Orange Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line in the Metro Busway network in Los Angeles County, California. It operates between Chatsworth and the North Hollywood Metro Station in the San Fernando Valley where it connects with the Metro Red Line on the Metro Rail system for Downtown Los Angeles; the other line in the Metro Busway network is the Metro Silver Line. The 18-mile Orange Line uses a dedicated, exclusive right-of-way for the entirety of its route with stations located at one-mile intervals; the Metro Orange Line bicycle path runs alongside part of the route. The line, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, opened on October 29, 2005, with a construction cost of $324 million; the route follows part of the Southern Pacific Railroad's former Burbank Branch Line which provided passenger rail service from 1904 to 1920. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the F Line while retaining its orange coloring; because of its many differences from a standard bus service, the authority has branded the transitway as part of the region's network of light and heavy rail lines.
It appears on Metro's "Metro Busway" map. Orange Line vehicles are painted in the silver-and-gray color scheme of Metro Rail vehicles, it is one of the authority's two bus lines that have been marketed with a color designation rather than its line number. The Orange Line is referred to by its line number, but it sometimes appears on documents and destination signage; the transitway's color name, the Orange Line, refers to the many citrus trees that once blanketed the San Fernando Valley. In the planning stages the transitway was known as the San Fernando Valley East-West Transitway, the Metro Rapidway. Metro Orange Line buses to Chatsworth operate 24 hours a day. At peak hours, alternate buses run only between Canoga Station. Passengers can transfer at Canoga to a shuttle bus that serves the Warner Center area, including the former Orange Line station. Maximum recorded average weekday boardings were 31,904 during September 2013. While usage fell during the Great Recession with average weekday boarding running at 22,669 in 2010, it has since rebounded, averaging 28,263 weekday boardings so far in 2015.
Collisions Collisions with automobiles occurred weekly during the first several months of operations. Metro has noted that the Orange Line had about the same accident rate as other bus lines in the city on a per-mile basis, has stated that the line's accident rate is "less than half" of Metro's entire fleet of buses; the Blue Line had a significant number of collisions in its early years and has the highest fatality rate in North America. Metro issued slow orders after two collisions in November 2005 involving a critically injured driver. Buses were required to slow to 10 mi/h vs. 25–30 mi/h. In December 2005, Metro called for the installation of red-light cameras at most intersections. CapacityThere is concern that the Orange Line will soon reach its engineered capacity, has exceeded its designed capacity during peak periods. During peak hours, the signaling system is designed to balance the Orange Line buses with vehicle cross traffic. Adding more buses requires platooning, or bunching, the running of convoys of two or more buses together, similar to what rail achieves in having multiple cars per train.
Greater signal prioritization is an option, comes at the cost of decreasing cross street travel times and capacity. Another alternative requires the changing of state law or the granting of a Caltrans exemption from state law and the purchasing of 80-foot-long buses; the majority of the Orange Line is built on part of the former Southern Pacific Railroad, taken over for Pacific Electric Red Car service. As the Metro Rail system was being designed in the 1990s, initial plans were to build an extension of the Metro Red Line there, since the purchased right-of-way's eastern terminus was at the site of the planned North Hollywood station. However, political developments stymied these plans: community objections to surface transit along the route resulted in a 1991 law mandating that any line along the route be built as a deep-bore tunnel, but a 1998 ballot measure driven by perceptions of mismanagement banned the use of county sales tax to fund subway tunneling. Prevented from using the route for rail, Metro proceeded to create its first bus rapid transit line along the corridor, despite further lawsuits from area residents, the line opened on October 29, 2005, at a final cost of $324 million.
