International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Acre is a state located in the northern region of Brazil. Located in the westernmost part of the country with a two hours time difference from Brasília, Acre is bordered clockwise by Amazonas to the north and northeast, Rondônia to the east, the Bolivian department of Pando to the southeast, the Peruvian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto to the south and west, it occupies an area of 152,581.4 km2. Its capital and largest city is Rio Branco. Other important places include Cruzeiro do Sul, Sena Madureira, Tarauacá and Feijó; the intense extractive activity, which reached its height in the 20th century, attracted Brazilians from many regions to the state. From the mixture of sulista, Southeast Brazil and indigenous traditions arose a diverse cuisine, which unites sun-dried meat with pirarucu, a typical fish of the region; such dishes are seasoned with a sauce made from manioc. Fluvial transport, concentrated on the Juruá and Moa rivers, in the western part of the state, the Tarauacá and Envira Rivers in the northwest, is the principal form of circulation between November and June, when the rain leaves the BR-364 impassable, which connects Rio Branco to Cruzeiro do Sul.
The name, which passed from the river to the territory in 1904, to the state in 1962 originates from the Tupi word a'kir ü "green river" or from the form a'kir, of the tupi word ker, "to sleep, to rest". There is a hypothesis that Acquiri derives from Yasi'ri, or Ysi'ri, meaning "flowing or swift water". On the voyage which he made on the Purús River in 1878, the colonizer, João Gabriel de Carvalho Melo, wrote from there to the merchant, Viscount of Santo Elias, asking him for goods to be sent to the "mouth of the Aquiri River". Since in Belém the proprietor of the commercial establishment and the employees were not able to understand João Gabriel's handwriting, or because he had hastily written Acri or Aqri, instead of Aquiri, the goods and the invoice arrived to the colonizer as having been sent to the Acre River. Acre possesses some nicknames: the End of Brazil, The Rubber Tree State, the Latex State and the Western End; the native inhabitants of Acre are called acrianos, in the singular acriano.
Until the entry in force of the Orthographic Agreement of 1990, the correct spelling was acreano in the singular and in the plural acreanos. In 2009, with the new orthographic agreement, the change generated controversy between the Academy of Letters of Acre and the Brazilian Academy of Letters, alleging that the change would mean the denial of the state's historical and cultural roots, changing the last letter of the toponym from "E" to "I"; the state of Acre occupies an area of 152,581 km2 in the extreme west of Brazil. It is located at 70º00'00" west longitude from the Prime Meridian and at 09º00'00" latitude south of the equator. In Brazil, the state is part of the North Region, forming borders with the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, with two countries: Peru and Bolivia. All of the terrain of the state of Acre is part of the low sandstone plateau, or terra firme, morphological unit which dominates most of the Brazilian Amazon; these terranes rise, in Acre, from the southeast to the northeast, with tabular topography in general.
In the extreme west is found the Serra da Contamana or Serra do Divisor, along the western border, with the highest altitudes in the state. About 63 % of state's surface is lies between 300 m in height; the climate is hot and humid, of the Am type in the Köppen climate classification system, the monthly average temperatures vary between 24 and 27 °C, being the lowest average of the North Region. The rainfall reaches an annual total of 2,100 mm, with a clear dry season in the months of June and August; the Amazon Rainforest covers all of the state territory. Rich in rubber trees of the most valuable species and Brazil nut trees, the forest guarantees that Acre is the greatest national producer of rubber and nuts. Acre's principal rivers navigable during the wet season, cross the state with parallel courses which will only converge outside of its territory; the Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world.
Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, tropical forests in the Americas are more species-rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia. As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest; the region of present-day Acre is thought to have been inhabited by Pre-Columbian civilizations since at least 2,100 years ago. Evidence includes complex geoglyphs of this age found in the area, which suggest that the natives who crafted them had a advanced knowledge on this technology. Since at least the early 15th century, the region has been inhabited by peoples who spoke Panoan languages. In the mid-18th century, the region was colonized by the Spanish and became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian and Bolivian wars of independence, which ended in 1826, the region and large p
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves
Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, PC was a Brazilian politician who first served as governor of the State of São Paulo in 1887 as Treasury minister in the 1890s. Rodrigues Alves was elected President of Brazil in 1902 and served until 1906. During this term he remodeled the Brazilian capital, Rio de Janeiro, an effort punctuated by the 1904 "Vaccine Revolt", he was elected president for a second term in 1918, but died in the influenza pandemic before assuming power, on 16 January 1919. He was succeeded by Delfim Moreira. Rodrigues Alves was born in the city of São Paulo, he graduated as a lawyer from the Faculdade de Direito do Largo de São Francisco, São Paulo, in 1870. His public career started as councilman in his native city, from 1866 to 1870, he became prosecutor in 1870. In 1872 he became a member of the state house of representatives until 1879. During the period of the Empire of Brazil, he took office as president of the province of São Paulo, from 1887 til 1888. After the proclamation of the Republic, he was a member of the Constitutional Assembly, a member of the house of representatives.
