Eugenics is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. The exact definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined, frederick Osborns 1937 journal article Development of a Eugenic Philosophy framed it as a social philosophy—that is, a philosophy with implications for social order. That definition is not universally accepted, osborn advocated for higher rates of sexual reproduction among people with desired traits, or reduced rates of sexual reproduction and sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits. Alternatively, gene selection rather than people selection has recently been made possible through advances in genome editing, in this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies with the intent to improve the quality of stock of their countries. S. Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is considered by many to be a violation of human rights.
Another criticism is that eugenic policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity, the concept of positive eugenics to produce better human beings has existed at least since Plato suggested selective mating to produce a guardian class. The idea of eugenics to decrease the birth of inferior human beings has existed at least since William Goodell advocated the castration. Galton had read his half-cousin Charles Darwins theory of evolution, which sought to explain the development of plant and animal species, based on his biographical studies, Galton believed that desirable human qualities were hereditary traits, though Darwin strongly disagreed with this elaboration of his theory. In 1883, one year after Darwins death, Galton gave his research a name, with the introduction of genetics, eugenics relied on an ideology of genetic determinism in which human character was due to genes, unaffected by education or living conditions. Many of the early geneticists were not Darwinians, and evolution theory was not needed for eugenics policies based on genetic determinism, throughout its recent history, eugenics has remained controversial.
Eugenics became a discipline at many colleges and universities and received funding from many sources. Both sought support from leading clergymen and modified their message to meet religious ideals, in 1909 the Anglican clergymen William Inge and James Peile both wrote for the British Eugenics Education Society. Inge was a speaker at the 1921 International Eugenics Conference. Three International Eugenics Conferences presented a global venue for eugenists with meetings in 1912 in London, Eugenic policies were first implemented in the early 1900s in the United States. It took root in France and Great Britain, later, in the 1920s and 30s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in other countries including Belgium, Canada and Sweden. In addition to being practiced in a number of countries, eugenics was internationally organized through the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations, the movement advocated measures such as sterilization laws. In its moral dimension, eugenics rejected the doctrine that all beings are born equal
The amniotic sac, commonly called the bag of waters, sometimes the membranes, is the sac in which the fetus develops in amniotes. It is a thin but tough transparent pair of membranes that hold a developing embryo until shortly before birth, the inner of these fetal membranes, the amnion, encloses the amniotic cavity, containing the amniotic fluid and the fetus. The outer membrane, the chorion, contains the amnion and is part of the placenta, on the outer side, the amniotic sac is connected to the yolk sac, the allantois and, via the umbilical cord, to the placenta. Amniocentesis is a procedure where fluid from the sac is sampled to be used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. The amniotic cavity is the closed sac between the embryo and the amnion, containing the amniotic fluid. The amniotic cavity is formed by the fusion of the parts of the fold, which first makes its appearance at the cephalic extremity. As the amniotic fold rises and fuses over the dorsal aspect of the embryo, at the beginning of the second week, a cavity appears within the inner cell mass and when it enlarges it becomes the amniotic cavity.
The floor of the cavity is formed by the epiblast. Epiblast migrates between the disc and trophoblast. In this way the epiblastic cells migrate between the embryoblast and trophoblast, the floor is formed by the epiblast which on transforms to ectoderm while the remaining cells which are present between the embryoblast and trophoblast are called amnioblasts. These cells are derived from epiblast which is transformed into ectoderm. The amniotic cavity is surrounded by a membrane, called the amnion, as the implantation of the blastocyst progresses, a small space appears in the embryoblast, which is the primordium of the amniotic cavity. Soon amniogenic amnioblasts separate from the epiblast and line the amnion, the epiblast forms the floor of the amniotic cavity and is continuous peripherally with the amnion. The hypoblast forms the roof of the cavity and is continuous with the thin exocoelomic membrane. This membrane along with hypoblast forms the yolk sac. The embryonic disc now lies between the cavity and the primary yolk sac.