On June 23, 2009 construction began on a four-mile extension from Canoga northward along the Southern Pacific trackbed to the Metrolink station in Chatsworth. Metro's board approved the plan on September 28, 2006, it was completed in 2012 at a cost of $215 million; this created two branches at the western end of the line beyond Canoga station. In 2018, this branch was eliminated and replaced with a frequent service local shuttle, leaving the entirety of the Orange Line on dedicated right-of-way. In July 2017, Metro voted to begin a transition to an all-electric bus fleet. While the entire fleet will not be replaced until 2030, the transition on the two Metro Busway lines will begin much sooner
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Amtrak California is a brand name used by the California Department of Transportation Division of Rail on three state-supported Amtrak rail routes within the US State of California, the Capitol Corridor, the Pacific Surfliner, the San Joaquin. It includes an extensive network of Thruway Motorcoach bus connections, operated by private companies under contract; the three lines shared the use of "Amtrak California" branded Thruway trainsets. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation assumed operation of all intercity passenger rail in the United States in 1971. Service in California, as in most of the United States, was infrequent. In 1976 California began providing financial assistance to Amtrak. At the same time, Caltrans Division of Rail was formed to oversee state-financed rail operations and the brand Amtrak California started appearing on state-supported routes. In 1990, California passed Propositions 108 and 116, providing $3 billion for transportation projects, with a large portion going to rail service.
As a result, new locomotives and passenger cars were purchased by the state, existing inter-city routes expanded. A more distinct image for Amtrak California, such as painting locomotives and passenger cars in "California Color" of blue and yellow, was established with the arrival of new rolling stock. In 1998, while still funded by the state, the management of the Capitol Corridor was transferred to the Capitol Corridor Joint Powers Authority, formed by local jurisdictions of the line serves. In 2015 the management of the San Joaquin and the Pacific Surfliner were transferred to the San Joaquin Joint Powers Authority and the Los Angeles-San Diego-San Luis Obispo Rail Corridor Agency, respectively; as a result, the "Amtrak California" brand became less prominent in the websites and marketing materials. Amtrak California operates a fleet of EMD F59PHI, GE P32-8WH and Siemens Charger locomotives that are used on San Joaquin and Capitol Corridor trains; these locomotives carry the CDTX reporting marks.
The Pacific Surfliner trains used a dedicated fleet of 15 EMD F59PHI locomotives that are painted to match the livery of the "Surfliner" passenger cars, but they were Amtrak owned instead. These locomotives were sold to Metra in early 2018 and subsequently replaced by the Charger locomotives; the last Amtrak-owned F59PHI left for Chicago on March 1, 2019. Locomotives from Amtrak's national fleet such as P42DC are used as substitutes when the Amtrak California dedicated fleet of locomotives undergoes maintenance. Twenty-two additional locomotives built by Siemens will join Amtrak California's locomotive fleet starting from 2017; these locomotives, named Charger, were parts of a multi-state order funded by a combination of federal and state money. Illinois Department of Transportation, acting as the leading agency, awarded the order to Siemens on December 18, 2013. Caltrans ordered the first six with the initial order in 2013 exercised the option to buy 14 more locomotives in 2015 to replace Amtrak-owned locomotives used on Pacific Surfliner.
Two additional locomotives were ordered in 2016. Amtrak California's routes use bi-level, high-capacity passenger cars, dubbed the Surfliner and California Car. All of the California Cars are owned by the California Department of Transportation. Most of the Surfliner cars are owned by Amtrak with some owned by Caltrans; the design of the cars is based on Amtrak's Superliner bi-level passenger cars, but several changes were made to the design to make the car more suitable for corridor services with frequent stops. One important difference is that the Surfliner and California Car have two sets of automatic doors on each side instead of only one manually operated door on the Superliners, which speeds up boarding and alighting considerably. Additionally and California Car coaches are equipped with higher-density seating and bicycle racks to permit transport of unboxed bicycles. Consists on the San Joaquin, Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner routes include between four and six cars, with one locomotive and a cab control car on the rear end.
