BMW AG is a German multinational company which produces automobiles and motorcycles, produced aircraft engines until 1945. The company is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW produces motor vehicles in Germany, China, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced; the Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float. Automobiles are marketed under the brands Mini and Rolls-Royce. Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad; the company has significant motorsport history in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT. BMW's origins can be traced back to three separate German companies: Rapp Motorenwerke, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, Automobilwerk Eisenach; the history of the name itself begins with an aircraft engine manufacturer. In April 1917, following the departure of the founder Karl Friedrich Rapp, the company was renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke.
BMW's first product was the BMW IIIa aircraft engine. The IIIa engine was known for high-altitude performance; the resulting orders for IIIa engines from the German military caused rapid expansion for BMW. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. To remain in business, BMW produced farm household items and railway brakes. In 1922, former major shareholder Camillo Castiglioni purchased the rights to the name BMW, which led to the company descended from Rapp Motorenwerke being renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG. Castiglioni was an investor in another aircraft company, called "Bayerische Flugzeugwerke", which he renamed BMW; the disused factory of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was re-opened to produce engines for buses, farm equipment and pumps, under the brand name BMW. BMW's corporate history considers the founding date of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to be the birth of the company; as the restrictions of the Armistice Treaty began to be lifted, BMW began production of motorcycles in 1923, with the R32 model.
BMW's production of automobiles began in 1928, when the company purchased the Automobilwerk Eisenach car company. Automobilwerk Eisenach's current model was the Dixi 3/15, a licensed copy of the Austin 7 which had begun production in 1927. Following the takeover, the Dixi 3/15 became BMW's first production car. In 1932, the BMW 3/20 became the first BMW automobile designed by BMW, it was powered by a four-cylinder engine. BMW's first automotive straight-six engine was released in 1933, in the BMW 303. Throughout the 1930s, BMW expanded its model range to include sedans, coupes and sports cars. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe; the factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the Dachau concentration camp. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered “emergency fighter”, the Heinkel He 162 Spatz.
The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing. The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h; the first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm’s light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design; the BMW 003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
During World War II, many BMW production facilities had been bombed. BMW's facilities in East Germany were seized by the Soviet Union and the remaining facilities were banned by the Allies from producing motorcycles or automobiles. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles. In 1947, BMW was granted permission to resume motorcycle production and its first post-war motorcycle - the R24 - was released in 1948. BMW was still barred from producing automobiles, the Bristol Aeroplane Company was producing cars in England based on BMW's pre-war models, using plans that BAC had taken from BMW's German offices. Production of automobiles resumed with the BMW 501 large sedan. Throughout the 1950s, BMW expanded their model range with sedans, coupes and sports cars. In 1954, the BMW 502 was BMW's first to use a V8 engine. To provide an affordable model, BMW began production of the Isetta
Ford Modular engine
The Ford Modular engine is Ford Motor Company's overhead camshaft V8 and V10 gasoline-powered small block engine family. The Modular engine got its name from its design and sharing of certain parts among the engine family, starting with the 4.6L in 1990 for the 1991 model year. The name was derived from a manufacturing plant protocol, "Modular", where the plant and its tooling could be changed in a few hours to manufacture different versions of the engine family; the Modular engines are used in various Ford and Mercury vehicles. Modular engines used in Ford trucks were marketed under the Triton name from 1997–2010 while the InTech name was used for a time at Lincoln for vehicles equipped with DOHC versions of the engines; the engines were first produced in Romeo, Michigan additional capacity was added in Windsor, Ontario. In the early 1980s, then-Ford Motor Company chief operating officer Donald Petersen challenged Ford's vice-president of design, Jack Telnack, his staff to come up with new vehicle designs that they could take pride in.
