VLC media player is a free and open-source portable cross-platform media player software and streaming media server developed by the VideoLAN project. VLC is available for desktop operating systems and mobile platforms, such as Android, iOS, iPadOS, Windows 10 Mobile and Windows Phone. VLC is available on digital distribution platforms such as Apple's App Store, Google Play and Microsoft Store. VLC supports many audio and video compression methods and file formats, including DVD-Video, video CD and streaming protocols, it is able to transcode multimedia files. The default distribution of VLC includes many free decoding and encoding libraries, avoiding the need for finding/calibrating proprietary plugins; the libavcodec library from the FFmpeg project provides many of VLC's codecs, but the player uses its own muxers and demuxers. It has its own protocol implementations, it gained distinction as the first player to support playback of encrypted DVDs on Linux and macOS by using the libdvdcss DVD decryption library, however this library is controversial and is not included in many software repositories of Linux distributions as a result.
The VideoLan software originated as an academic project in 1996. VLC used to stand for "VideoLAN Client", but since VLC is no longer a client, that initialism no longer applies. It was intended to consist of a client and server to stream videos from satellite dishes across a campus network. Developed by students at the École Centrale Paris, it is now developed by contributors worldwide and is coordinated by VideoLAN, a non-profit organization. Rewritten from scratch in 1998, it was released under GNU General Public License on February 1, 2001, with authorization from the headmaster of the École Centrale Paris; the functionality of the server program, VideoLan Server, has been subsumed into VLC and has been deprecated. The project name has been changed to VLC media player because there is no longer a client/server infrastructure; the cone icon used in VLC is a reference to the traffic cones collected by École Centrale's Networking Students' Association. The cone icon design was changed from a hand drawn low resolution icon to a higher resolution CGI-rendered version in 2006, illustrated by Richard Øiestad.
In 2007 the VLC project decided, for license compatibility reasons, not to upgrade to just released GPLv3. After 13 years of development, version 1.0.0 of VLC media player was released on July 7, 2009. Work began on VLC for Android in 2010 and it has been available for Android devices on the Google Play store since 2011. In September 2010, a company named "Applidium" developed a VLC port for iOS under GPLv2 with the endorsement of the VLC project, accepted by Apple for their App Store. In January 2011, after VLC developer Rémi Denis-Courmont's complaint to Apple about the licensing conflict between the VLC's GPLv2 and the App store's policies, the VLC had been withdrawn from the Apple App Store by Apple. Subsequently, in October 2011 the VLC authors began to relicense the engine parts of VLC from the GPLv2 to the LGPLv2 to achieve better license compatibility, for instance with the Apple App Store. In July 2013 the VLC application could be resubmitted to the iOS App Store under the Mozilla Public License.
Version 2.0.0 of VLC media player was released on February 18, 2012. The version for the Windows Store was released on March 13, 2014. Support for Windows RT, Windows Phone and Xbox One were added later; as of 2016 VLC is the third in the sourceforge.net overall download count, there have been more than 3 billion downloads. Version 3.0 was in development for Windows and macOS since June 2016 and released in February 2018. It contains many new features including Chromecast output support, hardware-accelerated decoding, 4K and 8K playback, 10-bit and HDR playback, 360° video and 3D audio, audio passthrough for HD audio codecs, Blu-ray Java menu support, local network drive browsing. In December 2017 the European Parliament approved a budget that funds a bug bounty program for VLC to improve the EU's IT infrastructure. VLC, like most multimedia frameworks, has a modular design which makes it easier to include modules/plugins for new file formats, interfaces, or streaming methods. VLC 1.0.0 has more than 380 modules.
The VLC core creates its own graph of modules dynamically, depending on the situation: input protocol, input file format, input codec, video card capabilities and other parameters. In VLC everything is a module, like interfaces and audio outputs, scalers and audio/video filters; the default GUI is based on Be API on BeOS, Cocoa for macOS, Qt 4 for Linux and Windows, but all give a similar standard interface. The old default GUI was based on wxWidgets on Windows. VLC supports customizable skins through the skins2 interface, supports Winamp 2 and XMMS skins. Skins are not supported in the macOS version. VLC has ncurses, remote control, telnet console interfaces. There is an HTTP interface, as well as interfaces for mouse gestures and keyboard hotkeys; because VLC is a packet-based media player it plays all video content. It can play some if they're damaged, incomplete, or unfinished, such as files that are still downloading via a peer-to-peer network, it plays m2t MPEG transport streams files while they are still being digitized from an HDV camera via a FireWire cable, making it possible to monitor the video as it is being played.
The player can use libcdio to access.iso files so that users can play files on a disk image if the user's operating system cannot work directly with.iso images. VLC suppo
Avid DNxHD is a lossy high-definition video post-production codec developed by Avid for multi-generation compositing with reduced storage and bandwidth requirements. It is an implementation of SMPTE VC-3 standard. DNxHD is a video codec intended to be usable as both an intermediate format suitable for use while editing and as a presentation format. DNxHD data is stored in an MXF container, although it can be stored in a QuickTime container. On February 13, 2008, Avid reported that DNxHD was approved as compliant with the SMPTE VC-3 standard. DNxHD is intended to be an open standard, but as of March 2008, has remained a proprietary Avid format; the source code for the Avid DNxHD codec is available from Avid for internal evaluation and review, although commercial use requires Avid licensing approval. It has been commercially licensed to a number of companies including Ikegami, FilmLight, Harris Corporation, JVC, Seachange, EVS Broadcast Equipment. On September 14, 2014, at the Avid Connect event in Amsterdam, Avid announced the DNxHR codec to support resolutions greater than 1080p, such as 2K and 4K.