Cells from the yolk sac endoderm form a layer of tissue, the extraembryonic mesoderm. If, after birth, the amniotic sac or big parts of the membrane remain coating the newborn
Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin from womans last normal menstrual period, or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization, the initiation of pregnancy for the calculation of gestational age can be different from definitions of initiation of pregnancy in context of the abortion debate or beginning of human personhood. In case of in vitro fertilization, calculating days since oocyte retrieval or co-incubation, gestational age can be estimated by calculating days from ovulation if it was estimated from related signs or ovulation tests, and adding 14 days by convention. Following are diagrams for estimating gestational age from obstetric ultrasound, by various target parameters and it usually occurs within a day of ovulation, which, in turn, occurs on average 14.6 days after the beginning of the preceding menstruation.6. In a reference group representing all women, the 95% prediction interval of the LMP-to-ovulation is 8.2 to 20.5 days.
Also, vaginal bleeding occurs during 15-25% of first trimester pregnancies, a fetus born prior to the 37th week of gestation is considered to be preterm. A preterm baby is likely to be premature and consequently faces increased risk of morbidity and mortality, an estimated due date is given by Naegeles rule. The events of development usually occur at specific gestational ages. The gestational timing of a toxin exposure or infection can be used to predict the consequences to the fetus. Only if such newborns survived seven days were classified as live births. If, they died within that interval, they were classified as stillbirths, if they survived that interval but died within the first 365 days they were classified as infant deaths. More recently, thresholds for fetal death continue to vary widely internationally, the gestational age for fetal viability ranges from 16 weeks in Norway, to 20 weeks in the US and Australia,24 weeks in the UK, and 26 weeks in Italy and Spain. Gestational age is sometimes used postnatally to estimate various risk factors, for example, it is a better predictor than postnatal age for risk of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature babies treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
Family-based studies showed that age is partially determined by genetic factors
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a drug class that groups together drugs that provide analgesic and antipyretic effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects. The term nonsteroidal distinguishes these drugs from steroids, among a range of other effects, have a similar eicosanoid-depressing. First used in 1960, the served to distance new drugs from steroid-related iatrogenic tragedies. The most prominent members of group of drugs are aspirin and naproxen. Paracetamol is generally not considered an NSAID because it has only little anti-inflammatory activity and it treats pain mainly by blocking COX-2 mostly in the central nervous system, but not much in the rest of the body. Most NSAIDs inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, and thereby the synthesis of prostaglandins, NSAIDs are usually used for the treatment of acute or chronic conditions where pain and inflammation are present. NSAIDs are generally used for the relief of the following conditions, Aspirin.
This is useful for the management of arterial thrombosis and prevention of cardiovascular events. Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation by inhibiting the action of thromboxane A2, NSAIDs are useful in the management of post-operative dental pain following invasive dental procedures such as dental extraction. When not contra-indicated they are favoured over the use of paracetamol alone due to the effect they provide. When used in combination with paracetamol the analgesic effect has proven to be improved. Use of NSAIDs increases risk of having a range of gastrointestinal problems, when NSAIDs are used for pain management after surgery they cause increased risk of kidney problems. An estimated 10–20% of NSAID patients experience dyspepsia, in the 1990s high doses of prescription NSAIDs were associated with serious upper gastrointestinal adverse events, including bleeding. Over the past decade, deaths associated with gastric bleeding have declined, NSAIDs, like all drugs, may interact with other medications.
For example, concurrent use of NSAIDs and quinolones may increase the risk of quinolones adverse central nervous system effects, there is an argument over the benefits and risks of NSAIDs for treating chronic musculoskeletal pain. Each drug has a profile and balancing the risk of no treatment with the competing potential risks of various therapies is the clinicians responsibility. If a COX-2 inhibitor is taken, a traditional NSAID should not be taken at the same time, in addition, people on daily aspirin therapy must be careful if they use other NSAIDs, as these may inhibit the cardioprotective effects of aspirin. Rofecoxib was shown to significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions compared with naproxen
Dilation and curettage
Dilation and curettage refers to the dilation of the cervix and surgical removal of part of the lining of the uterus and/or contents of the uterus by scraping and scooping. It is a therapeutic gynecological procedure as well as the most often used method of first trimester miscarriage or abortion, D&C normally refers to a procedure involving a curette, called sharp curettage. The woman is put under monitored anesthesia care before the procedure begins. The first step in a D&C is to dilate the cervix and this can be done with Hegar dilators. A curette, a rod with a handle on one end. The curette is used to scrape the lining of the uterus. This tissue is examined for completeness or by pathology for abnormalities and this may increase a womans risk of infection and continued bleeding}, and as a method of abortion. In contrast, D&C remains standard care for missed and incomplete miscarriage in many countries despite the existence of alternatives currently used for abortions, the World Health Organization recommends D&C as a method of surgical abortion only when manual vacuum aspiration is unavailable.
