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Vaishnavism

Vaishnavism is one of the major Hindu denominations along with Shaivism and Smartism. It is called Vishnuism, its followers are called Vaishnavas or Vaishnavites, it considers Vishnu as the Supreme Lord; the tradition is notable for its avatar doctrine, wherein Vishnu is revered in one of many distinct incarnations. Rama, Narayana, Hari, Kesava, Govinda and Jagannath are among the popular names used for the same supreme being; the tradition has traceable roots to the 1st millennium BCE, as Bhagavatism called Krishnaism. Developments led by Ramananda created a Rama-oriented movement, now the largest monastic group in Asia; the Vaishnava tradition has many sampradayas ranging from the medieval era Dvaita school of Madhvacharya to Vishishtadvaita school of Ramanuja. The tradition is known for the loving devotion to an avatar of Vishnu, it has been key to the spread of the Bhakti movement in South Asia in the 2nd millennium CE. Key texts in Vaishnavism include the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Pancaratra texts and the Bhagavata Purana.

Vaishnavism originates in the latest centuries BCE and the early centuries CE, with the cult of the heroic Vāsudeva, a leading member of the Vrishni heroes, amalgamated with the cult of Krishna, hero of the Yadavas, still several centuries with the "divine child" Bala Krishna of the Gopala traditions, followed by a syncretism of these non-Vedic traditions with the Mahabharata canon, thus affiliating itself with Vedism in order to become acceptable to the orthodox establishment. Krishnaism becomes associated with bhakti yoga in the medieval period. Although Vishnu was a Vedic solar deity, he is mentioned more compared to Agni and other Vedic deities, thereby suggesting that he had a major position in the Vedic religion. Other scholars state that there are other Vedic deities, such as water deity Nara, who together form the historical roots of Vaishnavism. In the late-Vedic texts, the concept of a metaphysical Brahman grows in prominence, the Vaishnavism tradition considered Vishnu to be identical to Brahman, just like Shaivism and Shaktism consider Shiva and Devi to be Brahman respectively.

The ancient emergence of Vaishnavism is unclear, the evidence inconsistent and scanty. According to Dalal, the origins may be in Vedic deity Bhaga. According to Preciado-Solís, the Vedic deities Nara and Narayana form one of the Vedic roots of Vaishnavism. According to Dandekar, what is understood today as Vaishnavism did not originate in Vedism at all, but emerged from the merger of several popular theistic traditions which developed after the decline of Vedism at the end of the Vedic period before the second urbanisation of northern India, in the 7th to 4th century BCE, it formed around the cult of Vāsudeva, a deified leader of the Vrishnis, one of the Vrishni heroes. Vāsudeva was amalgamated with Krishna "the deified tribal hero and religious leader of the Yadavas", to form the merged deity Bhagavan Vāsudeva-Krishna, due to the close relation between the tribes of the Vrishnis and the Yadavas; this was followed by a merger with the cult of Gopala-Krishna of the cowherd community of the Abhıras in the 4th century CE.

The character of Gopala Krishna is considered to be non-Vedic. According to Dandekar, such mergers consolidated the position of Krishnaism between the heterodox sramana movement and the orthodox Vedic religion; the "Greater Krsnaism", states Dandekar adopted the Rigvedic Vishnu as Supreme deity to increase its appeal towards orthodox elements. Syncretism of various traditions and Vedism resulted in Vaishnavism. At this stage that Vishnu of the Rig Veda was assimilated into non-Vedic Krishnaism and became the equivalent of the Supreme God; the appearance of Krishna as one of the Avatars of Vishnu dates to the period of the Sanskrit epics in the early centuries CE. The Bhagavad Gita was incorporated into the Mahabharata as a key text for Krishnaism; the Narayana-cult was included, which further brahmanized Vaishnavism. The Nara-Narayana cult may have originated in Badari, a northern ridge of the Hindu Kush, absorbed into the Vedic orthodoxy as Purusa Narayana. Purusa Narayana may have been turned into Arjuna and Krsna.

