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Vajrayana

Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tibetan Buddhism,Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are terms referring to the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia. In Tibet, Buddhist Tantra is termed Vajrayāna, while in China it is known as Tángmì Hanmi 漢密 or Mìzōng, in Pali it is known as Pyitsayãna, in Japan it is known as Mikkyō. Vajrayāna is translated as Diamond Vehicle or Thunderbolt Vehicle, referring to the vajra, a mythical weapon, used as a ritual implement. Founded by medieval Indian Mahāsiddhas, Vajrayāna subscribes to the literature known as the Buddhist Tantras, it includes practices that make use of mantras, mudras and the visualization of deities and Buddhas. According to Vajrayāna scriptures, the term Vajrayāna refers to one of three vehicles or routes to enlightenment, the other two being the Śrāvakayāna and Mahāyāna. Tantric Buddhism can be traced back to groups of wandering yogis called Mahasiddhas.

According to Reynolds, the mahasiddhas date to the medieval period in the North India and used methods that were radically different than those used in Buddhist monasteries, including living in forests and caves and practicing meditation in charnel grounds similar to those practiced by Shaiva Kapalika ascetics. These yogic circles came together in tantric feasts in sacred sites and places which included dancing, sex rites and the ingestion of taboo substances like alcohol, meat, etc. At least two of the Mahasiddhas cited in the Buddhist literature are comparable with the Shaiva Nath saints who practiced Hatha Yoga. According to Schumann, a movement called, it was dominated by long-haired, wandering Mahasiddhas who challenged and ridiculed the Buddhist establishment. The Mahasiddhas pursued siddhis, magical powers such as flight and extrasensory perception as well as liberation. Ronald M. Davidson states that, "Buddhist siddhas demonstrated the appropriation of an older sociological form—the independent sage/magician, who lived in a liminal zone on the borders between fields and forests.

Their rites involved the conjunction of sexual practices and Buddhist mandala visualization with ritual accoutrements made from parts of the human body, so that control may be exercised over the forces hindering the natural abilities of the siddha to manipulate the cosmos at will. At their most extreme, siddhas represented a defensive position within the Buddhist tradition and sustained for the purpose of aggressive engagement with the medieval culture of public violence, they reinforced their reputations for personal sanctity with rumors of the magical manipulation of various flavors of demonic females, cemetery ghouls, other things that go bump in the night. Operating on the margins of both monasteries and polite society, some adopted the behaviors associated with ghosts, not only as a religious praxis but as an extension of their implied threats." Many of the elements found in Buddhist tantric literature are not wholly new. Earlier Mahayana sutras contained some elements which are emphasized in the Tantras, such as mantras and dharani.

The use of protective verses or phrases dates back to the Vedic period and can be seen in the early Buddhist texts, where they are termed paritta. Mahayana texts like the Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra expound the use of mantras such as Om mani padme hum, associated with vastly powerful beings like Avalokiteshvara; the practice of visualization of Buddhas such as Amitābha is seen in pre-tantric texts like the Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra. There are other Mahayana sutras which contain "proto-tantric" material such as the Gandavyuha sutra and the Dasabhumika which might have served as a central source of visual imagery for Tantric texts. Vajrayana developed a large corpus of texts called the Buddhist Tantras, some of which can be traced to at least the 7th century CE but might be older; the dating of the tantras is "a difficult, indeed an impossible task" according to David Snellgrove. Some of the earliest of these texts, Kriya tantras such as the Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa, teach the use of mantras and dharanis for worldly ends including curing illness, controlling the weather and generating wealth.

The Tattvasaṃgraha Tantra, classed as a "Yoga tantra", is one of the first Buddhist tantras which focuses on liberation as opposed to worldly goals. In another early tantra, the Vajrasekhara Tantra, the influential schema of the five Buddha families is developed. Other early tantras include the Guhyasamāja Tantra; the Guhyasamāja is a Mahayoga class of Tantra, which features new forms of ritual practice considered "left-hand" such as the use of taboo substances like alcohol, sexual yoga, charnel ground practices which evoke wrathful deities. Indeed, Ryujun Tajima divides the tantras into those which were "a development of Mahayanist thought" and those "formed in a rather popular mould toward the end of the eighth century and declining into the esoterism of the left", this "left esoterism" refers to the Yogini tantras and works associated with wandering antinomian yogis. Monastic Vajrayana Buddhists reinterpreted and internalized these radically transgressive and taboo practices as metaphors and visualization exercises.

