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V12 engine

A V12 engine is a twelve-cylinder piston engine where two banks of six cylinders are arranged in a V configuration around a common crankshaft. Many, but not all, V12 engines use a V-angle of 60 degrees between the two banks of cylinders; because of the balanced nature of the engine, the smooth delivery of power, these engines were popular in early luxury automobiles and aircraft. The powerful V12 engines used in aircraft of the Second World War were displaced by jet turbine engines; the V12 configuration fits well in longer vehicles such as heavy trucks. Compared to internal combustion engines with fewer cylinders and similar power ratings, a V12 will have more moving parts, a more complex exhaust system, will be more expensive to manufacture. V12 engines are found in modern luxury automobiles or highway trucks, but are still used in stationary engines, ships and military vehicles; each bank of a V12 engine functions as a straight-six engine, which by itself has perfect primary and secondary engine balance.

By using the correct V-angle, a V12 engine can therefore have perfect balance. The firing order for a four-stroke V12 engine has an interval of 60 degrees, therefore a V12 engine can be balanced if a V-angle of 60 degrees, 120 degrees or 180 degrees is used. V12 engines with other V-angles have been produced, sometimes using split crankpins to reduce the unbalanced vibrations; the drawback of a V12 engine is the extra cost and friction losses compared with engines containing fewer cylinders. At any given time, three of the cylinders in a V12 engine are in their power stroke, which increases the smoothness of the power delivery by eliminating gaps between power pulses. A V12 engine with a 180 degree V-angle is called a flat-twelve engine, however this terminology is incorrect for the majority of 180-degree V12 engines, since they use shared crankpins and are therefore not configured as flat engines. Theoretically, the rotating parts of a V12 racing engine could be lighter than a crossplane V8 engine of similar displacement, due to the V12 engine not requiring counterweights on the crankshaft or as much inertial mass for the flywheel.

In addition, the exhaust system of a V12 engine is much simpler than would be required for a crossplane V8 engine to achieve pulsed exhaust gas tuning. However, use of V12 engines in motor racing is uncommon in the 21st century. A 60-degree V12 engine is narrower than a 90-degree V6 or V8 engine of similar displacement. However, the V12 engine is longer than V6 and V8 engines; the added length makes it difficult to fit a V12 engine into a passenger car, however the length is not a problem for trucks engines and stationary engines. Due to its narrower width, the V12 is common in armoured tank and marine engines. In these applications, the width of the engine is constrained by tight railway clearances or street widths, while the length of the vehicle is more flexible. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be narrow enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines. In historic piston-engine fighter and bomber aircraft, the long, narrow V12 configuration used in high-performance aircraft made them more streamlined than other engines the short, wide radial engine.

The first V-engine was built by Daimler in 1889 the first V8 engine was built by Antoinette in 1903. These were followed by the first V12 engine in 1904, built by Putney Motor Works in London for use in racing boats. Known as the "Craig-Dörwald" engine after Putney's founding partners, the V12 engine was based on Putney's existing two-cylinder engine with a flathead design, a V-angle of 90 degrees and an aluminium crankcase; as in many marine engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams, giving valve timing that reversed the engine's rotation to achieve astern propulsion. The engine had a displacement of 18.4 L a weight of 430 kg and developed 110 kW. The engine was intended for use in 40-foot hull racing boats, however little is known of its racing achievements. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season; the Lamb Boat & Engine Company in the United States built a 25.5 L engine for the company's 32-foot'Lamb IV' boat. The Orleans Motor Company built a massive 56.8 L flathead V12 engine with a power output quoted as "nearly 400 bhp".