The result was an abandonment of the boxy styling that had dominated Ford products for years and the adoption of sleeker, more aerodynamic designs like that used for the successful Ford Taurus. In the second half of the 1980s, now chief executive officer, sought to update Ford's decades-old V8 architectures, challenging Ford senior engineer Jim Clarke to do for Ford's V8s what Jack Telnack did for Ford's vehicle design; the objective was to develop a new V8 engine that would surpass Ford's earlier V8s in every meaningful way, from power and efficiency to emissions performance and smoothness of operation. Clarke and his engineers studied engine designs from major European and Japanese automakers and sought to develop a V8, technologically advanced and power-dense, yet dependable with no major service required before 100,000 miles of use; the initial engine design would implement a 90° vee-angle with a bore and a stroke of 3.552 in × 3.543 in, resulting in a 4,601 cc displacement and creating a nearly 1:1 bore-to-stroke ratio.
This square configuration was chosen for its positive noise and harshness characteristics. The engine would utilize features such as a chain-driven, single-overhead camshaft valvetrain with roller finger followers, a deep-skirt cast-iron block construction and cross-bolted main bearings, all benefitting long-term durability. In the interest of reducing overall engine weight, aluminum-alloy heads and pistons would be standard and all major engine accessories would be mounted directly to the block, resulting in a more complex block casting but eliminating the need for heavy mounting brackets. Tight construction tolerances were used in shaping the engine's cylinder bores with narrow piston rings fitted to the engine's pistons; this would serve to improve engine efficiency through reduced friction and reduce the engine's oil consumption, while promoting cleaner emissions. The most significant aspect of the new engine's design was the number of variations of the engine that could be made to suit different needs.
This resulted in the creation of an entire family of engines consisting not only of designs utilizing single- or dual-overhead camshaft configurations, different displacements and different block materials, but different cylinder counts. In addition to the various eight-cylinder engines produced, ten-cylinder engines entered production. Six-cylinder derivatives were explored, though never built. With the wide array of engine configurations possible within this architecture, Ford developed a new, modular tooling system for producing different engines and efficiently in the same factory. Referring to this method of production, the name Modular was given to the new engine family. Despite all the different engines that would be built over the years, one of the major unifying aspects present in all engines based on the Modular architecture, required by the engine's tooling for production purposes, was a common bore spacing of 100 mm. By 1987 Ford was committed to producing the new Modular V8, having invested $4 billion in the engine's design in addition to retooling the company's Romeo, Michigan tractor plant to build the engines.
Three years in the third quarter of 1990, the first Modular engine, a 4.6L SOHC V8, would be used in the 1991 model year Lincoln Town Car. To the credit of Jim Clarke's engineering team, the new V8 engine in the Town Car compared favorably to its pushrod-based predecessor. In spite of having a smaller displacement, the 4.6L Modular V8 could generate more power than the Town Car's previous 5.0L V8 and could launch the car 0–60 mph 1.5 seconds quicker, all while delivering better fuel efficiency. Accompanying these performance advantages, the engine was 20 lb lighter than the older 5.0L V8. Following the Modular V8's debut in the Town Car, engines using the Modular architecture would go on to replace older V8 designs in Ford products becoming Ford's chief gasoline V8 architecture; the 4,601 cc displacement 90-degree V8 has been offered in 2-valve SOHC, 3-valve SOHC, 4-valve DOHC versions. The engines were offered with both aluminum and cast iron blocks, depending on application; the 4.6 L's bore and stroke are nearly square at 3.552 in × 3.543 respectively.
Deck height for the 4.6 block is 8.937 in and connecting rod length is 5.933 in center to center, giving the 4.6 L a 1.67:1 rod to stroke ratio. Cylinder bore spacing measures 3.937 in, common to all members of the Modular engine family. All Modular V8s, except for the new 5.0 L Coyote, utilize the same firing order as the Ford 5.0 L H
BMW 5 Series
The BMW 5 Series is an executive car manufactured by BMW since 1972. It is the successor to the New Class Sedans and is in its seventh generation; the 5 Series was only available in a sedan body style. The wagon/estate body style was added in 1991 and the 5-door fastback was produced from 2009 to 2017; the first generation of 5 Series was powered by aspirated four-cylinder and six-cylinder petrol engines. Following generations have been powered by four-cylinder, six-cylinder, V8 and V10 engines that are either aspirated or turbocharged. Since 1982, diesel engines have been included in the 5 Series range; the 5 Series is BMW's second best-selling model after the 3 Series. On January 29, 2008, the 5 millionth 5 Series was manufactured, a 530d sedan in Carbon Black Metallic. BMW's three-digit model naming convention began with the first 5 Series, thus the 5 Series was BMW's first model line to use "Series" in the name. Since the E28, all generations of 5 Series have included an "M" model, called the BMW M5.
