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The VT100 is a video terminal, introduced in August 1978 by Digital Equipment Corporation. It was one of the first terminals to support ANSI escape codes for cursor control and other tasks, added a number of extended codes for special features like controlling the status lights on the keyboard; this led to rapid uptake of the ANSI standard, becoming the de facto standard for terminal emulators. The VT100s the VT102, was successful in the market, made DEC the leading terminal vendor; the VT100 series was replaced by the VT200 series starting in 1983. Over six million terminals in the VT series would be sold, based on the success of the VT100s. DEC's first successful video terminal was the VT50, introduced in 1974 and replaced by the VT52 in 1975; the VT52 featured a text display with 80 columns and 24 rows, bidirectional scrolling, a custom control language that allowed the cursor to be moved about the screen. These "smart terminals" were a hit both due to their capabilities and their ability to be run over inexpensive serial links, rather than custom connection as in the case of systems like the IBM 3270 that required expensive controllers for distributed applications.

The VT100 was introduced in August 1978. Like the earlier models, it communicated with its host system over serial lines at a minimum speed of 50 bit/s, but increased the maximum speed to 19,200 bit/s, double that of the VT52. Other improvements on the VT52 included a 132 column mode, a variety of "graphic renditions" including blinking, reverse video, underlining; the VT100 introduced an additional box-drawing character set containing various pseudographics that allowed the drawing of on-screen forms. All setup of the VT100 was accomplished using interactive displays presented on the screen. Maintainability was significantly improved since a VT100 could be disassembled without use of tools; the major change within the system was the control system. Unlike the VT50/52's proprietary cursor control language, the VT100 was based on the emerging ANSI X3.64 standard for command codes. At the time, computer vendors suggested that the standard was beyond the state of the art and could not be implemented at a reasonable price point.

The introduction of low-cost microprocessors and the ever-falling cost of computer memory addressed these problems, the VT100 used the new Intel 8080 as its internal processor. In addition, the VT100 provided backwards compatibility for VT52 users, with support for the VT52 control sequences. In 1983, the VT100 was replaced by the more-powerful VT200 series terminals such as the VT220; the VT100 was the first of Digital's terminals to be based on an industry-standard microprocessor, the Intel 8080. Options could be added to the terminal to support an external printer, additional graphic renditions, more memory; the option, known as Advanced Video Option or AVO, allowed the terminal to support a full 24 lines of text in 132 column mode. The VT100 became a platform; the VT101 and VT102 were non-expandable follow-on versions. The VT101 was a base-model VT100, while the VT102 came standard with the AVO and serial printer port options pre-installed; the VT105 contained a simple graphics subsystem known as waveform graphics, compatible with same system in the earlier VT55.

This system allowed two mathematical functions to be drawn to the screen on top of the normal text display, allowing text and graphics to be mixed to produce charts and similar output. The VT125 added an implementation of the byte-efficient Remote Graphic Instruction Set, ReGIS, which used custom ANSI codes to send the graphics commands to the terminal, rather than requiring the terminal to be set to a separate graphics mode like the VT105; the VT100 form factor left significant room in the case for expansion, DEC used this to produce several all-in-one stand-alone minicomputer systems. The VT103 included a cardcage and 4×4 Q-Bus backplane, sufficient to configure a small LSI-11 system within the case, supported an optional dual TU58 DECtape II block addressable cartridge tape drive which behaves like a slow disk drive; the VT180 added a single-board microcomputer using a Zilog Z80 to run CP/M. The VT278 added a PDP-8 processor, allowing the terminal to run Digital's WPS-8 word processing software.

DEC Special Graphics Notes DEC video terminal history VT100 user guide VT100 Series Technical Manual ECMA-48 The DEC category at the Terminals Wiki

Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights

The Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights is a national Cambodian human rights non-governmental organization established in 1992. It is based in Phnom Penh and operates 12 provincial offices. LICADHO's activities focus on monitoring human rights violations, providing legal representation to victims of human rights abuses and providing humanitarian assistance to victims of human rights abuses; the organization monitors 18 Cambodian prisons and has specialized programs for the protection of women's rights and children's rights. LICADHO is cited in the Cambodian media for stories on local human rights issues; the organization has received international coverage for its work to combat human trafficking and prisons, has been vocal in highlighting Cambodia's land-grabbing crisis since 2003. Current LICADHO director Naly Pilorge has authored a number of op-eds in major international media outlets publicizing the human rights situation in Cambodia. LICADHO was the sole Cambodian rights organization invited to testify at a 2013 US House of Representatives subcommittee hearing on Cambodia's “looming political and social crisis.”

