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Vajiravudh known as King Rama VI, reigning title Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua, was the sixth monarch of Siam under the Chakri dynasty, ruling from 1910 until his death in 1925. King Vajiravudh is known for his efforts to promote Siamese nationalism, his reign was characterized by Siam's movement further towards democracy and minimal participation in World War I. Prince Vajiravudh was born on 1 January 1881 to Chulalongkorn and one of his four queens of royal birth, Saovabha Phongsri. In 1888, upon coming of age, Vajiravudh received the title Krom Khun Thep Dvaravati. Prince Vajiravudh was first educated in the royal palace in English. In 1895, his half-brother Crown Prince Vajirunhis died and Vajiravudh was appointed the new Crown Prince of Siam, he continued his education in Britain, at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst in 1898 and was commissioned in the Durham Light Infantry upon graduation. He studied law and history at Christ Church, Oxford in 1899, where he was a member of the exclusive Bullingdon Club.

However, he suffered from appendicitis, which treatment barred him from graduating in 1901. He visited other European countries while he lived in England, including Berlin, Germany in May 1902 and Copenhagen, Denmark in September 1902, he attended the 15 May 1902 enthronement ceremonies for King King Alfonso XIII of Spain in Madrid). On behalf of his father, King Chulalongkorn, he attended the coronation of King Edward VII on 9 August 1902. Crown Prince Vajiravudh left England in October 1902 and returned to Siam in January 1903, traveling via USA and Japan. In 1904 became a temporary monk, in accordance with Siamese tradition. In 1906, his father Chulalongkorn travelled to Europe to seek treatment for his lung disease, Chulalongkorn made Vajiravudh Regent of Siam. One of Crown Prince Vajiravudh's accomplishments during this regency was his supervision of the construction of the equestrian statue of King Chulalongkorn. Chulalongkorn died on 23 October 1910, Vajiravudh succeeded his father as king of Siam.

Before his coronation, Vajiravudh initiated several reforms. He established military academies, he created the rank of "general" for the first time in Siam, with his uncle, Prince Bhanurangsi Savangwongse as the first Siamese Field Marshal. On 11 November 1910, Vajiravudh underwent a provisional coronation ceremony, with another more lavish planned for after the funerary rites of his father was completed, his first act following his accession to the throne was to build the Royal Pages College, subsequently renamed Vajiravudh College by King Prajadhipok to honour his brother. It was built as an all-boy's boarding school in the same tradition as English public schools such as Eton and Harrow; the school was built instead of a royal monastery a custom of Thai kings, as King Vajiravudh deemed that there were too many temples in Bangkok. In his own hand written letter, King Vajiravudh wrote that "In the Royal Pages College, what I want is not so much to turn out model boys, all of the same standard, all brilliant scholars with thousands of marks each, as to turn out efficient young men— young men who will be physically and morally clean, who will be looking forward keenly to take up whatever burden the future of our state may lay upon them".

He raised the Civil Servant School to "Chulalongkorn Academy for Civil Officials" Chulalongkorn University. Both Vajiravudh College and Chulalongkorn University still benefit from the funds that King Vajiravudh set aside for the use of the two elite institutions, he improved Siamese healthcare systems and set up some of the earliest public hospitals in Siam, Vajira Hospital in 1912 and Chulalongkorn Hospital in 1914. In 1911, he established the Wild Tiger Corps ) a para-military corp outside of the established military hierarchy. A ceremonial guard, it became a military force of 4,000 within its first year and consumed much of the King's time and energy, it became the source of deep dissatisfaction between the King. A branch for children was established known as which became the Boy Scouts. On 28 November 1911 Vajiravudh's second and formal coronation was held with visiting royals from Europe and Japan as guests, a first for Siam, which festivities took 13 days; that year, the first airplane was flown in Siam.

The early years of Vajiravudh's administration were dominated by his two uncles, Prince Damrong and Prince Devawongse, both of them Chulalongkorn's right hand men. However, the king disagreed with Prince Damrong, Minister of Interior, over Damrong's negotiation of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 that ceded four sultanates to the British Empire. Vajiravudh reformed his father's monthon system by imposing the "paks" or "regions" over the administrative monthons; each pak was governed by an Uparaja directly responsible to the king. The Uparaja presided over the intendants of monthons in the region—thus concentrating local administrative powers in his hands—much to the dismay of Prince Damrong. Radicals expected a new constitution upon the coronation of Vajiravudh. However, no constitution was forthcoming. In 1911, the Wuchang Uprising that led to the fall of Qing dynasty prompted Siamese radicals to act. So, for the first time in Siam, an attempt was made to overthrow the monarchy and establish democracy.

