SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Vaishali (ancient city)

Vaishali or Vesali was a city in present-day Bihar, is now an archaeological site. It is a part of the Tirhut Division, it was the capital city of the Vajjian Confederacy of, considered one of the first examples of a republic around the 6th century BCE. Gautama Buddha preached his last sermon before his death in c. 483 BCE in 383 BCE the Second Buddhist council was convened here by King Kalasoka, making it an important place in both Jain and Buddhist religions. It contains one of the best-preserved of the Pillars of Ashoka, topped by a single Asiatic lion; the city finds mention in the travel accounts of Chinese explorers and Xuanzang, which were used in 1861 by British archaeologist Alexander Cunningham to first identify Vaiśālī with the present village of Basarh in Vaishali District, Bihar. Vaishali derives its name from King Vishal of the Mahabharata age. Before the advent of Buddhism and Jainism, Vaiśālī was the capital of the republican Licchavi state. In that period, Vaiśālī was an ancient metropolis and the capital city of the republic of the Vaiśālī state, which covered most of the Himalayan Gangetic region of present-day Bihar state, India.

However little is known about the early history of Vaiśālī. The Vishnu Purana records 34 kings of Vaiśālī, the first being Nabhaga, believed to have abdicated his throne over a matter of human rights and believed to have declared: "I am now a free tiller of the soil, king over my acre." The last among the 34 was Sumati, considered a contemporary of Dasaratha, father of the Hindu god, Lord Rama. Vaiśālī is renowned as the land of Amrapali, the great Indian courtesan, who appears in many folktales, as well as in Buddhist literature. Ambapali became a disciple of Buddha. Manudev was a famous king of the illustrious Lichchavi clan of the confederacy, who desired to possess Amrapali after he saw her dance performance in Vaishali. A kilometer away is Abhishek Pushkarini, the coronation tank; the sacred waters of the tank anointed the elected representatives of Vaiśālī. Next to it stands the Japanese temple and the Vishwa Shanti Stupa built by the Nipponzan Myohoji sect of Japan. A small part of the Buddha's relics found in Vaiśālī have been enshrined in the foundation and in the chhatra of the Stupa.

Near the coronation tank is the Relic Stupa. Here the Lichchavis reverentially encased one of the eight portions of the Master's relics, which they received after the Mahaparinirvana. After his last discourse the Awakened One set out for Kushinagar, but the Licchavis kept following him. Buddha gave them his alms bowl but they still refused to return; the Master created an illusion of a river in spate. This site can be identified with Deora in modern Kesariya village, where Ashoka built a stupa. Ānanda, the favourite disciple of the Buddha, attained Nirvana in the midst of the Ganges outside Vaiśālī. Vaishali is well known for its close association with the Buddha. After leaving Kapilavastu for renunciation, he came to Vaishali first and had his spiritual training from Ramaputra Udraka and Alara Kalama. After the Enlightenment the Buddha visited Vaishali, he organized his Bhikshu Sangha on the pattern of Vaishalian democracy. It was here that he established the Bhikshuni Sangha, initiating his maternal aunt Maha Prajavati Gautami into the order.

His last Varshavasa was here and he announced his approaching Mahaparinirvana just three months in advance. Before leaving for Kusinagara, where he died, he left his alms-bowl here with the people of Vaishali; the Svetambaras state that the final Tirthankara, Lord Mahavira, was born and raised in Kshatriyakund district, Vaiśālī to King Siddhartha and Queen Trishila. VVaiśālī was the residence of Kandaramasuka and Pātikaputta. Near the coronation tank is the Relic Stupa. Here the Licchavis reverentially encased one of the eight portions of the Master's relics, which they received after the Mahaparinirvana. After his last discourse the Awakened One set out for Kushinagar, but the Licchavis kept following him. Buddha gave them his alms bowl but they still refused to return; the Master created an illusion of a river in spate. This site can be identified with Deora in modern Kesariya village, where Ashoka built a stupa. Kutagarasala Vihara is the monastery where Buddha most stayed while visiting Vaiśālī.