Most D&Cs are now carried out for miscarriage management and other such as diagnosis. Hysteroscopy is an alternative to D&C for many surgical indications from diagnosis of uterine pathology to the removal of fibroids. It poses less risk because the doctor has a view inside the uterus during surgery, medical management of miscarriage and medical abortion using drugs such as misoprostol and mifepristone are safe, non-invasive and cheaper alternatives to D&C. One risk of sharp curettage is uterine perforation, although normally no treatment is required for uterine perforation, a laparoscopy may be done to verify that bleeding has stopped on its own. Infection of the uterus or fallopian tubes is a possible complication, another risk is intrauterine adhesions, or Ashermans syndrome. One study found that in women who had one or two sharp curettage procedures for miscarriage, 14-16% developed some adhesions, women who underwent three sharp curettage procedures for miscarriage had a 32% risk of developing adhesions.
The risk of Ashermans syndrome was found to be 30. 9% in women who had D&C following a missed miscarriage, untreated Ashermans syndrome, especially if severe, increases the risk of complications in future pregnancies, such as ectopic pregnancy and abnormal placentation. According to recent case reports, use of vacuum aspiration can lead to intrauterine adhesions and evacuation Menstrual extraction Vacuum aspiration About D&C and alternatives
Crisis pregnancy center
A crisis pregnancy center, sometimes called a pregnancy resource center, is a type of non-profit organization established to counsel pregnant women against having an abortion. CPCs that qualify as medical clinics may provide testing, sonograms. As of 2013, there were approximately 2,500 CPCs in the United States, as compared with 1,800 abortion clinics, hundreds more CPCs operate outside of the U. S. and Canada. During the Presidency of George W. Bush CPCs received tens of millions of dollars in federal grants, as of 2015, more than half of the U. S. states helped to fund crisis pregnancy centers either directly and/or through the sale of Choose Life license plates. In 1993, the National Institute of Family and Life Advocates was formed to provide advice to CPCs in the U. S. The Family Research Council describes the beginnings of the crisis pregnancy center movement in a 2009 report, in 1968, the first network of centers was established by Birthright, in Canada. Alternatives to Abortion, today known as Heartbeat International, was founded in 1971, Christian Action Council founded its first center in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1980.
Christian Action Council eventually would become Care Net, others cite Robert Pearson as the founder of the first CPC. After abortion was legalized in Hawaii in 1967, he started a crisis center in Honolulu to fight it. While CPCs often look like abortion clinics and are located near them, most are not legally licensed as medical clinics. They may provide screening for sexually transmitted infections, adoption referrals, religious counseling, financial assistance, prenatal services, child-rearing resources and other services. Peer counselors are typically covered by mandated reporting laws with regard to rape, and they are encouraged to ask about the age of the woman. While some centers refer clients for contraception, most do not, others may offer Bible study sessions and peer counseling for women who have recently had abortions. CPCs have been criticized for misleading advertising, for the dissemination of medical information, for religious proselytism. Some CPCs conduct free sonograms as a way to women from abortion.