This complex history is reflected in the two main historical denominations of Vishnavism. The Bhagavats, worship Vāsudeva-Krsna, are followers of brahmanic Vaishnavism, while the Pacaratrins regard Narayana as their founder, are followers of Tantric Vaishnavism. According to Hardy, there is evidence of early "southern Krishnaism," despite the tendency to allocate the Krishna-traditions to the Northern traditions. South Indian texts show close parallel with the Sanskrit traditions of Krishna and his gopi companions, so ubiquitous in North Indian text and imagery. Early writings in Dravidian culture such as Manimekalai and the Cilappatikaram present Krishna, his brother, favourite female companions in the similar terms. Hardy argues that the Sanskrit Bhagavata Purana is a Sanskrit "translation" of the bhakti of the Tamil alvars. Devotion to southern Indian Mal may be an early form of Krishnaism, since Mal appears as a divine figure like Krishna with some elements of Vishnu; the Alvars, whose name can be translated "sages" or "saints", were devotees of Mal.

Their poems show a pronounced orientation to the Vaishnava, Krishna, side of Mal. But they do not make the distinction between Krishna and Vishnu on the basis of the concept of the Avatars. Yet, according to Hardy the term "Mayonism" should be used instead of "Krishnaism"

Mobile Public Affairs Detachment

A Mobile public affairs detachment, or MPAD, is a public relations type of unit found in the United States Army. A mobile public affairs detachment is a modular, task organizable unit that augments a corps public affairs section or a press camp headquarters. In support of a PCH, it provides manpower and equipment to establish and operate a media center at theater army, TAACOM and corps levels; the MPAD includes 20 soldiers. These soldiers include one first sergeant, three captains, seven broadcast journalists, eight print journalists. Following the merging of MOS 46R and MOS 46Q to MOS 46S, the seven broadcast journalists and eight print journalists can be expected to be replaced by fifteen public affairs specialists, the MOS which replaces both roles; the journalists range in rank from private. However, a recent change to the units MTOE allows an MPAD to contain all ranks from through. MPADs are charged with distributing media to both internal and external audiences, they may be expected to produce either magazine, or a newscast.

MPADs serve to facilitate civilian media of all nationalities. They ensure the Army's policy of "minimum delay" is upheld; this is accomplished with press releases, response to queries, by aiding media with travel, lodging and internet or phone connectivity. In addition, both the Army print and broadcast journalists within the MPAD distribute high quality video footage and print stories from their area of deployment to news organizations all over the world. Many of these are used by these media organizations in their broadcasts and publications; the MPAD records archival combat footage. Much of this footage is used in civilian news or documentary programs; the MPAD units represent an invaluable tool for division, corps or theater commanders who are able to augment their organic public affairs assets. Although an independent and separately attached unit, the MPAD falls within the authority of the division, corps or theater public affairs officer depending on which of these echelons they are attached to while deployed.

There are four active duty MPADs. The 22nd MPAD is stationed in Fort Bragg, North Carolina, until was the only active duty MPAD; the three newest MPADs were created to assist in the wake of September 11, 2001 and the Global War on Terror. They are the 5th MPAD, stationed in Fort Lewis, the 7th MPAD, stationed in Fort Hood and the 16th MPAD, stationed in Fort Bliss, Texas. There are 16 MPADs in the Army Reserve; this does not include assets belonging to the Army National Guard. U. S. Army FM 3-61.1, Public Affairs Tactics and Procedures 122nd MPAD in Iraq

Morte Bay

Morte Bay is a bay on the northwest coast of Devon in southwest England. It stretches from Whiting Hole about 500m north of Baggy Point in the south to Morte Point in the north. At the back of the bay is a long stretch of beach known as Woolacombe Sand though that southern section of the beach, in the parish of Georgeham is known as Putsborough Sand; the village of Woolacombe is at the northeastern corner of the bay. To its south are the hills of Woolacombe Down and Pickwell Down which provide an eastern backdrop to the beach and the wider bay; the South West Coast Path and Tarka Trail follow the coast around the bay. The cliffs on the northern side of the bay are formed from the Morte Slates whilst those on the southern side are formed from the Upcott Slates. Underlying the bay itself and forming the higher ground to its east are the Pickwell Down Sandstones