He occupied the position of Treasury Secretary twice, from 1891 to 1892 and from 1894 to 1896. He assumed his second mandate as state president in São Paulo from 1 May 1900 to 13 February 1902). On February 13 he resigned to run for Brazil's presidency, he was elected to rule as Brazil's 5th president from 1902 to 1906. He distinguished himself as public financier, he applied his experience in the re-urbanization of the capital of Rio de Janeiro. He ran again for the presidency in 1918, won the election with over 99% of the vote, was scheduled to take office on 15 November 1918, he was unable to do so because of illness, he died on 16 January 1919, a victim of the Spanish flu epidemic of 1918–1919.40 years in 1959, his grand-nephew, Carlos Alberto Alves de Carvalho Pinto, assumed his title of state president in São Paulo where he was the president of the state for 4 years
President of Brazil
The President of Brazil the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil or the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces; the presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory; the Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election. Jair Bolsonaro is the current President, he was sworn in on 1 January 2019 following the 2018 presidential election. As a republic with a presidential executive, Brazil grants significant powers to the president, who controls the executive branch, represents the country abroad, appoints the cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Court.
The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Presidents in Brazil have significant lawmaking powers, exercised either by proposing laws to the National Congress or by using Medidas Provisórias, an instrument with the force of law that the president can enact in cases of urgency and necessity except to make changes to some areas of law. A provisional measure comes into effect before Congress votes on it, remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it; the 60-day period can be extended once, up to 120 days. If Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, with changes decided by the legislative branch; the provisional measure expires at the end of the 60-day period, or sooner, if rejected by one of the Houses of Congress. Article 84 of the current Federal Constitution, determines that the president has the power to appoint and dismiss the ministers of state; the Constitution of Brazil requires that a President be a native-born citizen of Brazil, at least 35 years of age, a resident of Brazil, in full exercise of their electoral rights, a registered voter, a member of a political party.
The president of Brazil serves for a term of four years
Mosquitoes are a group of about 3500 species of small insects that are a type of fly. Within that order they constitute the family Culicidae; the word "mosquito" is Spanish for "little fly". Mosquitoes have a slender segmented body, a pair of wings, three pairs of long hair-like legs, feathery antennae, elongated mouthparts. Mosquitoes diverged from other insects about 226 million years ago. Fossils of primitive mosquitoes have been found; the life cycle consists of the egg, larva and adult. Eggs are laid on the water surface. Females of most species have tube-like mouthparts which can pierce the skin of the host in order to extract blood, which contains protein and iron needed to produce eggs. Thousands of mosquito species feed on the blood of various hosts — vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles and some fish; this loss of blood is of any importance to the host. The saliva of the mosquito transmitted to the host with the bite can cause a rash. In addition, many species of mosquitoes inject or ingest disease-causing organisms with the bite and are thus a vector for the transmission of diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, West Nile virus, dengue fever, Zika virus and other arboviruses.
Mosquitoes kill more people than any other animal: over 700,000 each year. The oldest known mosquito with an anatomy similar to modern species was found in 79-million-year-old Canadian amber from the Cretaceous. An older sister species with more primitive features was found in Burmese amber, 90 to 100 million years old. Two mosquito fossils have been found that show little morphological change in modern mosquitoes against their counterpart from 46 million years ago; these fossils are the oldest found to have blood preserved within their abdomens. Despite no fossils being found earlier than the Cretaceous, recent studies suggest that the earliest divergence of mosquitoes between the lineages leading to Anophelinae and Culicinae occurred 226 million years ago; the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is undergoing speciation into the M and S molecular forms. Some pesticides that work on the M form no longer work on the S form. Over 3,500 species of the Culicidae have been described, they are divided into two subfamilies which in turn comprise some 43 genera.
These figures are subject to continual change, as more species are discovered, as DNA studies compel rearrangement of the taxonomy of the family. The two main subfamilies are the Anophelinae and Culicinae, with their genera as shown in the subsection below; the distinction is of great practical importance because the two subfamilies tend to differ in their significance as vectors of different classes of diseases. Speaking, arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever tend to be transmitted by Culicine species, not in the genus Culex; some transmit various species of avian malaria, but it is not clear that they transmit any form of human malaria. Some species do however transmit various forms of filariasis, much as many Simuliidae do. Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies: the Culicidae. Superficially, mosquitoes resemble. Anophelinae Culicinae Over 3,500 species of mosquitoes have thus far been described in the scientific literature. Like all flies, mosquitoes go through four stages in their lifecycles: egg, larva and adult or imago.
The first three stages—egg and pupa—are aquatic. These stages last 5 to 14 days, depending on the species and the ambient temperature, but there are important exceptions. Mosquitoes living in regions where some seasons are freezing or waterless spend part of the year in diapause. For instance, Wyeomyia larvae get frozen into solid lumps of ice during winter and only complete their development in spring; the eggs of some species of Aedes remain unharmed in diapause if they dry out, hatch when they are covered by water. Eggs hatch to become larvae; the adult mosquito emerges from the mature pupa. Bloodsucking mosquitoes, depending on species and weather conditions, have potential adult lifespans ranging from as short as a week to as long as several months; some species can overwinter as adults in diapause. In most species, adult females lay their eggs in stagnant water: some lay near the water's edge while others attach their eggs to aquatic plants; each species selects the situation of the water into which it lays its eggs and does so according to its own ecological adaptations.
