psychological stress and its management Life support systems for soldiers in extreme operational environments Member of Board of Governors, IIT, Indore Member of Academic Council, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune Member of the Court of the COURT of Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur Member of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet Chairman Project Advisory Council on Biomedical Science & Technology of Department of Science & Technology, Govt of India Member, Scientific Advisory Council of Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi Chairman of Human Engineering Panel of Aeronautical Research and Development Board Chairman, Inter-ministerial group on Biodefence constituted by PMO.
Co-chairman, Life Sciences Research Board at DRDO Co-Chairman, Joint Policy council of Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Area Coordinator in ILTP programme of Department of Science & Technology, Govt of India Expert member at Department of Ocean Development, Govt of India Expert member of Project Advisory Council at Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India Member of Governing Council of Sri Ramachandara Medical University, Chennai Member of Governing Council of North Eastern Hill University, Shillong Member Secretary of Governing Council of Defence Institute of Armament Technology, Pune. Expert Member of various selection committees under UPSC, CSIR, DST, DBT Ministry of Environment & Forests. Research and development contributions of Selvamurthy in biomedical sciences have led to development of various technologies which have culminated in enhancing the fighting efficiency of the armed forces in the extreme conditions like High Altitude, Under Water and Aerospace, Low Intensity Conflict and Nuclear Biological and Chemical environment.
Besides spearheading the 10 life sciences laboratories of DRDO gave as HR chief, he newer dimensions to the Human Resource Developmental activities of DRDO for better human resource management and the future HR challenge in the light of market driven economy. He has given a new direction to International Cooperation in DRDO, he has developed various life support technologies for enhancing the fighting efficiency of armed forces in the extreme conditions of high altitude, underwater and aerospace, low intensity conflict and Nuclear Biological Chemical environment. Formulated acclimatization schedules, tenure of posting, nutritional requirements, enhancement of human performance through Yoga and composite Indian herbal preparation for troops at high altitude which are in vogue today. Evaluated Physiological effects of Yogic practice through well-controlled studies on young and middle-aged soldiers both at plains and high altitudes. Beneficial effects of Yoga has been demonstrated and accepted and Yoga has been introduced by Army and Navy.
Developed new therapeutic modalities for treatment of High Altitude Pulmonary Odema using nitric oxide and oxygen, frostbite using Aloe vera cream thereby reducing the mortality and morbidity of troops deployed at high altitude. More than 100 lives of the troops who succumb to HAPO in extreme high altitude areas have been saved. Demonstrated the therapeutic potential of Aloe Vera for the treatment of frostbite; this thera
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, electric power distribution and use. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life; the invention of the transistor, the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in any household object. Electrical engineering has now divided into a wide range of fields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing and microelectronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics and waves, microwave engineering, electrochemistry, renewable energies, electrical materials science, much more.
See glossary of electrical and electronics engineering. Electrical engineers hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may be members of a professional body; such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are variable; these range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity, he is credited with establishing the term "electricity". He designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects.
In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke invented a device named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, of Michael Faraday, of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism. In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet.
This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph. In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803-1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was innovative though it was influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water. Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.
Over 50 years he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort. By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure, they led to the international standardization of the units volt, coulomb, ohm and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893; the publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, in many countries, the definitions were recognized in relevant legislation. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature; the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world's first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first electrical engineering degree program was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the physics department
Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System
Multi Calibre Individual Weapon System is an assault rifle developed in India by the Armament Research and Development Establishment, a laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation. It was first seen at the DEFEXPO 2014 exhibition and is to be manufactured by the Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli; as of 2015, the rifle is known as the Advanced Automatic Rifle and as the F-INSAS rifle. The Indian Army chose an indigenous assault rifle to replace the INSAS rifle in service; the decision, which could save money in foreign exchange and boost local manufacture, was made by the former Chief of Army Staff, General Dalbir Singh Suhag. Several rifles are undergoing small arms trials with three prototype rifles made for testing as a future replacement to the INSAS rifle; the MCIWS has found interest with the Indian paramilitary forces including the Border Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police and the Sashastra Seema Bal. According to a DRDO September 18, 2018 newsletter, it states that the MCIWS is now ready for serial production.
