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V bomber

The "V bombers" were the Royal Air Force aircraft during the 1950s and 1960s that comprised the United Kingdom's strategic nuclear strike force known as the V force or Bomber Command Main Force. The three models of strategic bomber, known collectively as the V class, were the Vickers Valiant, which first flew in 1951 and entered service in 1955; the V Bomber force reached its peak in June 1964 with 50 Valiants, 70 Vulcans and 39 Victors in service. When it became clear that the Soviet Union's surface-to-air missiles like the S-75 Dvina could bring down high-flying aircraft, the V bomber force changed to low-level attack methods. Additionally, standoff weapons were introduced, starting with the Blue Steel missile, it was planned to move to the much longer-ranged Skybolt air-launched ballistic missile. When the US cancelled Skybolt, the survivability of the V force was questionable; this led to the Royal Navy taking over the nuclear deterrent role from 1968, using UGM-27 Polaris intercontinental ballistic missiles launched from nuclear submarines.

The tactical role passed to smaller aircraft like the SEPECAT Panavia Tornado. The V bombers were capable of dropping conventional weapons, supported by a complex analogue computer system known as the Navigation and Bombing System that allowed accurate bombing over long ranges; the Valiants were used during the Suez Crisis as conventional bombers. Victors were deployed to the Malay Archipelago as a deterrent during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation but were not used in missions; the Vulcan is well-remembered for its conventional Black Buck bombing raids during the 1982 Falklands War. To support such missions, tanker aircraft versions of all three designs were developed. Reconnaissance versions were produced, other modifications were made during their lifetime; the Valiants were removed from service in 1964 after problems with metal fatigue of their wings became apparent. Usage of all V bombers as weapons platforms, nuclear or conventional, ended in 1982; the Royal Air Force Bomber Command ended the Second World War with a policy of using heavy four-piston-engined bombers for massed raids, remained committed to this policy in the immediate post-war period.

The RAF adopted the Avro Lincoln, an updated version of the wartime Avro Lancaster, as its standard bomber for this purpose. Production of the Lincoln continued after the war, 450 were built. Although touted as a mighty bomber in 1945, it lacked the range to reach targets in the Soviet Union, would be vulnerable to the new jet fighters that were under development. Elements within the RAF and the government sought to adopt the new nuclear weaponry and advances in aviation technology to introduce more potent and effective means of conducting warfare. In November 1944, the UK Chiefs of Staff had requested a report from Sir Henry Tizard on potential future means of warfare. Reporting without knowledge of the progress of Allied efforts to produce an atomic bomb, in July 1945 the Tizard Committee urged the encouragement of large-scale atomic energy research, it foresaw the devastating effects of atomic weapons and envisaged high-flying jet bombers cruising at 500 mph at 40,000 ft. It was thought that potential aggressors might be deterred by the knowledge that Britain would retaliate with atomic weapons if attacked.

At the time, there were those who could see that guided missiles would make such aircraft vulnerable, but development of such missiles was proving difficult, fast and high-flying jet bombers were to serve for years before there was a need for something better. Massed bombers were unnecessary if a single bomber could destroy an entire city or military installation with a nuclear weapon, it would have to be a large bomber, since the first generation of nuclear weapons were big and heavy. Such a large and advanced bomber would be expensive on a per-unit basis, as it would be produced in small quantities. During the early part of the Second World War, Britain had a nuclear weapons project, codenamed Tube Alloys, which the 1943 Quebec Agreement merged with the American Manhattan Project; the British government trusted that the United States would continue to share nuclear technology, which it regarded as a joint discovery, after the war, but the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 ended technical co-operation.

The British government saw this as a resurgence of United States isolationism, as had occurred after the First World War, dreaded the possibility that Britain might have to fight an aggressor alone. It feared that Britain might lose its great power status and its influence in world affairs, it therefore restarted its own nuclear weapons development effort, now codenamed High Explosive Research. The first British atomic bomb was tested in Operation Hurricane on 3 October 1952. In November 1946, the Air Ministry issued an operational requirement for an advanced jet bomber capable of carrying a 10,000-pound bomb to a target 2,000 nautical miles from a base anywhere in the world with a cruising speed of 500 knots and at an altitude of between 35,000 and 50,000 feet; the bomb weight arose from an earlier operational requirement for an atomic bomb, which specified a maximum weight of 10,000 pounds. The speed and altitude requirements were based on what was thought necessary to penetrate enemy air defences.