CPCs have frequently found to disseminate false medical information. In some cases such information may be based on studies that have been discredited by more recent research. In others, CPCs may falsely claim to be describing a scientific consensus
A cannula is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data. In simple terms, a cannula can surround the inner or outer surfaces of a trocar needle thus extending the effective needle length by at least half the length of the original needle and it is called as IV cannula. Its size mainly ranges from 14 to 24 gauge, different sized cannula have different colours on it. Decannulation is the permanent removal of a cannula, especially of a tracheostomy cannula, cannulae normally come with a trocar attached, which allows puncturing of the body in order to get into the intended space. Many types of cannulae exist, Intravenous cannulae are the most common in hospital use, a variety of cannulae are used to establish cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery. A nasal cannula is a piece of tubing that runs under the nose and is used to administer oxygen. A venous cannula is inserted into a vein, primarily for the administration of fluids, for obtaining blood samples.
Insertion of the cannula is a painful procedure that can lead to anxiety. Use of a vapocoolant immediately before cannulation reduces pain during the procedure, selection of an appropriate vein and gently applying pressure slightly above the insertion point on removal of the cannula may prevent this. Infiltration, when infusate enters the subcutaneous tissue instead of the vein, to prevent this, a cannula with accurate trim distances may be used. It is essential to fix the cannula in place firmly, this can be caused by air, a thrombus, or fragment of a catheter breaking off and entering the venous system. It can cause a Pulmonary Embolism, air emboli can be avoided by making sure that there is no air in the system. A thromboembolism can be avoided by using a smaller cannula, phlebitis, an inflammation of the vein resulting from mechanical or chemical irritation or from an infection. Phlebitis can be avoided by choosing the site for cannulation. The removal of a tube is referred to as decannulation.
Cannulas are a component used in the insertion of the Verichip, much larger cannulas are used to research about the digestive system of cows. Depending on the size of the diameter, it can be used either for the injection of cosmetic wrinkle fillers like hyaluronic acid, poly-L-lactic acid, CaHA. The advantage of using these is that they are painful, have less risk of bruising, have less swelling
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the zygote possesses half the DNA of each of its two parents. In plants and some protists, the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism, the result of this process is an embryo. First attested in English in the mid-14c, the word embryon derives from Medieval Latin embryo, itself from Greek ἔμβρυον, lit. Young one, which is the neuter of ἔμβρυος, growing in, from ἐν, in and βρύω, swell, be full, the proper Latinized form of the Greek term would be embryum. In animals, the development of the zygote into an embryo proceeds through specific stages of blastula, gastrula. The blastula stage typically features a fluid-filled cavity, the blastocoel, surrounded by a sphere or sheet of cells, in a placental mammal, an ovum is fertilized in a fallopian tube through which it travels into the uterus.
An embryo is called a fetus at an advanced stage of development. In humans, this is from the week of gestation. During gastrulation the cells of the blastula undergo coordinated processes of cell division, invasion, in triploblastic organisms, the three germ layers are called endoderm and mesoderm. The position and arrangement of the layers are highly species-specific, however. For example, in neurogenesis, a subpopulation of cells is set aside to become the brain, spinal cord. Modern developmental biology is extensively probing the molecular basis for every type of organogenesis, including angiogenesis, myogenesis and many others. In botany, a plant embryo is part of a seed, consisting of precursor tissues for the leaves, stem. Once the embryo begins to germinate — grow out from the seed — it is called a seedling and ferns produce an embryo, but do not produce seeds. In these plants, the embryo begins its existence attached to the inside of the archegonium on a parental gametophyte from which the egg cell was generated, the structure and development of the rest of the embryo varies by group of plants.
Once the embryo has expanded beyond the enclosing archegonium, it is no longer termed an embryo, embryos are used in various fields of research and in techniques of assisted reproductive technology. An egg may be fertilized in vitro and the embryo may be frozen for use
Beginning of human personhood
The beginning of human personhood is the moment when a human is first recognized as a person. There are differences of opinion as to the time when human personhood begins. The issue arises in a number of fields including science, religion and law, and is most acute in debates relating to abortion, stem cell research, reproductive rights, and fetal rights. Traditionally, the concept of personhood has entailed the concept of soul, with regards to the beginning of human personhood, one historical question has been, when does the soul enter the body. In modern terms, the question could be put instead, at what point does the individual develop personhood or selfhood. Related issues attached to the question of the beginning of human personhood include both the status, bodily integrity, and subjectivity of mothers and the philosophical concept of natality. However, when began to develop its own distinctive features this view changed. Ancient writers held diverse views on the subject of the beginning of personhood, understood as the entry or development in the human body.