Some are generalists and are not fussy. Some breed in some in temporary puddles; some breed in some in salt-marshes. Among those that breed in salt water, some are at home in fresh and salt water up to about one-third the concentration of seawater, whereas others must acclimatize themselves to the salinity; such differences are important because certain ecological pre
Francisco Pereira Passos
Francisco Franco Pereira Passos was a Brazilian engineer and politician. He was mayor of Rio de Janeiro from 1902 to 1906, nominated by President Rodrigues Alves. During his tenure, Pereira Passos promoted a large-scale urban renewal plan for Rio, inspired by Georges-Eugène Haussmann's renewal of Paris. Passos was son of Antônio Pereira Passos, Barão de Mangaratiba, Clara Oliveira; until the age of fourteen he was raised at the Bálsamo Farm, in São João Marcos Rio Claro district, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. In March 1852 he joined the Military School, now the Polytechnic School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - former University of Brazil where he graduated in 1856 as a Bachelor in Physical and Mathematical Sciences, which gave him the Diploma of Civil Engineer, he was a classmate of Benjamin Constant. He studied in France from 1857 to the end of 1860, where he attended the urban reform of Paris promoted by Georges-Eugène Haussmann, his stay in Paris had a profound influence on Passos, to devote himself to railway engineering and urban planning.
On his return to Brazil in 1860, Pereira Passos dedicates himself to the construction and expansion of the Brazilian railway network, under the demand of the coffee economy. He participated in the construction of the Santos-Jundiaí Railroad, the extension of the D. Pedro II Railroad to the São Francisco River, technical consultant to the Ministry of Agriculture and Public Works, he returned to Europe in 1871, in the company of the Viscount of Mauá, as inspector of the Imperial Government. In Europe, he studied European rail systems and was inspired by the Swiss railroad which climbed Mount Righi with slopes of up to 20%, to run the railway extension to Petrópolis. System that would still be used in the first tourist railrway of Brazil, Corcovado Railrway, he directed at the same time the Arsenal of Ponta da Areia, at the invitation of the Baron of Mauá, producing rails and wagons. He was appointed engineer of the Ministry of the Empire in 1874, it is up to Pereira Passos to accompany all the works of the imperial government.
He was part of the commission, to present the city's overall urban reform plan, including widening streets, building major avenues, channeling rivers among other urban and sanitary measures. The survey carried out from 1875 to 1876 would be the basis of the future master plan of the city, put into practice in the administration of Passos as mayor, he returned to Europe in 1880 and remained in Paris until 1881. In the meantime he attended courses at the Sorbonne and the Collége de France, visiting factories, steel mills, transport companies and public works in Europe. Still in 1881 he became a consultant for Compagnie Générale de Chemins de Fer Brésiliens, to accompany the construction of a railway line in Paraná, linking the Port of Paranaguá to Curitiba. On his return to Brazil, he moved to Paraná and only after the railroad was inaugurated in 1882, he returned to the capital. On his return, he assumed the chairmanship of Companhia Ferro-Carril de São Cristóvão, replacing the Viscount of Taunay.
After restructuring the company, in 1884, Pereira Passos proposes to the shareholders the acquisition of the Italian project Giuseppe Fogliani, for the construction of a great avenue. Despite the shareholders' approval and the construction license obtained, the project did not go out of print. However, this would be more an anticipation of what would come to occur in his management as mayor 20 years later: the opening of Avenida Central. Appointed mayor by President Rodrigues Alves, Pereira Passos promoted a great urban reform in the city, with the goal of transforming it into a modern French-style capital, a "Tropical Paris". Inspired by the Haussmann reforms, in four years Pereira Passos transformed the city's appearance: the cortiços and the narrow, dark streets,were demolished, with large boulevards and buildings took their place; some of the works made in his tenure are the opening of Avenida Central, Avenida Beira-Mar and Avenida Atlântica, the modernizing of the Port of Rio de Janeiro and the beginning of the construction of the Municipal Theater.
Passos' reforms and demolitions became known as the "Bota Abaixo". Despite improvements in sanitation and urban development, Pereira Passos's plan entailed a high social cost, with the beginning of formation of favelas in the city; the reform promoted a great valorization of the soil in the central area, still occupied by the low income population. About 1,600 old residential buildings were demolished; as a result of these demolitions, the poor population of the city center was forced to live with other families, to pay high rents or to move to the suburbs, since the popular housing constructed to replace the demolished ones was insufficient. A large part of the immense population affected by the remodeling remained in the region and the hills located in the center of the city - Providência, Santo António, among others - once little inhabited, suffer a rapid occupation of the proletarian housing; the favelas appear, that would mark the configuration of the city until the present day. Pereira Passos died in March 12, 1913, boarding the ocean liner Araguaia, on a trip to France