It is located 3 kilometres from the relic Stupa, on its ground can be found the Ānanda Stupa, with an Asokan pillar in good condition, an ancient pond. A few hundred metres from the Relic Stupa is the coronation tank; the sacred waters of the tank anointed the elected representatives of Vaiśālī. Next to the coronation tank stands the Japanese temple and the Viśvā Śānti Stūpa built by Japanese Nichiren Buddhist sect Nipponzan-Myōhōji. A small part of the Buddha's relics found in Vaiśālī have been enshrined in the foundation and in the chhatra of the Stupa. Vaishali museum was established in 1971 by Archaeological survey of India to persevere and display the antiquities found during exploration of sites with ancient Vaishali. In February 2019, Chief Minister of Bihar Nitish Kumar laid the foundation stone of Buddha Samyak Darshan Museum and Memorial Stupa to house Buddha relics. Mithila Pillars of Ashoka Chaumukhi Mahadev Mandir Kumar, Dilip. Archaeology of Vaishali. Ramanand Vidya Bhawan. Singer, Noel.

F.. Vaishali and the Indianization of Arakan. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-313-0405-1. Entry on

Echinidae

Echinidae is a family of sea urchins in the order Echinoida. Members of the family are found in the Antarctic. Members of the family Echinidae are characterized by having trigeminate ambulacra with pairs of tube feet pores arranged either as vertical arcs or as a dense band; the ambulacral plates are compound. The tubercles do not have crenulate edges. There are few tubercles on the interambulacral plates; the buccal notches are reduced in size and, their most significant distinguishing feature, the pedicellariae are globiferous and have one or two pairs of lateral teeth on the narrow tubular blades. According to the World Register of Marine Species, the following genera are included in the family: Dermechinus -- 1 species Echinus Linnaeus, 1758 -- 9 species Gracilechinus -- 8 species Polyechinus -- 1 species Sterechinus -- 6 species Atactus Pomel, 1883 † Stirechinus

Gul Circle MRT station

Gul Circle MRT station is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station along the East West Line located at the boundary of the planning areas of Tuas and Pioneer, Singapore. Gul Circle station is the only above-ground station on the MRT network where the eastbound and westbound platforms are not located on the same level; the idea of the extension was first mooted on 25 January 2008 with the extension proposed to be completed by 2015. The stations were first announced on 11 January 2011 by Transport Minister Mr Raymond Lim in a speech while visiting Bedok when new platform screen doors opened there and fixed 2016 as the original year of the line completion; the station is expected to benefit an estimated 100,000 commuters daily. It is the first elevated stacked island platform, as there is a possible future two-station extension to Tuas South leading out from this station or interchange with another line; the $190-million contract was awarded to Shanghai Tunnel Engineering, a major civil engineering company from China for this station.

This station ceiling is 33 metres above ground - about the height of a 10-storey HDB block, the highest elevated station along the MRT network. There are two reasons for the height. Firstly, the 7.5 km, $3.5 billion extension goes over the Ayer Rajah Expressway viaduct at the Pan-Island Expressway interchange. Secondly, a 4.8 km portion of the line is integrated with a road viaduct, which runs below the rail line. The opening of the station was delayed from 2016 to the second quarter of 2017 to make way for the installation of the new signalling system, it became operational on 18 June that year. Train services between Gul Circle and Tuas Link were temporary closed between 16 and 19 November 2017 following a collision that happened at Joo Koon. On 20 November 2017, train services from Gul Circle to Tuas Link were resumed. During the suspension, train services are as follows, with the exception of Sunday signalling trials which have commenced on 29 April 2018: From 28 May 2018 onwards, trains once again ran through from Pasir Ris to Tuas Link and vice versa, after the transition to the CBTC Moving Block system, passengers will no longer need to alight at Gul Circle.

Platform A, located at L3 is for trains heading to Pasir Ris Platform B, located at L4 is for trains heading to Tuas Link. The station was built with two extra tracks opposite the operational EWL tracks, for cross-platform interchange with a future two-station extension of the line to Tuas South. However, on 7 March 2019, the Government announced that Tuas South did not have enough ridership in the near to medium term to support an MRT line. Official website