In 2007, Amtrak California paid for the repair of seven wreck-damaged Superliner Coaches owned by Amtrak in exchange for a six-year lease, intended to add capacity on busy Capitol Corridor and San Joaquin trains. Four of the cars have been painted to match the "California car" livery and three have been painted to match the "Surfliner" livery; each car has the current Amtrak logo on the middle left side of each car. Superliner I/II coaches from Amtrak's national fleet are used on some consists due to shortages of inter-city "Surfliner" & "California cars." Increasing ridership on the San Joaquin led Amtrak California to purchase 14 Comet IB rail cars from NJ Transit in 2008 for $75,000 per car. Caltrans paid $20 million to have these former commuter cars refurbished and reconfigured to serve as intercity coaches at Amtrak's Beech Grove Shops. Caltrans has paid to lease and refurbish 3 Horizon dinettes and 3 Non-Powered Control Units; as the leading agency of a joint purchase agreement with the Midwest Coalition consisted of Illinois and Missouri, Caltrans awarded the 130 bilevel passenger car order to Nippon Sharyo on November 6, 2012, to be built at Nippon Sharyo's new factory at Rochelle, Illinois, of which 42 would have gone to California The design of new bilevel cars would have been based on existing California Cars with heavy involvement from Caltrans.
However, Siemens was selected to build new single level train cars after a car failed
Thousand Oaks, California
Thousand Oaks is the second-largest city in Ventura County, United States. It is in the northwestern part of Greater Los Angeles 40 miles from Downtown Los Angeles and is less than 15 miles from the Los Angeles neighborhood of Woodland Hills, it is named after the many oak trees present in the area, the city seal is adorned with an oak. The city forms the central populated core of the Conejo Valley. Thousand Oaks has since expanded to the west and east. Two-thirds of neighboring Westlake Village and most of Newbury Park were annexed by the city during the late 1960s and 1970s; the Los Angeles County–Ventura County line crosses at the city's eastern border with Westlake Village. The population was estimated to be 129,339 in 2015, rising from 126,683 at the 2010 census. Thousand Oaks is 55 square miles, for comparison, is 20 percent larger than San Francisco. Thousand Oaks was considered in 2002 as one of the safest cities in the U. S. based on consistent FBI reporting. It was ranked the fourth-safest among cities with a population greater than 100,000 in the United States by the FBI's 2013 Uniform Crime Reports.
The median home price is around $669,500, more than double the U. S. median home price. One of the earliest names used for the area was Conejo Mountain Valley, as used by the founder of Newbury Park, Egbert Starr Newbury, in the 1870s. During the 1920s, today's Thousand Oaks was home to 100 residents. In the 1920s came talks of coming up with a name for the specific area of Thousand Oaks. A local name contest was held, where 14-year-old Bobby Harrington's name suggestion won: Thousand Oaks; the valley was — and still is — characterized by its tens of thousands of oak trees. When the city was incorporated in 1964, Janss Corporation suggested the name Conejo City. A petition was signed by enough residents to put Thousand Oaks on the ballot. An overwhelming majority － 87% － of the city's 19,000 residents voted for the name Thousand Oaks during the September 29, 1964, election. Chumash people were the first to inhabit what is now called Thousand Oaks, settling there over 10,000 years ago, it was home to two major villages: Sap ` Satwiwa.
Sap'wi is now by the Chumash Interpretive Center, home to multiple 2,000 year-old pictographs. Satwiwa is the home of the Native American Indian Culture Center which sits at the foothills of Mount Boney in Newbury Park, a sacred mountain to the Chumash. A smaller village, Yitimasɨh, was located; the area surrounding Wildwood Regional Park has been inhabited by the Chumash for thousands of years. Some of the artifacts discovered in Wildwood include shell beads and arrowheads. Another small Chumash settlement, known as Šihaw, was located. A cave containing several swordfish and cupules pictographs is located here. Two other villages were located by today's Ventu Park Road in Newbury Park; these had a population of 100-200 in each village. Other villages included Kayɨwɨš by Conejo Grade; the Chumash had several summer encampments, including one located where Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza stands, known as Ipuc. Another summer encampment was located at the current location of Los Robles Hospital; each village was ruled by a chief or several chieftains, who traveled between villages to discuss matters of common interest.