The E12 is the first generation of 5 Series, produced from 1972 to 1981. It was produced in the sedan body style; the initial models were powered by four-cylinder engines, with a six-cylinder engine being introduced a year later. There was no M5 model for the E12, however the E12 M535i is considered to be the predecessor to the M5; the E12 was replaced by the E28 in 1981, although E12 production continued until 1984 in South Africa. The E28 is the second generation of 5 Series, produced from 1981 to 1988 in the sedan body style, it was produced with petrol four-cylinder and six-cylinder engines. In 1983, a diesel engine was available for the first time in a 5 Series; the E28 was the first 5 Series with the centre console angled towards the driver and the option of anti-lock brakes. The E28 M5 began the line of M5 high performance models that has continued through every generation since, it was powered by the M88/3 six-cylinder engines. The E34 is the third generation of the 5 Series, produced from 1988 to 1996.
It was launched in the sedan body style, with the range expanded in 1990 to include the "Touring" wagon/estate body style. The E34 was the first 5 Series to be available with the wagon body style, all-wheel drive and V8 engines, it saw the introduction of stability control, traction control a 6-speed manual transmission and adjustable damping to the 5 Series range. There was an unusually large range of engines fitted over its lifetime, as nine different engine families were used; these consisted of four-cylinder, six-cylinder and V8 petrol engines, six-cylinder diesel engines. The E34 M5 is powered by the S38 six-cylinder engine and was produced in sedan and wagon body styles; the E39 is the fourth generation of 5 Series, sold from 1995 to 2004. It was launched in the sedan body style, with the wagon/estate body style introduced in 1996; the E39 was the first 5 Series. The proportion of chassis components using aluminium increased for the E39, in order to reduce weight, it was the first 5 Series where a four-cylinder diesel engine was available.
V8 models use recirculating ball steering, however rack and pinion steering was used for the first time, in the four-cylinder and six-cylinder models. Unlike its E34 predecessor and E60 successor, the E39 was not available with all-wheel drive; the E39 M5 sedan was introduced in 1998, powered by the 4.9-litre S62 V8 engine. The E60/E61 is the fifth generation of the 5 Series, sold from 2003 to 2010; the body styles of the range are: 4-door sedan/saloon 5-door estate/wagon The E60 generation introduced various new electronic features to the 5 Series, including iDrive, head-up display, active cruise control, active steering and voice control. The E60 was the first 5 Series to be available with a turbocharged petrol engine, a 6-speed automatic transmission and regenerative braking. New safety features for the E60 included adaptive headlights, night vision, active headrests, Lane Departure Warning and high intensity emergency brake lights; the E60/E61 M5 is powered by the S85 V10 engine. It was sold in the sedan and wagon body styles, with most cars using a 7-speed automated manual transmission.