In 1914, Panhard built two 38.6 L V12 engines with four valves per cylinder, which were designed for use in racing boats. Five years after the first V12 engine was introduced, Renault introduced the first V12 engine for aircraft in 1909; this engine had a V-angle of air cooling and an intake over exhaust valve arrangement. It produced 103 kW at 1,800 rpm; the propeller was driven from the front end of the camshaft, thus spinning the propellor speed at half the speed of a typical crankshaft driven propellor, in order to improve the propellor efficiency. The Renault engine was mimicked by the RAF 4 and its derivatives, used by various British military aircraft during World War I; the RAF 4 engine had a displacement of 13.2 L, weighed 289 kg and produced produced 104 kW at 1,800 rpm. In March 1914, a prototype version of the Sunbeam Mohawk V12 engine was unveiled in the United Kingdom, based on the'Toodles V' motor racing engine; the production version was rated at 168 kW at 2,000 rpm, making it the most powerful airplane engine in

Bandit-warfare Badge

Bandit-warfare Badge was a World War II decoration of Nazi Germany awarded to members of the Army, Order Police, Waffen-SS for participating in rear-area security operations, the so-called Bandenbekämpfung. The badge was instituted on 30 January 1944 by Adolf Hitler after authorization/recommendation by Heinrich Himmler. On the Eastern Front, the terms "partisan" and "bandit" were applied by the Nazi security apparatus to Jews, Soviet state officials, Red Army stragglers, any other persons deemed to pose a security risk. Rear-area security operations against armed irregular fighters were indistinguishable from massacres of civilians, accompanied by burning down villages, destroying crops, stealing livestock, deporting able-bodied population for slave labour to Germany and leaving parent-less children on their own. All versions of the badge feature a skull and crossed bones at the base, with a laurel wreath of oak leaves around the sides and a sword in the center; the sword's handle has the "sun-wheel" swastika, with the blade plunged into the "Hydra", whose five heads represent the "partisans".

The second version of the badge had larger oak leaves in the wreath and a larger "sun-wheel" swastika. Historian Philip W. Blood notes the similarities between the symbol of the occultist Thule Society, with a sword and a swastika, the design of the badge, he suggests that Himmler and Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski "had sealed Germanic mythology into a medal for Lebensraum". The badge existed in three grades: Bronze, for 20 combat days against "bandits" Silver, for 50 combat days against "bandits" Gold, for 150 combat days against "bandits"Criteria were different for the Luftwaffe, being based on 30, 75, 150 operational flights/sorties flown in support of "bandit-fighting" operations. Angolia, John. For Führer and Fatherland: Military Awards of the Third Reich. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0912138149. Blood, Philip W.. Hitler's Bandit Hunters: The SS and the Nazi Occupation of Europe. Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1597970211

Shueisha

Shueisha Inc. is a Japanese company headquartered in Chiyoda, Japan. The company was founded in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Japanese publisher Shogakukan; the following year, Shueisha became a independent company. Manga magazines published by Shueisha include the Jump magazine line, which includes shonen magazines Weekly Shōnen Jump, Jump SQ, V Jump, seinen magazines Weekly Young Jump, Grand Jump and Ultra Jump, they publish other magazines, including Non-no. Shueisha, along with Shogakukan, owns Viz Media, which publishes manga from all three companies in North America. In 1925, Shueisha was created by major publishing company Shogakukan. Jinjō Shōgaku Ichinen Josei became the first novel published by Shueisha in collaboration with Shogakukan—the temporary home of Shueisha. In 1927, two novels titled Danshi Ehon, Joshi Ehon were created. In 1928, Shueisha was hired to edit a compilation. Gendai Humor Zenshū continued 12 volumes, some issues being Joshi Shinjidai Eishūji-chō and Shinjidai Eishūji-chō.