A council of elders directed organized events. Most villages had a cemetery, gaming field, a sweat house, a place for ceremonies. Locally discovered tribal artifacts are at display at Satwiwa Native American Indian Culture Center and the Chumash Indian Museum; the region's recorded history dates to 1542, when Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo landed at Point Mugu and claimed the land for Spain. The Battle of Triunfo, which took place by Triunfo Creek, was waged over land between native Chumash and the Spanish newcomers. From 1804 to 1848, Thousand Oaks was part of Alta California, a Spanish polity in North America, it was Valley of Rabbits. The Spaniards and indigenous Chumash clashed numerous times in disputes over land. Conejo Valley was given the name El Rancho Conejo in 1803; this year, Jose Polanco and Ignacio Rodriguez were granted El Rancho Conejo by Governor José Joaquín de Arrillaga of Alta California. The land contained 48,671.56 acres. El Conejo was just one of two land grants in what became Ventura County, the other being Rancho Simi.
As a result of the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, Alta California became a Mexican territory. In 1822, Captain José de la Guerra y Noriega filed Conejo Valley as part of the Mexican land grant, it remained a part of Mexico until the short-lived California Republic was established in 1846. It became a part of the U. S. after California gained statehood in 1850. The valley was now known as Rancho El Conejo; the ranch period began when the de la Guerra family sold thousands of acres through the 1860s and early 1870s. Two men owned most of Conejo Valley in the 1870s: John Edwards, who came from Wales in 1849, Howard Mills, who came from Minnesota in 1870. While Edwards owned most of present-day Thousand Oaks and Newbury Park, Mills owned most of Westlake Village and Hidden Valley. Edwards' home was located on an acre of land where The Oaks Mall is located, while Mills built his home where Westlake Lake sits today; the third person to buy former Rancho El Conejo land was Egbert Starr Newbury. He bought 2,259 acres of land here in 1874, land which stretched from Old Town Thousand Oaks and into today's Newbury Park
Moorpark is a city in Ventura County in Southern California. Moorpark was founded in 1900 when the application for the Moorpark Post Office was approved and Inocencio C. Villegas was named Moorpark's first postmaster on August 8 of that year; the townsite of Moorpark was surveyed by Robert W. Poindexter and his wife, Madeline; as of 2006, Moorpark was one of the fastest-growing cities in Ventura County. The town grew from just over 4,000 citizens in 1980 to over 25,000 citizens by 1990; the population was 34,421 at the 2010 census, up from 31,415 at the 2000 census. The origin of the name "Moorpark" is unknown. Of these most sources agree that its origin was Admiral Lord Anson's estate Moor Park in Hertfordshire, England where he introduced the apricot in 1688, it is believed that the town of Moorpark is named after the Moorpark apricot, which used to grow in the area. One other theory of the name is that when the Southern Pacific Railroad was surveying the local land in the 19th century for its railway, someone in the party said that the area, with its sloping hills, looked like the Scottish Moors.
Hence the name Moorpark. Some of Moorpark’s previous unofficial and official names include Epworth, Penrose and Little Simi. Chumash people were the first to inhabit. A Chumash village, known as Quimisac, was located in today’s Happy Canyon Regional Park, they were hunters and gatherers who traveled between villages to trade. The village of Quimisac once controlled the local trade of fused shale in the region; the area was part of the large Rancho Simi land grant given in 1795 to the Pico brothers by Governor Diego de Borica of Alta California. Robert W. Poindexter, the secretary of the Simi Land and Water Company, received the land when the association was disbanded. A map showing the townsite was prepared in November 1900, it was Fremontville. An application for a post office was approved by August of that year; the application noted. The town grew after the 1904 completion of a 7,369-foot tunnel through the Santa Susana Mountains. Moorpark was on the main route of the Southern Pacific Railroad's Coast Line between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
The depot remained in operation until it was closed in 1958. It was torn down around 1965. Moorpark was one of the first cities to run off commercial nuclear power in the entire world, the second in the United States, after Arco, Idaho on July 17, 1955, the first city in the world to be lit by atomic power. For one hour on November 12, 1957, this fact was featured on Edwin R. Murrow's "See It Now" television show; the reactor, called the Sodium Reactor Experiment was built by the Atomics International division of North American Aviation at the nearby Santa Susana Field Laboratory. The Sodium Reactor Experiment operated from 1957 to 1964 and produced 7.5 megawatts of electrical power at a Southern California Edison-supplied generating station. Moorpark College opened on September 11, 1967. Moorpark College is one of the few colleges that features an Exotic Animal Training and Management Program. Moorpark was incorporated as a city on July 1, 1983. In 1996, Moorpark's Little League All-Star team represented the West Region in the Little League World Series in Williamsport, PA.