The immediate cause, occurred before Vajiravudh's coronation. In 1909, Crown Prince Vajiravudh ordered a Thai Royal Military Academy student who had had an argument with one of Vajiravudh's pages to be caned. Academy alumni were further provoked by Vajiravudh’s creation of the Wild Tiger Corps, seen by the army as a threat t

Adventure Time (season 8)

The eighth season of Adventure Time, an American animated television series created by Pendleton Ward, premiered on Cartoon Network on March 26, 2016, concluded on February 2, 2017. The season was produced by Cartoon Network Studios and Frederator Studios, it follows the adventures of Finn, a human boy, his best friend and adoptive brother Jake, a dog with magical powers to change shape and size at will. Finn and Jake live in the post-apocalyptic Land of Ooo, where they interact with the other main characters of the show: Princess Bubblegum, The Ice King, Marceline the Vampire Queen, Lumpy Space Princess, BMO, Flame Princess. Tom Herpich, Steve Wolfhard, Jesse Moynihan, Laura Knetzger, Kris Mukai, Lyle Partridge, Graham Falk, Charmaine Verhagen, Sam Alden, Pendleton Ward, Seo Kim, Somvilay Xayaphone, Hanna K. Nyström, Ako Castuera, Aleks Sennwald, Polly Guo, Kent Osborne, Adam Muto storyboarded and wrote the season; the miniseries Islands, which follows Finn, Jake, BMO, Susan Strong as they leave Ooo and travel across the ocean to solve the mystery of Finn's past, aired during this season.

It features guest animators Alex and Lindsay Small-Butera and James Baxter. The season debuted with the episode "Broke His Crown", watched by 1.13 million viewers marking a slight decrease from the previous season finale, "The Thin Yellow Line", seen by 1.15 million viewers. "Islands Part 8: The Light Cloud," the eighth-season finale, was watched by 1 million viewers, making it the lowest-rated Adventure Time season finale at the time. Critical reception to the season was positive, with The A. V. Club writer Oliver Sava expressing pleasant bemusement that the show's quality had not suffered despite this season being its eighth. Critics were complimentary towards the Islands miniseries: In April 2017, Common Sense Media awarded the miniseries "The Common Sense Seal", at the 69th Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards in 2017, the Islands episode "Imaginary Resources" won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement in Animation. Several compilation DVDs that contain episodes from the season have been released, a set containing the entire season was released on September 4, 2018.

The series follows the adventures of Finn the Human, a human boy, his best friend Jake, a dog with magical powers to change shape and shrink at will. Finn and Jake live in the post-apocalyptic Land of Ooo, where they interact with the other major characters, including: Princess Bubblegum, The Ice King, Marceline the Vampire Queen, Lumpy Space Princess, BMO, Flame Princess. Common storylines revolve around Finn and Jake discovering strange creatures, dealing with the antagonistic, but misunderstood, Ice King, battling monsters in order to help others. Multi-episode story arcs for this season include the introduction of the character Fern, Finn meeting his mother and learning about what became of humanity. On July 7, 2015, The Hollywood Reporter announced that the series had been renewed for an eighth season; the season's storyline writers included Jack Pendarvis, Adam Muto, Kent Osborne, Ashly Burch. The show's seventh season was supposed to comprise the episodes "Bonnie & Neddy" through "Reboot", its eighth season was supposed to include the episodes "Two Swords" through "Three Buckets", but when it came time to upload the seventh season onto streaming sites, Cartoon Network chose to end the season with its 26th episode, "The Thin Yellow Line."

The episodes "Broke His Crown" through "Reboot" and the episodes "Two Swords" through the Islands miniseries were combined to form the show's official eighth season. This new episode count was cemented by the release of the complete seventh season DVD on July 18, 2017, which included episodes up until "The Thin Yellow Line", as well as the release of the complete eighth season on the Cartoon Network website; this season's episodes were produced in a process similar to those of the previous seasons. Each episode was outlined in two-to-three pages; these outlines were handed to storyboard artists, who created full storyboards. Design and coloring were done in Burbank and animation was handled overseas in South Korea by Rough Draft Korea and Saerom Animation. Continuing a tradition that started with the fifth season episode "A Glitch is a Glitch", this season features the work of guest animators. "Beyond the Grotto" features 7 minutes of animation courtesy of Alex and Lindsay Small-Butera, a husband and wife duo known for their web series Baman Piderman, the episode "Horse and Ball" features animation courtesy of James Baxter.