The MCIWS is configured to fire in 5.56x45mm NATO, 7.62×39mm and in 6.8mm Remington SPC. Its design is influenced by both the AR-15 and the FN FNC; the barrel assembly appears to be based on the AK-47. The design would allow soldiers to configure it according to the needs of the missions by changing rifle barrels; the MCIWS uses a gas-operated short stroke piston design, uses 30-round plastic-type magazines. The rifle has ambidextrous features, such as the charging lever and magazine release; the MCIWS includes an indigenous under barrel grenade launcher to fire airburst-type grenades which can take out targets up to 500 meters. Various sights can be mounted on the Picatinny rail on the upper receiver; the rifle features a modular, rivet-less design. Amogh carbine Excalibur rifle INSAS rifle Modern Sub Machine Carbine
K. R. Narayanan
Kocheril Raman Narayanan was the tenth President of India. Born in Perumthanam, Uzhavoor village, in the princely state of Travancore, after a brief stint with journalism and studying political science at the London School of Economics with the assistance of a scholarship, Narayanan began his career in India as a member of the Indian Foreign Service in the Nehru administration, he served as ambassador to Japan, United Kingdom, Turkey, People's Republic of China and United States of America and was referred to by Nehru as "the best diplomat of the country". He entered politics at Indira Gandhi's request and won three successive general elections to the Lok Sabha and served as a Minister of State in the Union Cabinet under former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Elected as the ninth Vice President in 1992, Narayanan went on to become President in 1997, he was the first member of the Dalit community to hold the post. Narayanan is regarded as an independent and assertive President who set several precedents and enlarged the scope of the highest constitutional office.
He described himself as a "working President" who worked "within the four corners of the Constitution". He used his discretionary powers as a President and deviated from convention and precedent in many situations, including – but not limited to – the appointment of the Prime Minister in a hung Parliament, in dismissing a state government and imposing President's rule there at the suggestion of the Union Cabinet, during the Kargil conflict, he presided over the golden jubilee celebrations of Indian independence and in the country's general election of 1998, he became the first Indian President to vote when in office, setting another new precedent. K. R. Narayanan was born in a small thatched hut at Perumthanam, Uzhavoor, as the fourth of seven children of Kocheril Raman Vaidyar, a practitioner of the traditional Indian medical systems of Siddha and Punnaththuraveettil Paappiyamma, his family was poor. He was born on 4 February 1921, but his uncle, who accompanied him on his first day in school, did not know his actual date of birth, arbitrarily chose 27 October 1920 for the records.
Narayanan had his early schooling in Uzhavoor at the Government Lower Primary School and Our Lady of Lourdes Upper Primary School, Uzhavoor. He walked to school for about 15 kilometres daily through paddy fields, was unable to pay the modest fees, he listened to school lessons while standing outside the classroom, having been barred from attending because tuition fees were outstanding. The family lacked money to buy books and his elder brother K. R. Neelakantan, confined to home as he was suffering from asthma, used to borrow books from other students, copy them down, give them to Narayanan, he matriculated from Kuravilangad. He completed his intermediate at C. M. S. College, aided by a scholarship from the Travancore Royal family. Narayanan obtained his B. A. and M. A. in English literature from the University of Travancore, standing first in the university. With his family facing grave difficulties, he left for Delhi and worked for some time as a journalist with The Hindu and The Times of India.
During this time he once interviewed Mahatma Gandhi in Bombay on his own volition. Narayanan went to England and studied political science under Harold Laski at the London School of Economics, he obtained the honours degree of B. Sc. with a specialisation in political science, helped by a scholarship from J. R. D. Tata. During his years in London, he was active in the India League under V. K. Krishna Menon, he was the London correspondent of the Social Welfare Weekly published by K. M. Munshi, he shared lodgings with K. N. Veerasamy Ringadoo; when Narayanan returned to India in 1948, Laski gave him a letter of introduction to Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Years he narrated how he began his career in the public service:When I finished with LSE, Laski, of his own, gave me a letter of introduction for Panditji. On reaching Delhi I sought an appointment with the PM. I suppose, because I was an Indian student returning home from London, I was given a time-slot, it was here in Parliament House. We talked for a few minutes about London and things like that and I could soon see that it was time for me to leave.