In Panpsychism in the West, David Skrbina noted the various kinds of soul envisioned by the early Greeks, the Stoics, holding a belief in the pneuma, held that the soul enters the body when the newborn takes its first breath. Aristotle developed a theory of progressive ensoulment and he believed that the female substance was passive, the male active, and that it required time for the male substance to animate the whole. Hippocrates and the Pythagoreans stated that fertilization marked the beginning of a life. According to Hinduism Today, Vedic literature states that the soul enters the body at conception, concepts of pre-existence is found in various forms in Plato and Islam. The Jewish Talmud holds that all life is precious but that a fetus is not a person, If a womans life is endangered by a pregnancy, an abortion is permitted. However, if the part of the fetus has emerged from the womb, its life may not be taken even to save the womans. Some medieval Christian theologians, such as Marsilio Ficino, held that ensoulment occurs when an infant takes its first breath of air.
They cite, among other passages, Genesis 2,7, which reads, And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul. The Early Church held various views on the subject, primarily either the ensoulment at conception or delayed hominization, tertullian held a view, which was condemned as heresy. This view held that the soul was derived from the parents and this viewpoint was deemed unsatisfactory by St. Augustine, as it did not account for original sin
Henekh Henry Morgentaler, CM, was a Jewish Polish-born Canadian physician and pro-choice advocate who fought numerous legal battles aimed at expanding abortion rights in Canada. As a youth during World War II, Morgentaler was imprisoned at the Łódź Ghetto and he opened his first abortion clinic in 1969 in Montreal, challenging what he saw as an unjust law placing burdensome restrictions on women seeking abortions. He was the first doctor in North America to use vacuum aspiration and went on to open twenty clinics and train more than one hundred doctors. Morgentaler twice challenged the constitutionality of the abortion law, losing the first time, in Morgentaler v R in 1975. Morgentaler died at the age of 90 of a heart attack, Morgentaler was born in Łódź, about 120 kilometres southwest of Warsaw, to Josef and Golda Morgentaler. Before World War II, Morgentalers father was active in the General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland, during the German occupation of Poland, a Jewish ghetto in Łódź was created and Jews were not allowed to leave it.
Morgentalers father was killed by the Gestapo, while Henry lived with his mother and younger brother in the Ghetto Litzmannstadt with 164,000 others and his sister had left for Warsaw with her husband before the start of the war. She was incarcerated there at the Warsaw Ghetto, and took part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and she was killed at the Treblinka extermination camp. After two days in hiding, on August 23,1942 they were found and deported to Auschwitz concentration camp, the boys never saw their mother again, Golda died at Auschwitz. On August 27, Henry and Abraham were shipped to KL Landsberg, Dachau concentration camp, in February,1943, Henry was sent to KL Kaufering. By the end of the war he was in sick bay, after his release at age 22 Henry weighed just 32 kg. He entered a Displaced Persons Hospital in Landsberg am Lech, after a few months there he was moved to a DP Hospital in St. Ottilien, and thence with Abraham to Feldafing, a Displaced Persons Camp, in Bavaria. In 1946, Abraham emigrated to the United States, in 1947 Henry made his way to Brussels in Belgium, where he rejoined his friends the Rosenfarbs.
Because they were not in Belgium legally, he and his fiancée, chavas sister, Henia Reinhartz, in her Memoir and Pieces, described the harsh economic conditions while the family, and Henry, lived in Brussels. One picture shows Henia and their mother wearing coats made from blankets donated by UNRRA, in 1949 Henry and Chava were married. They left Europe in February,1950, on the S. S. Samaria, the couple settled in Montréal, where Chava resumed her vocation as a writer. Several months their first child, was born and their second child was a son, Abraham. Henry was, by his own admission, a proud womanizer and their marriage ended in divorce in the mid-1970s