In February 2005, a Siberian tiger named Tuffy that escaped from a local residence was shot and killed in one of Moorpark's parks. This created a great deal of uproar, because the animal control officers used a gun instead of a tranquilizer to kill the tiger because the tiger could not be shot from the proper angle for a tranquilizer to prove effective. Candlelight vigils were held for the late Tuffy; the couple who owned the tiger had moved from a licensed facility in Temecula, California, to an unlicensed facility in the Moorpark area of Ventura County. They lost their U. S. Department of Agriculture exhibitor license because they failed to notify the department of the move within 10 days; the wife pleaded guilty to a federal misdemeanor count of failing to maintain records of exotic felines. The husband pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice, making false statements and failing to maintain proper records; each was sentenced to home detention, three years probation, fined $900. Just a month in March 2005, the complete remains of an unusually old mammoth the rare southern mammoth, were discovered in the foothills of Moorpark at the site of a housing development.
The fossilized skeleton is believed to be from a 800,000 to 1.4 million years old mammoth, estimated to have had a weight of ten tons. In 2006, the Moorpark city council transferred governance of their library from the Ventura County library system to their own newly created city library system; the library, which opened in 1912, celebrated its centennial in 2012. On February 28, 2006, a housing proposal, North Park Village, which would have added 1,680 houses on 3,586 acres in the north-east area of the city, was defeated by a landslide in a city election. In 2016, Mike Winters, the Vice President and Historian of the Moorpark Historical Society, published a revised history of Moorpark that covers the years from Moorpark's beginnings to the 1930s; the book, published by Arcadia Publishing is entitled Images of America: Moorpark. Over 75 percent of homes in Moorpark were constructed after 1980. "Old Town Moorpark" is the area surrounding High Street, is the historic center of the city. A feature of the downtown area are the pepper trees that line High Street, planted by Robert Poindexter who
Westlake Village, California
Westlake Village is a city in Los Angeles County on its western border with Ventura County. The population was estimated to be at 8,473 in 2014, up from 8,368 at the 2000 census; the headquarters of the Dole Food Company is located in Westlake Village. The planned community of Westlake was built with a lake at the center straddling the line between Los Angeles and Ventura counties. Two-thirds of it was annexed by the city of Thousand Oaks in two portions, in 1968 and 1972. In 1981, the remaining third incorporated into the City of Westlake Village which became the 82nd municipality of Los Angeles County. About 3,000 years ago, Chumash Indians moved into the region and lived by hunting rabbits and other game, gathering grains and acorns. On-going excavations, archaeological sites, polychrome rock paintings in the area provide a glimpse into the social and economic complexity of the ancient Chumash world, it is unknown when the first people settled in what is now Westlake, however, a Chumash village was settled here in 500 BCE, known as Hipuc.
The local Chumash Indians spent days preparing for the day's meal. Acorns and other seeds were large parts of their diet, were collected in the fall when the Chumash traveled inland; the Chumash got their food by hunting wild animals and gathering plants. Their diet consisted of acorns, cottontail rabbits, jack rabbits, rats and seeds, they made their clothing from the skins of animals such as rabbits and sea otters. Women wore long skirts weaved from grass or soft bark, while men wore pieces of deerskin tied around their waists. Both men and women wore shell beads. On a return trip from Northern California in January 1770, a group of men led by Gaspar de Portola are believed to be the first Europeans to encounter the Chumash Indians in the Conejo Valley. Father Juan Crespi and diarist of the expedition, wrote about El Triumfo, a Chumash village, he wrote that there were plenty of water and firewood in the village, that the land was covered with pastures. He wrote: "We are on a plain of considerable extent and much beauty, forested on all parts by live oaks and oak trees, with much pasturage and water."