He had provided guest animation for the fifth-season episode "James Baxter the Horse". In both episodes, James Baxter the animator lends his voice to the equine character of the same name. Storyboard artists who worked on this season include: Tom Herpich, Steve Wolfhard, Jesse Moynihan, Laura Knetzger, Kris Mukai, Lyle Partridge, Graham Falk, Charmaine Verhagen, Sam Alden, Pendleton Ward, Seo Kim, Somvilay Xayaphone, Hanna K. Nyström, Ako Castuera, Aleks Sennwald, Polly Guo, Kent Osborne, Adam Muto; this was the final season to feature several long-serving storyboard artists and production crew members. Moynihan left the show after completing "Normal Man" to finish his web comic Forming. Supervising director Andres Salaff left after this season to storyboard on Cartoon Network's series Uncle Grandpa. Conversely, the season saw the return of former storyboar

Andries Coetzee (linguist)

Andries W. Coetzee is Professor of Linguistics and Director of the African Studies Center at the University of Michigan. Since receiving his PhD in Linguistics from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 2004 he has been a major contributor in research in the fields of Phonetics and Phonology, his career has been spent teaching in South Africa and at the University of Michigan, being involved with the Linguistics Institute of the Linguistic Society of America. In 2011 he received the first Early Career Award from the Linguistic Society of America, in 2015 was inducted as a fellow of this Society. Andries Coetzee began his education at South Africa, he received a BA in Classics and Semitics, a BA honors in Semitic Languages as well as Theology. After earning a master's degree in Semitic Languages in 1996 from the North-West University, he moved to the University of Massachusetts Amherst where he earned a Ph. D. in Linguistics PhD in 2004, with a dissertation titled What It Means to be a Loser: Non-Optimal Candidates in Optimality Theory.

After finishing his education he began working at the University of Michigan. Coetzee served on the editorial board member of Phonology until 2018, is serving as Editor of Language, the flagship journal of the Linguistic Society of America, he teaches both undergraduate and graduate students Phonology, as well as many introductory courses in Linguistics. He has overseen many undergraduate and graduate students as they work on their projects, whether it be an honors thesis or a dissertation, his own current research is focused on the time course of speech perception and production in individual language users. He is working on a project with colleague Patrice Beddor, which focuses on the hypothesis that a language user's perception and production repertoires or grammars are complexly related in ways that are mediated by wide-ranging factors


Year 686 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 686 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Waratton, mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy, dies and is succeeded by his son-in-law Berthar, he advises King Theuderic III to break the peace treaty with Pepin of Herstal, declares war on Austrasia. King Cædwalla of Wessex establishes overlordship of Essex, invades Kent for a second time. King Eadric is expelled, Cædwalla's brother Mul is installed in his place; the sub-kings Berthun and Andhun are killed, Sussex is subjugated by the West Saxons. Cædwalla conquers Surrey, exterminates the Jutes of the Isle of Wight, he executes his two brothers. Cædwalla also overruns the Meonware, a Jutish people who live in the Meon Valley. August 6 – Battle of Khazir in Mosul: Alid forces of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi defeat those of the Umayyad Caliphate. Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, former governor of Mesopotamia, tries to regain control of his province, as the various Muslim tribes in the region Kufa are engaged in an Islamic civil war.

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan imprisons and tortures patriarch Mar Khnanishu I. He is the first caliph to insist on the collection of the poll tax from the Christians. October 1 – Emperor Tenmu of Japan dies after a 13-year reign, is succeeded by his widow, Empress Jitō, she will reign until 697. October 25 – Prince Ōtsu, son of Tenmu, is falsely accused of treason by Jito and forced to commit suicide, along with his wife Yamanobe. August 2 – Pope John V dies at Rome after a 12-month reign, in which he has made handsome donations to the poor, he is succeeded by Conon I as the 83rd pope of the Catholic Church. Plague kills all the Benedictine monks in the monastery of Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey, aside from the abbot Ceolfrith and one small boy – future scholar Bede. Wilfrid, bishop of York, becomes an advisor of Cædwalla, is sent to the Isle of Wight to evangelise the inhabitants. August 2 – John V, pope of Rome October 1 – Tenmu, emperor of Japan October 25 – Ōtsu, Japanese prince Andhun, king of Sussex Arwald, king of the Isle of Wight Audoin, bishop of Rouen Berthun, king of Sussex Eadric, king of Kent Eanflæd, queen of Northumbria Eata of Hexham, bishop of Lindisfarne Husayn ibn Numayr, Muslim general Landelin, Frankish abbot and saint Waratton, mayor of the palace of Neustria Wonhyo, Korean Buddhist monk Yamanobe, Japanese princess

Camera Works

Camera Works: Photography and the Twentieth-Century Word is a work of literary and cultural studies by Michael North, a professor of English at UCLA. It is the winner of the 2006 Modernist Studies Association Book Prize. In Camera Works: Photography and the Twentieth-Century Word, North examines the relationship between literary modernism and new media technologies in the early twentieth century such as photography and film. In doing so, North not only makes the case for "a deep and wide modernist interest... in new media of all kinds," but provides a new way of reading modernism that locates some of its more formally innovative elements within writing's confrontation with the challenges and complications introduced by new media into "the supposed autonomy of the visual and thus into the supposed autonomy of the aesthetic."Focusing on technologies of mechanical recording and reproduction, which North asserts did nothing less than to reorganize human perception, the author argues that the codification and stylization of the recorded media, which paradoxically served, for example, to distance and aestheticize the world while bringing it closer and making it more familiar, are encoded in modernism's heightened awareness of writing's own literariness, which called attention to its status as mediation and thus "complicated the process of representation" by destabilizing the word.