The BMW F10/F11/F07/F18 is the sixth generation of the BMW 5 Series, produced from 2010 to 2017. The body styles of the range are: 4-door sedan/saloon 5-door estate/wagon 5-door fastback 4-door long wheelbase sedan The F07 Gran Turismo is the only 5 Series to date, produced in a fastback body style; the F10 is the first 5 Series to offer a hybrid drivetrain, a turbocharged V8 engine, an 8-speed automatic transmission, a dual-clutch transmission, active rear-wheel steering, electric power steering, double-wishbone front suspension, an LCD instrument cluster and automatic parking. The F10 M5 is powered by the S63 twin-turbo V8 engine with a 7-speed dual clutch transmission, it is the first M5 to use a turbocharged engine. The BMW G30/G31/G38 is the seventh generation of the 5 Series, it was announced in October 2016, sales began in February 2017. The body styles of the range are: 4-door sedan/saloon 5-door wagon/estate 4-door long-wheelbase saloon The fastback 5 Series GT model from the previous generation is no longer part
The Ram pickup is a full-size pickup truck manufactured by FCA US LLC and marketed as of 2011 onwards under the Ram Trucks brand. The current fifth-generation Ram debuted at the 2018 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan. Ram was part of the Dodge line of light trucks; the name Ram was first used in 1932–1954 Dodge Trucks returned on the redesigned 1981 Ram and Power Ram, following the retiring and rebadging of the Dodge D Series pickup trucks as well as B-series vans. Ram trucks have been named Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year six times; the first-generation Ram trucks and vans introduced in 1981 featured a Ram hood ornament first used on Dodge vehicles from 1932 to 1954. Not all of the first-generation trucks have this ornament and is most seen on four-wheel-drive models. Dodge kept the previous generation's model designations: "D" or Ram indicated two-wheel drive while "W" or Power Ram indicated four-wheel drive. Just like Ford, Dodge used 150 to indicate a half-ton truck, 250 for a three-quarter-ton truck, 350 for a one-ton truck.
The truck models were offered in standard cab, "Club" extended cab, crew cab configurations. They were offered along with 6.5 ft and 8 ft bed lengths and "Utiline" and "Sweptline" styled boxes along with standard boxes. Externally, the first-generation Rams were facelifted versions of the previous generation Dodge D-Series pickups introduced in 1972; the new model introduced larger wraparound tail lamps, dual rectangular headlamps, squared-off body lines. Engine choices were pared down to 318 and 360 V8s; the interior was updated and included a new bench seat and a new dashboard and instrument cluster with an optional three-pod design - a speedometer in the center, with the two side pods containing an ammeter on the top left, a temperature gauge bottom left, a fuel gauge on the top right and an oil pressure gauge bottom right. Models without the full gauge package had only indicator lights in the place of the temperature and oil pressure gauges. Among the options offered on the Ram were front bumper guards, a sliding rear cab window, air-conditioning, cruise control, tilt steering column, power door locks and windows, AM/FM stereo with cassette tape player, styled road wheels, aluminum turbine-style mag wheels, special paint and stripe packages, two-tone paint, a plow package for four-wheel-drive models.
The "Club Cab" was dropped from the lineup after 1982, but Dodge kept the tooling and re-introduced nearly a decade in the 1991 models. The four-door crew cab and Utiline beds were dropped after the 1985 model year, to make room on the assembly line for the upcoming 1987 Dodge Dakota, were never reintroduced in this generation. Basic Ram 100 models were reintroduced for 1984, replacing the previous "Miser" trim level available on the Ram 150. A "Ram-Trac" shift-on-the-fly transfer case was added for the 1985's Power Rams, both the crew cab and Utiline flared bed were dropped for 1986. In 1988 the Slant-6 engine was replaced by a 3.9 L fuel-injected V6 engine. The 5.2 L engine received electronic fuel injection in 1988. Because of a new computer controlled fuel injection, ignition and ABS system, more vehicle information needed to be displayed through any warning or notification lights; the message center included "Wait to Start" and "Water in Fuel" lights on diesel models. Diagnostic fault codes were stored in the computer's memory, cycling the ignition key three times would allow the computer to flash the trouble codes through the check-engine light for diagnosis of some problems.