Crespi named the place El triunfo del Dulcísimo Nombre de Jesús to a camping place by a creek. Other villages were found throughout the valley, including Satwiwa and two villages by where Ventu Park Road is in Newbury Park; these Chumash villages are believed by archeologists to have first been settled over 2,000 years ago. Another village was located by Lake Sherwood. In 1795, the area became part of one of the first Spanish land grants, Rancho Simi, given to the Pico family; when Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, Alta California became Mexican territory, the Rancho Simi grant was confirmed in 1842. At the time California was admitted to the union in 1850, most of the land that became Ventura County was divided among only 19 families. Rising knolls, arroyos and ancient oaks were found on two Mexican land grants: Rancho El Conejo and Rancho Las Virgenes. In 1881, the Russell brothers purchased a large portion of the land for cattle ranching. According to Patricia Allen and family descendant, Andrew Russell beat the competition in buying the land by racing across 6,000 acres on a fifteen-minute trip in a buckboard and sealed the deal with a $20 gold piece.
The price per acre was $2.50. The area continued to be known as the Russell Ranch although it was sold in 1925 to William Randolph Hearst and again in 1943 to Fred Albertson; the Russell family leased back part of the land to continue its successful cattle ranch operation while the Albertson Company used the vast area as a movie ranch. Many movies and television shows were filmed here, including Robin Hood, King Rat and various episodes of Tarzan, Buck Rogers and Bonanza; the 1940 film Danger Ahead was filmed on Westlake Boulevard. In 1963, Daniel K. Ludwig's American-Hawaiian Steamship Company bought the 12,000 acre ranch for $32 million and, in partnership with Prudential Insurance Company, commissioned the preparation of a master plan by architectural and planning firm A. C. Martin and Associates; this new "city in the country" planned to have a firm economic base including commercial areas, residential neighborhoods, ample green space with the lake as a focal point. Prominent architects and land planners participated in designing the new community, a prominent example of planned 1960s-style suburbanism.
The original tract was divided by the Los Angeles/Ventura county line. In 1968 and 1972, the Ventura County side, two portions of the Westlake development consisting of 8,544 acres, were annexed into the city of Thousand Oaks. In 1981, the Los Angeles County portion of the Westlake master-planned community was incorporated as the City of Westlake Village. California state law prevents a city from existing in two separate counties, so the areas in Ventura County remained part of Thousand Oaks. Much of Westlake Village is surrounded by open space, including hiking and horse trails, as well as the vast Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area; the town is in the northwestern Santa Monica Mountains area, is 9 miles inland from the Pacific Ocean. The lake lies within the watershed of Malibu Creek. Water from the lake must be released into the creek in compliance with an agreement between the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Westlake Lake Management Association, a private entity that oversees the operation of the lake.
In addition to its role as a bedroom community for Los Angeles via the Ventura Freeway, it is home to many large comme
Goleta is a city in southern Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It was incorporated as a city in 2002, after a long period as the largest unincorporated populated area in the county; as of the 2000 census, the census-designated place had a total population of 55,204. The population was 29,888 at the 2010 census, it is known for being near the University of California, Santa Barbara campus, although the CDP of Isla Vista is closer to the campus. The area of present-day Goleta was populated for thousands of years by the native Chumash people. Locally they became known by the Spanish as Canaliños because they lived along the coast adjacent to the Channel Islands. One of the largest villages, S'axpilil, was north of the Goleta Slough, not far from the present-day Santa Barbara Airport; the first European visitor to the Goleta area was the Spanish mariner Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who spent time around the Channel Islands in 1542, died there in 1543. During the 1980s, discovery of some 16th-century cannon on the beach led to the advancement of a theory that Sir Francis Drake sailed into the Goleta Slough in 1579.