In 1987-88, Dr. Kek Galabru, a Cambodian living abroad, helped arrange negotiations between Prime Minister Hun Sen and then-deposed King Norodom Sihanouk; the negotiations led to the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in 1991, which mandated a United Nations mission to Cambodia to supervise elections and resolve the long-standing conflict. Following the peace agreements, Dr. Galabru returned to Cambodia and founded LICADHO in 1992. LICADHO was one of the first human rights; the former socialist regime did not allow independent national NGOs. LICADHO's first work involved conducting voter education campaigns for the 1993 elections and monitoring the pre-election environment, it began to address serious human rights abuses occurring in the country, with initial activities focused on monitoring rights violations, providing human rights training, providing medical care to prisoners and victims of human rights violations. In 2005, Galabru was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize as part of the 1,000 Women for the Nobel Peace Prize project.

LICADHO pursues its activities through two programs and Protection and Promotion and Advocacy. The organization employed over 125 staff nationwide at the end of 2012. Dr. Pung Chhiv Kek is the current President of LICADHO. Naly Pilorge is the director. According to LICADHO's website, the organization's Monitoring and Protection Program's activities include: Monitoring of State Violations and Women's and Children's Rights Paralegal and Legal Representation Prison Monitoring Medical Assistance Social WorkThe Promotion and Advocacy Program's activities include: Supporting Unions and Grassroots Groups and Networks Training and Information Public Advocacy and Outreach LICADHO is one of two Cambodian members of the International Federation for Human Rights, the other being Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association. LICADHO is a member of Forum-Asia, a regional network of human rights organizations, is a campaign partner of WITNESS. Since 1994, the McGill University Faculty of Law, in Montreal, has sent students to work at LICADHO as part of its International Human Rights Internship Program.

LICADHO website LICADHO Facebook page LICADHO Twitter

Ratchet & Clank: Going Mobile

Ratchet & Clank: Going Mobile is a platform shooter mobile game developed by Sony Pictures Mobile, released on 2 November 2005 in North America. Ratchet and Clank are transported into a cell phone via the "MCGuFIN" and have to fight their way back out. After some Bio Matter Converter technology is accidentally activated and Clank are transported inside a Secret Agent Clank Vid-comic; the boys soon find a teleporter, after fighting against countless Megacorp security forces, including chickenbots, security bots, security tanks and explodes. They arrive at the Communication Station, where transmissions can be sent out from the digital world and in from the analog world, they contacted Big Al for help, he tells them of the Macro Corporeal Geo Fragmentation Ion Negator, which could transport them Back to the analog world. He says he possesses one and says that he will plug it up to his copy of the Secret Agent Clank vid-comic for them to retrieve. There is a problem and the MCGuFIN is split into 6 pieces, each one being put inside a different Vid-comic.

After travelling between the Vid-comics and retrieving them all and Clank return to Al. Al informs them. After bribing his bouncer they discover that Maximillian has left, he has used the same Infolink they need to escape through to the real world, where he plans to wreak havoc. They go to confront him, he reveals that it was all a trap to try to take the MCGuFIN, they defeat him and his security cannon, soon after this, activates the MCGuFIN by sliding down the appropriate Infolink, prepare to transport themselves back to an unknown place in the analog world. This left an opening for the sequel, which would have been called Ratchet & Clank: Clone Home, however it was cancelled. On their way out they can do the same things as in the preceding games, they can collect titanium bolts, upgrade weapons, defeat enemies. An upgrade meter for weapons is not displayed, however the HUD consists of an ammo meter and bolt counter; the game is entirely devoid of sound except the main menu, there are four different enemies.

There is an Arena where the duo can participate in 11 challenges. They are: Micro Alley Cratescraper Coliseum Lance-a-Palooza Explodo Zone Lance-a-Palooza 2 Timed to Die Assassination Station Missile Maelstrom Assassination Station Continuation Timed to Die Again Boar Blitz BattleThere are 7 weapons: The Lancer, Gravity Bomb, Mini Rocket, Circuit Jammer and the Boar-Zooka and the old versatile OmniWrench A sequel was planned in 2006, to be called Ratchet & Clank: Clone Home, but was cancelled; the plot would have been similar to Size Matters and would have had Ratchet and Clank minimizing themselves to fight some "imitators they do not find flattering". It claimed that "Clone Home" would offer more weapons than Going Mobile, supplied six screenshots from the game, it would have included 15 levels. Best Action Game at the Third Annual Mobile Entertainment Awards

Truppführer (modern)