So I said goodbye and as I left the room I handed over the letter from Laski, stepped out into the great circular corridor outside. When I was half way round, I heard the sound of someone clapping from the direction. I turned to see Panditji beckoning me to come back, he had opened the letter as I read it. "Why didn't you give this to me earlier?" "Well, sir, I am sorry. I thought it
The HAL Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft is an Indian programme to develop a fifth-generation fighter aircraft. It is being developed by an aerospace industry team which consists of the Aeronautical Development Agency as the design firm with manufacturing carried out by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited as the primary contractor and main assembly firm, it is twin-engine, stealth all weather multirole fighter aircraft. Feasibility study on AMCA and the preliminary design stage have been completed; the project awaits approval to begin development stage. In mid 2018, it was reported first flight of a full scale prototype is scheduled to occur in 2032; the most recent CAD model of aircraft appeared in Aero India 2019. A total of four prototypes are planned and first flight was reported to be before 2025. However, production will start, it is a multirole combat aircraft designed for air superiority, ground attack, intercepting and other types of roles. It combines supercruise, advanced AESA radar, supermaneuverability and advanced avionics to overcome and suppress previous generation fighter aircraft along with many ground and maritime defences.
It will complement HAL Tejas, the Su-30MKI, Rafale in the air force service and HAL Naval Tejas and Mikoyan MiG-29K in the naval service. The AMCA is intended to be the successor to the SEPECAT Jaguar, Dassault Mirage 2000 and Mikoyan MiG-27 in the Indian Air Force; the aircraft, along with its naval variants, is intended to provide the bulk of the manned tactical airpower of the Indian Air Force and Navy over the coming decades. AMCA would be the third supersonic jet of Indian origin after the HAL HAL Tejas; the AMCA program evolved out of the Medium Combat Aircraft programme, was initiated to fulfil several requirements for a common fighter to replace different types of existing fighters aircraft which included Dassault Mirage 2000 and SEPECAT Jaguar. In October 2008, the Indian Air Force asked the ADA to prepare a detailed project report on the development of an MCA incorporating stealth features. In February 2009, ADA director PS Subramanyam said at an Aero-India 2009 seminar that they were working with the Indian Air Force to develop a Medium Combat Aircraft.
He added that according to the specification provided by the Indian Air Force, it would be a 20-ton aircraft and would be powered by two GTX Kaveri engines. In March 2010, the aircraft was renamed as Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft. In April 2010, the Indian Air Force Chief of Air Staff issued the Air Staff requirements for the AMCA, which placed the aircraft in the 25-ton category; the first flight test of the prototype aircraft was scheduled to take place by 2017. In October 2010, the Indian Government released ₹100 crore to prepare feasibility studies in 18 months. In November 2010, the ADA sought ₹9,000 crore of funding for the development of the AMCA; the funding would be utilised to develop seven prototypes. The initial development cost is estimated to be between ₹4,000–5,000 crores to build 3 to 4 flying prototypes; the conceptual design of AMCA was carried out till 2015, at which point the general configuration was frozen. Ten design proposals were evaluated with five designs emerging after intensive wind tunnel testing.
Proposal of design which included tail were designated with the serial number 3B-01 to 3B-09. The initial design of the AMCA was a delta wing aircraft with twin engines; the design was changed to include horizontal and vertical stabilizers in design 38-01. It featured a double delta wing configuration, altered in design 38-09 similar to the F-22. AMCA's second design proposal was first showcased at Aero India 2009; the design-based stealth features were further optimized by the use of airframe shaping, composite material, edge matching fuselage, RAPs, body conforming antennae and engine bay cooling, RAMs, weapons bay, special coatings for poly-carbonate canopy and other stealth features, the aircraft had a weight of 16–18 tonnes with 2-tonnes of internal weapons and four-tonnes of internal fuel with a combat ceiling of 15-km, max speed of 1.8-Mach at 11-km. The aircraft concept was finalized and shown to the Indian Air Force in 2012, after which full-scale development on the project was started.
In February 2013, the ADA unveiled a 1:8 scale model at Aero India 2013, to show the finalized proposal. Project Definition commenced from February 2013 to March 2014, started after the design was finalized with intensive development on the finalised design. In April 2013, the Ministry of Defence had put the project on hold, wanting to make up for the protracted delays incurred by the ADA and DRDO's labs and establishments during the development of the HAL Tejas. According to the Defence of Ministry, "this decision was taken to let the ADA and DRDO's Labs to focus on the HAL Tejas." The AMCA design team led by Dr. A K Ghosh had completed low-speed wind tunnel testing, supersonic wind tunnel testing and Radar Cross-Section testing between 2008 and 2014 during which all the five design proposals underwent intensive air flow testing, design development and improvements. Design research and development of the finalized design was completed by NAL from October 2012 to September 2014; the R&D efforts led to the current configuration of the aircraft and a structurally efficient wings layout with four bending attachment brackets and two shear attachment brackets.