These tantras such as the Hevajra Tantra and the Chakrasamvara are classed as "Yogini tantras" and represent the final form of development

Andrew Fox (author)

Andrew Fox is an American author from New Orleans. He has written Fat White Vampire Blues and Bride of the Fat White Vampire. Both novels feature Jules Duchon, a morbidly obese vampire who resides in New Orleans and works as a taxi driver; the humor from both books is derived from the embarrassing or dangerous predicaments that are at odds with the dignified, suave image one associates with vampires such as Dracula. In addition, Fox presents a well thought out set of continuity rules that explain traditional vampire powers, his latest novel, The Good Humor Man, while a satiric homage to Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, still contains elements of horror. Fox and his family were out-of-state. Like most residents, they were displaced by the storm; as part of the recovery efforts, Fox returned to the Commodity Supplemental Food Program, a federally funded nutrition program for low-income senior citizens and young families in the New Orleans area operated under the auspices of the Louisiana Office of Public Health, worked for the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Following the end of his employment with FEMA, Fox relocated to Northern Virginia. Fox, Andrew. Fat White Vampire Blues. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-46333-1. Fox, Andrew. Bride of the Fat White Vampire. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-46408-7. Fox, Andrew; the Good Humor Man, Or, Calorie 3501. San Francisco, CA: Tachyon Publications. ISBN 978-1-892391-85-8. Official website Discussion board at Night Shade Books Andrew Fox at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database List of horror fiction authors

Georgia State Route 122

State Route 122 is a 98.2-mile-long state highway that travels west-to-east through portions of Thomas, Lowndes, Lanier and Ware counties in the southern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. The highway connects the cities via Lakeland. SR 122 begins at an intersection with US 19/US 84/SR 3/SR 38/SR 300 in Thomasville, in Thomas County; the road heads to the northeast, passing the Thomasville Regional Airport, travels through rural areas of the county until it reaches the town of Pavo. There, it has a brief concurrency with SR 33; the concurrency ends at the Thomas–Brooks county line. The road heads northeast, intersecting SR 333 and SR 133, before curving to the east to enter Barney, it intersects SR 76 in town. Farther to the east, it crosses over the Little River into Lowndes County, it has an interchange with Interstate 75 in Hahira. At this interchange, US 41/SR 7, which are concurrent with I-75 south of this interchange, become concurrent with SR 122 into the central part of town. Northeast of Haira is a bridge over the Withlacoochee River.

It intersects SR 125 at the meeting point of Lowndes and Lanier counties. It runs along the Lowndes–Lanier county line for about 1 mile, before entering Lanier County proper; the highway parallels most of the northern part of Banks Lake, intersects SR 122 Connector, prior to entering Lakeland. In Lakeland, it intersects SR 11 Connector, it meets SR 129/SR 11/SR 37. About 2 blocks is US 221/SR 31/SR 135. At this intersection, US 221/SR 31 join the concurrency to the east. At Oak Street, SR 135 Bypass joins the concurrency for a short while. At College Street is the southern terminus of SR 11 Bypass. SR 135 Bypass departs to the north. Farther to the east-northeast is the Alapaha River. US 129/SR 11/SR 37 depart to the east, while US 221/SR 31/SR 122 head to the north, SR 122 departs to the northeast. After entering Clinch County, the highway has a brief concurrency with SR 168. Northwest of Homerville, it intersects US 441/SR 89; the route continues through rural areas of the county and enters Ware County.

SR 122 heads northeast until it meets its eastern terminus, an intersection with US 1/US 23/US 82/SR 4/SR 520, west of Waycross. SR 122 is not part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility. State Route 122 Connector exists within the central part of Lanier County, a short distance west of Lakeland, it begins at an intersection with the SR 122 mainline. It heads northwest to an intersection with Corbitt Road; the highway continues to the northwest until it meets its northern terminus, an intersection US 129/SR 11/SR 37. SR 122 Connector is not part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility; the entire route is in Lanier County. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal List of numbered highways in Georgia Media related to Georgia State Route 122 at Wikimedia Commons Georgia Roads Georgia State Route 122