Truppführer is the German term for the position of a unit/troop leader. In relief organizations, disaster control services and rescue teams, or technical assistance organizations, the Truppführer leads a small team of three to five individuals contractors; the Truppführer is managed by a Gruppenführer, acts as deputy or assistant Gruppenführer. At least two Trupps build a Gruppe. In German fire-brigades, the Truppführer leads a team of up to two fireman; the proper name Feuerwehrtrupp is the designation to the smallest firefighter sub-unit. The number of individuals per Feuerwehrtrupp may vary. A fire-brigade Truppführer may act as leader of a self-contained Feuerwehrtrupp, handling special missions and can proceed in the role as commander of the vehicle crew. In this function he may be superior to one Maschinist; the Truppführer of self-contained Feuerwehrtrupp is qualified to act on higher qualification in the role as Gruppenführer. Meet the goals and objectives of the particular mission lead the Trupp in line in accordance with the security and safety of live regulations Truppführer may be the appointment or function designation of a person in uniform in the modern day German Bundeswehr.

One is authorized and competent to command, control, or lead a Trupp that – depending on the service, branch, or branch of service – contains two to six members. Corresponding designations to Trupp / Truppführer in Anglophone armed forces are “party“, “patrol“ or “team“ / “leader“. In the Bundeswehr some Trupps form a Gruppe. To the appointment of Truppführer might be assigned an enlisted rank or a junior NCO. However, in the German special command and support troops a Truppführer might be appointed higher ranks as well. Mechanised infantry: Truppführer Schützentrupp Signal troops: Funktruppführer Maintenance troops: Instandsetzungstruppführer Artillery troops: Geschützführer Armoured troops: Panzerkommandant Company/ Battery troop commander (de: Kompanietruppführer / Batterietruppführer: commands as sub-unit leader the Kompanietrupp in *artillery troops and anti aircraft troops the Battery troop (de: Batterietrupp Military symbol – Trupp / Truppführer – in NATO-armed forces: One single point.

Comparative ranks of Nazi Germany

Talia Balsam

Talia Balsam is an American television and film actress. She is the daughter of actress Joyce Van Patten, she is married to John Slattery. Balsam was born in New York City in 1959 to Joyce Van Patten, her ancestry is Russian-Jewish and Italian and English. She is the niece of actor Dick Van Patten, actress Pat Van Patten and actor and director Tim Van Patten, her half-cousin is actress Grace Van Patten. She attended a boarding school in Arizona, in her adolescent years. Balsam married actor George Clooney in Las Vegas in 1989. Clooney stated, "I probably–definitely–wasn't someone who should have been married at that point." Clooney told Vanity Fair, "I just don't feel like I gave Talia a fair shot." Since 1998 Balsam has been married to John Slattery with whom she has Harry Slattery. They married in the county of Kauai. Together, they played wife Roger and Mona Sterling in Mad Men. Balsam lives with her family in Manhattan. Talia Balsam at AllMovie Talia Balsam on IMDb

Kate Crawford

Kate Crawford is a writer, composer and academic. Crawford is a principal researcher at Microsoft Research, the co-founder and director of research at the AI Now Institute at NYU, a visiting professor at the MIT Center for Civic Media, a senior fellow at the Information Law Institute at NYU, an associate professor in the Journalism and Media Research Centre at the University of New South Wales, she is a member of the WEF's Global Agenda Council on Data-Driven Development. Her research focuses on social change and media technologies on the intersection of humans, mobile devices, social networks, she has published on cultures of technology use and the way media histories inform the present. Crawford was part of the Canberra electronic music duo Btek and released three albums between 1998 and 2003. Crawford co-founded the Sydney-based Deluxe Mood Recordings record label and is a member of the Clan Analogue music collective; as a writer Crawford has written for The Sydney Morning Foreign Policy. She was a Fellow of the Centre for Policy Development and in March 2008 she was selected as one of 1000 Australians to attend the Australia 2020 Summit in Canberra on 19–20 April 2008.

She is a member of the feminist collective Deep Lab. Crawford has a PhD from the University of Sydney. In 2006 her book based on this dissertation, Adult Themes – Rewriting the Rules of Adulthood, won the individual category of the Manning Clark National Cultural Award and in 2008 she received the biennial medal for outstanding scholarship from the Australian Academy of the Humanities. Crawford has spoken and published academic papers on such topics as social media, government regulation of media content, the interplay between gender and mobile devices, young people and sexting, big data, she has given keynote addresses at venues such as the 2013 O'Reilly Strata Conference and the 2013 DataEDGE conference hosted by the University of California, Berkeley School of Information. Her latest book, published in 2014, is the co-authored Understanding the Internet: Language, Media, Power. In 2017 Crawford established the research institute AI Now Institute with Meredith Whittaker, it is associated with New York University Tandon School of Engineering.

In 2019 she was the inaugural holder of the AI & Justice visiting chair at École Normale Supérieure in Paris, in partnership with Fondation Abeona. Official website Btek Official Site