For the AMCA, structural design and size optimization was carried out to cater for all critical symmetric and un-symmetric load cases. Finite element models were built separately for each of the fuselage segments and integr
Kochi known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea. It is part of the district of Ernakulam in the state of Kerala and is referred to as Ernakulam. Kochi is the most densely populated city in Kerala; as of 2011, it has a corporation limit population of 677,381 within an area of 94.88 km² and a total urban population of more than of 2.1 million within an area of 440 km², making it the largest and the most populous metropolitan area in Kerala. Kochi city is part of the Greater Cochin region and is classified as a Tier-II city by the Government of India; the civic body that governs the city is the Kochi Municipal Corporation, constituted in the year 1967, the statutory bodies that oversee its development are the Greater Cochin Development Authority and the Goshree Islands Development Authority. Called the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India from the 14th century onward, maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era.
Occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the main seat of Portuguese India until 1530; the city was occupied by the Dutch and the British, with the Kingdom of Cochin becoming a princely state. Kochi ranks first in the total number of domestic tourist arrivals in Kerala; the city was ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveller magazine. Kochi was one of the 28 Indian cities among the emerging 440 global cities that will contribute 50% of the world GDP by the year 2025, in a 2011 study done by the McKinsey Global Institute. In July 2018, Kochi was ranked the topmost emerging future megacity in India by global professional services firm JLL. Kochi is known as the financial and industrial capital of Kerala, it has the highest GDP as well as the highest GDP per capita in the state. The city is home to the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy and is the state headquarters of the Indian Coast Guard with an attached air squadron, named Air Squadron 747.
Commercial maritime facilities of the city include the Port of Kochi, an International Container Transshipment Terminal, the Cochin Shipyard, offshore SPM of the BPCL Kochi Refinery and the Kochi Marina. Kochi is home for the Cochin Stock Exchange, International Pepper Exchange, Marine Products Export Development Authority, Coconut Development Board, companies like HMT, Apollo Tyres and Synthite, petrochemical companies like the FACT, TCC, IREL, Petronet LNG, Merchem, HOCL and Kochi Refineries, electrical companies like TELK, V-Guard and industrial parks like the Cochin Special Economic Zone, Smart City and Kinfra Hi-Tech Park. Kochi is home for the High Court of Kerala and Lakshadweep, Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Indian Maritime University, Sree Sankaracharya Sanskrit University and the Cochin University of Science and Technology. Kochi is home to Kerala's National Law School, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies. Kochi has been hosting India's first art biennale, the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, since 2012, which attracts international artists and tourists.
Ancient travellers and tradesmen referred to Kochi, variously alluding to it as Cocym, Cochym and Kochi. The Cochin Jewish community called Cochin "Kogin", seen in the seal of the synagogue owned by the community; the origin of the name "Kochi" is thought to be from the Malayalam word kochu azhi, meaning'small lagoon'. Yet another theory is that Kochi is derived from the word Kaci, meaning "harbour". Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti, Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, named after the river connecting the backwaters to the sea. After the arrival of the Portuguese, the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation; the city reverted to a closer transliteration of its original Malayalam name, Kochi, in 1996. This change in name was challenged by the city municipal corporation but court dismissed the plea. Kochi was the centre of Indian spice trade for many centuries, was known to the Yavanas as well as Jews, Syrians and Chinese since ancient times.
It rose to significance as a trading centre after the port Muziris around Kodungallur was destroyed by massive flooding of Periyar in 1341. The earliest documented references to Kochi occur in books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan during his visit to Kochi in the 15th century as part of Admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet. There are references to Kochi in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Kochi in 1440. On the Malabar coast during the early 15th century and Kochi were in an intense rivalry, so the Ming dynasty of China decided to intervene by granting special status to Kochi and its ruler known as Keyili to the Chinese. Calicut had been the dominant port-city in the region. For the fifth Ming treasure voyage, Admiral Zheng He was instructed to confer a seal upon Keyili of Kochi and enfeoff a mountain in his kingdom as the Zhenguo Zhi Shan. Zheng He delivered a stone tablet, inscribed with a proclamation composed by the Yongle Emperor himself, to Kochi; as long as Kochi remained under the protection of Ming China, the Zamorin of Calicut was unable to invade Kochi and a military conflict was averted.
The cessation of the Ming treasure voyages had negative results for Kochi, as the Zamorin of Calicut would launch