In the 1930s another novel called Tantei-ki Dan was launched and Gendai Humor Zenshū was completed in 24 volumes. In 1931 two more novels were launched, Danshi Joshi Yōchien. After World War II, Shueisha started publishing a manga line called Omoshiro Book. Omoshiro Book published a picture book called Shōnen Ōja, which became a huge hit among boys and girls; the first full volume of Shōnen Ōja was released as Shōnen Ōja Oitachi Hen, which became an instant best-seller. The first magazine published by Shueisha was Akaruku Tanoshii Shōnen-Shōjo Zasshi. In September 1949, Omoshiro Book was made into a magazine with all the contents of the former line. In 1950, a special edition of the magazine was published under the title Hinomaru. In addition to Omoshiro Book, a female version was published in 1951: Shōjo Book which featured manga aimed at adolescent girls; the Hitotsubashi building of Shueisha became independent in 1952. In that year, Omoshiro Book ceased Myōjō began publication as a monthly magazine.

The series of Omoshiro Book were published in bunkoban editions under the Omoshiro Manga Bunko line. A novel called Yoiko Yōchien was published and Omoshiro Book was replaced with another children's manga magazine called Yōnen Book. In 1955, the success of Shōjo Book led to the publication of running Ribon; the novel Joshi Yōchien Kobato began publication in 1958. On November 23, a special issue of Myōjō titled. In 1951, another male edition of Shōjo Book was released, Shōnen Book was made, Shōjo Book series were released in bunkoban editions under the Shōjo Manga Bunko imprint. In the 1960s, another spin-off issue of Myōjō was released called Bessatsu Weekly Myōjō. Shueisha continues to publish many novels. A compilation of many Omoshiro Book series was released as Shōnen-Shōjo Nippon Rekishi Zenshū complete in 12 volumes. Many other books were published including Hirosuke Yōnen Dōwa Bungaku Zenshū, Hatachi no Sekkei, Dōdō Taru Jinsei, Shinjin Nama Gekijō, Gaikoku kara Kita Shingo Jiten. In 1962, Shueisha published a female version of many more novels.

In 1963, Shueisha began publication of the successful Margaret with the additional offshoot Bessatsu Margaret. The novel Ukiyo-e Hanga was released complete in seven volumes, the picture book Sekai 100 Nin no Monogatari Zenshū was released in the usual 12. In 1964, Kanshi Taikei was released in 24 volumes plus a reprint. In that year a line of novels, Compact Books, was made and a line of manga called Televi-Books. In 1965, two more magazines were made: Cobalt and the Shōnen Book offshoot Bessatsu Shōnen Book. In 1966, Shueisha began publication of Weekly Playboy, Seishun to Shōsetsu Junior. A novel called. Another manga magazine was made titled Young Music. Deluxe Margaret began publication in the additional Margaret Comics and Ribon Comics lines. In 1968 the magazine Hoshi Young Sense began publication as spin-off to the short-lived Young Sense. In that year Margaret launched the Seventeen magazine as a Japanese version of the English edition. Shōnen Jump was created in the same year as a semi-weekly magazine.

Another children's manga magazine was created in that year called Junior Comic and another Ribon spin-off called Ribon Comic. In 1969 the magazine Joker began publication along with guts. Several other novels were published; the magazine Bessatsu Seventeen began publication. In that year Shōnen Jump changed its name to Weekly Shōnen Jump. Following up the end of Shōnen Book a spin-off of Weekly Shōnen Jump started at the same time as it became weekly called Bessatsu Shōnen Jump, it changed its name to Monthly Shōnen Jump with the second issue. The 1970s started with the launch of the novel magazine Subaru and in 1971 the Non-no and Ocean life magazines began publication; the novel series Gendai Nippon Bijutsu Zenshū became a huge seller. In 1972 Roadshow began publication and The Rose of Versailles begins in the Margaret Comics line gaining massive popularity. In 1973 Playgirl magazine began publication and the novel series Zenshaku Kanbun Taikei spawning a huge 33 volumes. In 1974 Weekly Shōnen Jump launched Akamaru Jump.

Saison de Non-no launches. Shueisha announced that in the summer of 2011, it would launch a new manga magazine titled Miracle Jump. In October 2016, Shueisha announced that they had created a new department on June 21 called the Dragon Ball Room. Headed by V Jump editor-in-chief Akio I