The aircraft itself was to weigh no more than 200,000 pounds. The Ministry of Supply baulke

Beatrice Chamberlain

Beatrice Chamberlain was a British educationalist and political organizer. She was born in Edgbaston in 1862, her father was Joseph Chamberlain, who became Mayor of Birmingham and a Cabinet minister. Her mother was Florence Kenrick, the cousin of William Kenrick MP. Beatrice was her parents' eldest child and the birth of her younger brother Austen Chamberlain took the life of her mother; as a girl Beatrice dominated her more shy brother Austen. Beatrice was devoted to Caroline Kenrick, her early education was at Edgbaston High School for Girls. Her father married again and had four children, but the birth of the fifth child took the life of his second wife, Florence, in 1875. Beatrice took over as de facto mother and governess to her half siblings which included Neville Chamberlain who would be the Prime Minister who declared war on Germany. Beatrice continued her education in Fontainebleau at a private school for girls. By 1888 she was back in Edgbaston where she was able to release herself from the role of châtelaine to her father when he married for the third time.

Beatrice was free to gather funds for the Children's Country Holidays Fund whilst she helped manage primary schools in Hammersmith and Fulham. Her new stepmother, introduced her to leading American politicians including Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft, her sister Ethel died in 1905. Her brother Austen turned to Beatrice, she able to serve as an advocate for Austen with the wives of those who were opposing him. Being fluent in French she helped organise the French Wounded Emergency Fund at the start of World War One after her father died, her fund raising for hospitals in France was so successful that she was asked to extend her money gathering across the country. She was involved with preparations for peace acting as an advisor to the Ministry for Reconstruction. Change she could see would include giving the vote to some women. All of the Chamberlain family had opposed this change and although Beatrice was involved in creating women's groups within the Unionist Party, she now accepted it as inevitable.

Chamberlain died in Kensington in 1918 in the flu pandemic. Her obituary noted that she had the "mind of a Great Man", her siblings had all admired her. Her brother, went on to win a Nobel Peace Prize and her half siblings all had notable lives

Jackson Graham

Jackson Graham was a Major General of the Army Corps of Engineers in the United States Army and was the first General Manager for the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. He was born in Mosier and during high school he joined his father, a bridge construction foreman on the construction of the main piers of the Golden Gate Bridge as well as several other projects, he received a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from Oregon State University in 1936. He was Student Body President at OSU during his senior year and served in the Reserve Officers Training Corps. Finishing in the top 3 percent on an army exam, he won a regular army engineering commission, he served with two combat engineer units in the European Theater during World War II and commanded three heavy pontoon battalions at Remagen. He gained the temporary rank of Colonel just days before V-E day. During the Korean War, he commanded two engineer aviation groups. In the early 1950s, he served as the Corps of Engineers' chief of personnel.

In his career he was district engineer in Portland and in 1963 as a Brigadier General he became commander of the Ohio River Division, in charge of all civil and military construction for 14 states. He was posted to Director of Civil Works; however in 1966, he underwent open-heart surgery to replace his Aortic Valve and retired in 1967 from the army with full disability. Jackson and his wife, Mabel Lee were planning a retirement in the motor home when approached by WMATA Chairman Walter Tobriner and NCTA Administrator Walter McCarter about taking the position of General Manager. Accepting after repeated pleas and after satisfying himself that the subway was going to be built, he accepted and was sworn in on March 17, 1967, he retired in late 1975. Oregon State University Distinguished Service Award Inductee into Oregon Stater Engineering Hall of Fame Schrag, Zachary M; the Great Society subway: a history of the Washington Metro, JHU Press, 2006, p. 384, ISBN 978-0-8018-8246-3, retrieved 2009-09-29

Imayama Station

Imayama Station is a railway station on the Hitahikosan Line in Hita, Ōita Prefecture, Japan. It is on the Hitahikosan Line. Imayama Station is served by the Hitahikosan Line and is located 65.4 km from the starting point of the line at Jōno. Services to the station are suspended due to damage from torrential rainfall; the station consists of a side platform serving a single track. There is no station building, only a shelter on the platform for passengers. Japanese Government Railways opened the Hitosan Line from Yoake to Hōshuyama on 22 August 1937, with Imayama opening on the same day as an intermediate station along the track. On 1 April 1960, this track was linked to tracks further north and became part of the Hitahikosan Line. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways, the successor of JGR, on 1 April 1987, JR Kyushu took over control of the station. In July 2017, torrential rainfall led to the tracks of the Hitahikosan Line from Soeda to Yoake being covered with mud and debris.

Train services along the sector, which includes Imayama, were cancelled. JR Kyushu has not announced a date for the resumption of service apart from stating that the suspension will be for an indefinite period. In fiscal 2015, there were a total of 4,248 boarding passengers, giving a daily average of 12 passengers. List of railway stations in Japan Imayama

Butler Township, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania

Butler Township is a township in Luzerne County, United States. The population was 9,221 at the 2010 census; the township is named after Col. Zebulon Butler. Butler lost 340 men while attacking a superior force of Iroquois. In 1839, Butler Township was formed from a section of Sugarloaf Township; the southern portion of Butler Township was transferred over to Hazle Township in 1861. Drums is an unincorporated community in Butler Township; the village was named after the Drum family, whose members developed the village's first school, post office, churches and businesses. Family members held positions as pioneers, land developers, justices of the peace, school presidents, tailors, shoe makers, hotel proprietors and Pennsylvania state legislators. In 1738, Philip Drum, aged 36, immigrated to America from Germany with his eight-year-old son Jacob. In 1749, Jacob married Catharine Strauss, who gave birth to a son, George, on June 12, 1762, in Williams Township, Northampton County. According to the 1790 United States Federal Census, George Drum lived in "Allen Township" during the 1790s before moving his family to the Nescopeck Valley.