Conceding that any aesthetic movement as complex as modernism must be the result of numerous influences, North proposes that it was this "complicat the process of representation," produced in writing's confrontation with new media technologies that both extended human perception and undermined confidence in perception itself, that gave rise to a modernist fascination with experimentation and formal innovation as a means of repairing or renegotiating this separation, what North calls a "far more radical modernity of means." The study is divided into three major sections. The introduction gives a brief history of the emergence of mechanically recorded media in the middle to late nineteenth century, advances in these technologies in the early twentieth century, their formal and historical significance for modern writing of the same period. Focusing on photography, which North shows functions as a kind of "modern writing" itself, the author suggests that "perhaps the common beginning of modernism in literature and the arts is to be found in the recording technologies that brought the whole relationship of word and image into doubt."Three chapters on little magazines examine in more detail debates on the artistic status of both photography and early silent film, the representational status of the new media in general, what North terms the "crisis of sound" beginning in 1927 with the introduction of sound technologies into the silent cinema.

Four chapters on individual American authors with a conclusion apply certain concepts within these debates on the new media to particular works of literature both familiar and obscure in order to, as North states, "pose a significant test for the ideas proposed" in his book. In Chapter One, North examines debates in Alfred Stieglitz's Camera Work regarding the early artistic status of photography, the influential role of Stieglitz himself in these debates, a series of critical connections and inconsistencies represented by the magazine toward the new medium of photography through articles contributed by Roland Rood, Sadakichi Hartmann, Stieglitz himself, among others. One of the more hotly contested questions debated between the contributors to Camera Work was whether photography was art or documentary, whether the photographic image itself should be considered realistic or representational. Reprinting photographs published in the magazine, North discusses Pablo Picasso's photography and its impact on the production of his paintings, most in the case of The Reservoir, Marcel Duchamp's "readymades," which were considered by the artist to be a form of photography, or "snapshot."

North concludes that Stieglitz and his magazine Camera Work only suggested some of the more fundamental questions regarding the new media and its impact on literature, while other magazines would carry out the full implications of those questions in the coming years. Chapter Two focuses on the avant-garde literary magazine transition, its founding editor Eugene Jolas, early silent cinema in order to show the relationship between international modernism and the movies. 1927, when this magazine began publication, was the year that sound was introduced into film technology, which North regards as a crisis for the avant-garde. Hostile to sound from the beginning, in fact, many argued with Antonin Artaud that it violated the artistic unity and autonomy of cinema as a purely visual medium; this "crisis of sound," and the anxiety of contamination it represents, played an important role in the aesthetic project of transition, so North examines the experimental poetry of Jolas published in the magazine in terms of its "celebrated Revolution of the Word," along with the "reading machines" of Bob Brown in order to locate points where literature and poetry themselves were attempting to achieve a kind of visuality akin to cinema and photography, suggesting that boundaries between "word and image," and between the old and new media, were not nearly as definitive as some might have wanted to believe.

In Chapter Three, North considers Close Up, the European film magazine published in Switzerland "with the more-or-less constant assistance of H. D." from 1927 to 1933. Noting the "considerable convergence of the literary world and the no longer quite so new medium of the movies" by 1927, North furthers his examination of international modernism's struggle with sound by p

Tirah Memorial

The Tirah Memorial is a war memorial in Bonn Square, England. It commemorates soldiers of the 2nd Battalion Oxfordshire Light Infantry who died in 1897–98 on the Tirah Expedition and Punjab Frontier Campaign to suppress rebel tribes on the North West Frontier of British India; the Tirah Memorial was unveiled in 1900. The monument was designed by Inigo Thomas, it is an obelisk 25 feet high, with foundations 20 feet deep. It was erected in a public garden, the graveyard of St Peter-le-Bailey parish church and is now Bonn Square; the digging of the memorial's foundations unearthed human remains, which were re-interred at Osney Cemetery 1.2 miles away. The Tirah Memorial is a Grade II listed building. Men of the Dorset Regiment who died during the Tirah Expedition are commemorated by a Tirah Memorial in Borough Gardens, Dorset, southern England. Men of the King's Own Scottish Borderers who died during the Tirah Expedition are commemorated on the memorial at North Bridge, Scotland. Men of the Royal Sussex Regiment who died during the Tirah Expedition are commemorated on a memorial at Eastbourne, East Sussex, southeast England.

Smith, Martin. General Sir William Stephen Alexander Lockhart, Soldier of the Queen Empress. ISBN 978-0-9570154-0-1