Goleta is one of many alternative locations proposed for Drake's "New Albion" believed to be today's Drake's Bay, north of San Francisco. In 1602, another sailing expedition, led by Sebastian Vizcaino, visited the California Coast. Vizcaino named the channel Santa Barbara. Spanish ships associated with the Manila Galleon trade stopped in the area intermittently during the next 167 years, but no permanent settlements were established; the first land expedition to California, led by Gaspar de Portolà, spent several days in the area in 1769, on its way to Monterey Bay, spent the night of August 20 near a creek to the north of the Goleta estuary. At that time, the estuary was a large open-water lagoon that covered most of what is now the city of Goleta, extended as far north as Lake Los Carneros. There were at least five native towns in the area, the largest on an island in the middle of the lagoon. For that reason, expedition engineer Miguel Costanso called the group of towns Pueblos de la Isla.
Some of the soldiers called the island town Mescaltitlan, after a similar Aztec island town in Mexico. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, gave the towns the name Santa Margarita de Cortona; the island retained the name Mescalitan Island until it was bulldozed flat in 1941 to provide fill for the military airfield, now Goleta airport. The Wastewater Treatment Plant of the Goleta Sanitary District is located on what used to be the island. Portola returned to San Diego by the same route in January 1770, mounted a second expedition to Monterey that year. A second Spanish expedition came to the Santa Barbara area of Alta California in 1774, led by Juan Bautista de Anza. De Anza returned the next year, the road along the coast of Santa Barbara County soon became the El Camino Real, connecting the string of Spanish missions. An expedition in 1782, led by military governor Felipe de Neve, founded the Presidio of Santa Barbara and, soon thereafter, the Santa Barbara Mission.
The Goleta area, along with most of the coastal areas of today's Santa Barbara County, was placed in the jurisdiction of the presidio and mission. Sometime after the De Anza expeditions, a sailing ship was wrecked at the mouth of the lagoon, remained visible for many years, giving the area its current name. After Mexico became independent of Spain in 1821, most of the former mission ranch lands were divided up into large grants; the Goleta area became part of two adjacent ranchos. To the east of today's Fairview Avenue was Rancho La Goleta, named for the shipwreck and granted to Daniel A. Hill, the first American resident of Santa Barbara. An 1840s diseño of the rancho shows the wrecked ship; the parts of Goleta to the west of Fairview Avenue were in Rancho Dos Pueblos, granted in 1842 to Nicholas Den, son-in-law of Daniel Hill. Rancho Dos Pueblos included the lagoon, airport, UCSB and Isla Vista, extending to the west as far as the eastern boundary of today's El Capitan State Beach; the Goleta Valley was a prominent lemon-growing region during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was agricultural.
Several areas the Ellwood Mesa, were developed for oil and natural gas extraction. In the 1920s, aviation pioneers started using portions of the Goleta Slough that had silted-in due to agriculture to land and takeoff; as former tidelands, the title to these lands was unclear. Starting in 1940, boosters from the city of Santa Barbara lobbied and obtained federal funding and passed a bond measure to formally develop an airport on the Goleta Slough; the necessity for an airport – or at least a military airfield – became more apparent after a Japanese submarine shelled the Ellwood Oil Field in 1942. This was one of the few direct-fire attacks on the U. S. mainland during WWII. The Marine Corps undertook completion of the airport and established Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara on the site of the current airport and University of California, Santa Barbara campus. After the war, Goleta Valley residents supported the construction of Lake Cachuma, which provided water, enabling a housing boom and the establishment of research and aerospace firms in the area.
In 1954, the University of California, Santa Barbara moved to part of the former Marine base. Along with the boom in aerospace, the character changed from rural-agricultural to high-tech. Goleta remains a center for high-tech firms, a bedroom community for neighboring Santa Barbara. Go