While in the valley, he established a hotel business and established the towns of Drums and Conyngham. In 1808, Philip Drum bought land in Luzerne County from Benjamin Rush, a close advisor to George Washington during the American Revolutionary War and signed the United States Declaration of Independence. In 1810, Philip established Drums' first carding mill on the Little Nescopeck River. In addition, Philip established the first wool-processing mill in 1835. In 1814, George's second son, George Jr. bought land next to his brother Philip. Philip bought additional land in 1814, 1826, 1836, 1847. George Sr. George Jr. Philip, other Drum family members owned vast acreage of land in Drums and surrounding counties. George Drum's two century old estate still stands in immaculate condition in Conyngham and is a fine example of colonial architecture. George Sr. and George Jr. both died in 1831. On February 27, 1858, Philip died at the age of 71 in Butler Township. Further community and land development by family members made Drums and St. Johns the commercial centers of Butler Township.

Drums is the principal village of the township. The Luzerne County Fresh Air Camp was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 33.6 square miles, of which 33.4 square miles is land and 0.27 square miles, or 0.75%, is water. It is drained by Nescopeck Creek westward into the Susquehanna River. Lake of the Four Seasons is a body of water located in the eastern portion of the township. Butler Township is a rural community consisting of farmland and forests, it is located in the Sugarloaf Valley between Nescopeck Mountain to the north and Buck Mountain to the south. Its villages include Beech Mountain Lakes, Edgewood, Kis-Lyn, Nescopeck Pass, St. Johns, Sand Spring. Butler Township has a warm-summer humid continental climate and the hardiness zone is 6a. Average monthly temperatures in St. Johns range from 25.4 °F in January to 70.8 °F in July. I-80 and I-81 intersect in Butler Township. PA 309 passes through the community.

Hazleton Area School District operates public schools in the township. They include: Drums Elementary-Middle School Hazleton Area Academy of Sciences in DrumsHazleton Area High School in Hazle Township is the zoned high school for all Butler Township residents. Dorrance Township Wright Township Dennison Township Foster Township Hazle Township Sugarloaf Township Hollenback Township Highest recorded temperature: 98 °F on 8/13/05 Lowest recorded temperature: -8 °F on 12/14/05 Yearly precipitation: 42.78 inches Highest recorded temperature: 94 °F on 8/1, 8/2, & 8/3/06 Lowest recorded temperature: 6 °F on 2/19/06 Yearly precipitation: 55.98 inches Highest recorded temperature: 94 °F on 8/2 & 8/25/07 Lowest recorded temperature: -1 °F on 2/5/07 Yearly precipitation: 43.96 inches As of the census of 2000, there were 7,166 people, 2,523 households, 1,899 families residing in the township. The population density was 215.2 people per square mile. There were 2,747 housing units at an average density of 82.5/sq mi.

The racial makeup of the township was 92.69% White, 5.67% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.79% of the population. There were 2,523 households, out of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.7% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.93. In the township the population was spread out, with 23.5% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.5 males. The median in

Kerryn Harrington

Kerryn Harrington is an Australian basketball player and an Australian rules footballer playing with the Bendigo Spirit in the WNBL and the Carlton Football Club in the AFL Women's competition. Harrington began her WNBL career in the inaugural year of the Bendigo Spirit alongside the likes of Kristi Harrower, she would spend the next three seasons in between the AIS and Bendigo. She had a two-season stint in Bulleen. After a one-year absence from the league, she returned playing for the Adelaide Lightning. For the 2015–16 season she returned to Bendigo. Harrington was re-signed by the Spirit, for the 2016–17 season. Harrington was a consistent member of the Gems, she was named to the Gems squad and helped them take home the Gold at the Oceania Under-18 Championship and qualify for the World Championship the following year in Thailand. Playing alongside, Elizabeth Cambage, the team placed fifth, she would once again represent the Gems, despite all their best efforts, was one step closer to the podium, but fell short to Brazil, placing fourth.

On 16 May 2017, Carlton signed Harrington along with Maddison Gay to Carlton's rookie list for the 2018 AFL Women's season. Following their impressive development, the pair were promoted to the senior list on 1 September 2017, she made her league debut in the 2018 season's opening match, an eight-point win over Collingwood. Harrington's partner is ABC Radio Grandstand journalist Joel Peterson; this was confirmed when, during a press conference ahead of the 2020 Adelaide International tennis competition, Peterson used his mobile phone to record the proceedings. Kerryn Harrington's profile on the official website of the Carlton Football Club Kerryn Harrington at AustralianFootball.com