Rear ABS became standard equipment in 1989. The Ram 100 model designation was dropped and these models folded back into the 150 range for 1990, due to the introduction and sales success of the Dodge Dakota pickup. Additionally, the instrument cluster was revised. In 1990, Dodge reintroduced the Club Cab, equipped with fold-out jump seats for the 1991-1993 models. Entry was made through the passenger or driver's doors, as there were no rear doors for this configuration; these trucks, though popular with fleets, sold poorly compared to the Ford F-Series and the General Motors C/K Trucks, with just under 100,000 units sold most years of their production. Part of this was due to the dated cab and chassis design, in production since 1972, there was no powerful diesel option until 1989, there was no big-block gas V8 option. Additionally, the interior had been given few updates since 1981. For 1989, the 5.9 L V8 received throttle-body fuel injection for a 20 hp gain. Additionally, Dodge introduced a new overdrive automatic transmission for reduced fuel consumption.
This light-duty transmission was designated the A500, was offered with the 3.9 L V6 and 5.2 L V8. An "O/D Off" pushbutton switch to lock out the overdrive 4th gear; the A727 automatic saw continued use for some 5.2 L engines, all 5.9 L engines, heavy-duty applications. The grille was redesigned for 1991 but kept the large rectangular headl
The Audi R8 is a mid-engine, 2-seater sports car, which uses Audi's trademark quattro permanent all-wheel drive system. It was introduced by the German car manufacturer Audi AG in 2006; the car is designed and manufactured by Audi AG's private subsidiary company manufacturing high performance automotive parts, Audi Sport GmbH, is based on the Lamborghini Gallardo and presently the Huracán platform. The fundamental construction of the R8 is based on the Audi Space Frame, uses an aluminium monocoque, built using space frame principles; the car is built by Audi Sport GmbH in a newly renovated factory at Audi's'aluminium site' at Neckarsulm in Germany. It is the first production car with full-LED headlamps; the Audi R8, based on the Audi Le Mans quattro concept car first appeared at the 2003 International Geneva Motor Show and the 2003 Frankfurt International Motor Show. The R8 road car was launched at the Paris Auto Show on 30 September 2006. There was some confusion with the name, which the car shares with the 24 Hours of Le Mans winning R8 Le Mans Prototype.
Initial models included the R8 4.2 FSI coupé and R8 5.2 FSI coupé. Convertible models, called the Spyder by the manufacturer, were introduced in 2008. Followed by the high-performance GT model introduced in 2011; the Motorsport variants of the R8 were subsequently introduced from 2008 onwards. An all-electric version called the e-Tron started development but would only reach production stage when the second generation model would be introduced. 6-time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner Jacky Ickx described the R8 as "the best handling road car today". The car received a facelift in a new model called the V10 Plus was now added to the range. Production of the Type 42 ended in August 2015; the second generation of the R8 having the model code was unveiled at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show and is based on the Modular Sports System platform shared with the Lamborghini Huracan. The development of the Type 4S commenced in late 2013 and was completed in late-2014. Initial models included the V10 5.2 FSI along with the V10 plus.
Unlike its predecessor, there was no manual transmission available and the entry-level V8 trim was dropped. In 2016, the convertible variant was added to the line up, available in the base V10 trim. In mid-2017, the high performance V10 plus Spyder was added to the range. A rear-wheel-drive drive model called the R8 RWS was introduced in 2017. In 2018, the R8 received a mid-cycle facelift with changes being exterior only; the newer and more aggressive design language has some elements carried over from famous Audi models of the past. Some of the aerodynamic features such as the front aeroblades are shared with the Lamborghini Huracàn; the facelift model has substantial performance improvements over the outgoing model. To produce the R8 at Audi Sport GmbH, 70 workers fit 5,000 different parts by hand; the factory at Neckarsulm, redeveloped at a cost of €28 million produces between eight and fifteen cars a day, up to a maximum daily output of 29 cars. Ninety-five lasers inspect the entire car in five seconds to ensure that over 220 measurements are within 0.1 millimetres of the programmed plans.
In Asia, the R8 is available in Bahrain, Pakistan, Israel, Taiwan, South Korea, Thailand, Hong Kong and Vietnam, has been available in China, United Arab Emirates, Singapore and Indonesia since 2008. European statistics include sales from the following countries: Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland. Lamborghini Huracán Audi Le Mans quattro Audi S and RS models Lamborghini Gallardo Official Audi R8 website
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water