On December 22, 2014, Avid Technology released an update for Media Composer that added support for 4K resolution, the Rec. 2020 color space, a bit rate of up to 3,730 Mbit/s with the DNxHR codec. DNxHD was first supported in Avid DS Nitris Avid Media Composer Adrenaline with the DNxcel option and by Avid Symphony Nitris. Xpress Pro is limited to using DNxHD 8-bit compression, either imported from file or captured using a Media Composer with Adrenaline hardware. Media Composer 2.5 allows editing of uncompressed HD material, either imported or captured on a Symphony Nitris or DS Nitris system. Ikegami's Editcam camera system is unique in its support for DNxHD, records directly to DNxHD encoded video; such material is accessible by editing platforms that directly support the DNxHD codec. The Arri Alexa supports DNxHD since November 2011. Blackmagic Design HyperDeck Shuttle 2 and HyperDeck Studio support DNxHD as of 2012. AJA Video Systems has supported the DNxHD codec in its Ki Pro Mini and Ki Pro Rack recorders and players since 2012.
A standalone QuickTime codec for both Windows XP and Mac OS X is available to create and play QuickTime files containing DNxHD material. Since September 2007, the open source FFmpeg project is providing 8-bit VC-3/DNxHD encoding and decoding features thanks to BBC Research who sponsored the project and Baptiste Coudurier who implemented it. In July 2011, FFmpeg added 10-bit encoding support. DNxHD support is included in stable version 0.5 of FFmpeg, released on March 10, 2009. This allows Linux non-linear video editors Cinelerra and Kdenlive to use DNxHD. At the April 2012 NAB show, Brevity introduced a customized algorithm for the accelerated transport and encoding of DNxHD files. DNxHD is similar to JPEG; every frame consists of VLC-coded DCT coefficients. The header may include quantization tables and 2048 bits of user data; each frame has two GUIDs and timestamp. The frame header is packed into big-endian dwords. Actual frame data consists of packed macroblocks using a technique identical to JPEG: DC prediction and variable-length codes with run length encoding for other 63 coefficients.
DC coefficient is not quantized. The codec supports alpha channel information; the DNxHD codec was submitted to the SMPTE organization as the framework for the VC-3 family of standards. It was approved as SMPTE VC-3 after a two-year testing and validation process in 2008 and 2009: SMPTE 2019-1-2008 VC-3 Picture Compression and Data Stream Format SMPTE 2019-3-2008 VC-3 Type Data Stream Mapping Over SDTI SMPTE 2019-4-2009 Mapping VC-3 Coding Units into the MXF Generic Container RP 2019-2-2009 VC-3 Decoder and Bitstream Conformance Avid DNxHD Codec Features Avid Codec Downloads Ikegami Editcam press release MainConcept VC-3 SDK Nethra VC-3 codec chip
The Subaru SRD-1 was a luxury sports wagon concept car, never put into production. SRD-1 was the first concept car from Subaru Design in Cypress, California; the styling was described as having "a short nose and long passenger compartment designed to provide plenty of room for people and cargo" at the 1990 Chicago Auto Show. According to the double-sided color placard, the SRD-1 was "an innovative dream wagon concept for the'90s and beyond"; the same placard stated that Subaru developed the car because the company "has long been recognized as having the most popular line of import station wagons in the US" and that "to strengthen this leadership position, Subaru Research & Design developed the SRD-1, a family station wagon concept car, with characteristic attention to the future needs of the mature wagon users in the latter half of 1990s". It was supplied with a 3.3-liter DOHC 24-valve horizontally opposed 6-cylinder engine and full-time 4-wheel drive with electronically controlled center differential.
Subaru Research and Design was founded in California in 1986. The headquarters were moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1998, the company was renamed Subaru Research and Development, Inc. that year. The move facilitated SRD's primary mission of supporting emission testing and certification of Subaru vehicles at the EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor. Other concepts proposed by SRD included: SRD-II, a one-seat lightweight vehicle designed to ease gridlock by catering to the single-driver market in southern California which would win a 1994 Discover magazine award. SHARC, the "Subaru Highway Automated Response Concept" electric autonomous police vehicle, which won the 2012 Los Angeles Auto Show Design Challenge; the SRD-1 appeared in the 1991 film Bis ans Ende der Welt. McLellan, Robert. "Subaru 1968 1969 1970 1989 1991 Sales Literature & Brochures". McLellans Automotive. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2017. "1989 Subaru SRD-1". Car Styling 2.0.
Retrieved 30 May 2017. "Subaru SRD-1 ". Old Concept Cars. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2017