Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region. The department is situated in the Grand Paris. Val-de-Marne is, together with Seine-Saint-Denis and Hauts-de-Seine, one of three small departments in Île-de-France that form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne. Since January 1, 2016 Val de Marne is included in Métropole du Grand Paris Val-de-Marne is made up of 3 departmental arrondissements and 47 communes: Val-de-Marne was created in January 1968, through the implementation of a law passed in July 1964. Positioned to the south-east of the Paris ring road, it was formed from the southern-eastern part of the Seine department, together with a small portion taken from the broken-up department of Seine-et-Oise. Population development since 1881: Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Church of Saint-Cyr-Sainte-Julitte, Villejuif Prefecture Departemental Council Citizen Blog


Krytox is a registered trademark of The Chemours Company. It refers to a group of colourless synthetic lubricants with a variety of applications. Invented by researchers at DuPont, Krytox oils are fluorocarbon ether polymers of polyhexafluoropropylene oxide, with a chemical formula: F−n−CF2CF3, where the degree of polymerization, n lies within the range of 10 to 60; these compounds are collectively known by many names including perfluoropolyether, perfluoroalkylether and perfluoropolyalkylether. A unique identifier is their CAS registry number, 60164-51-4. In addition to PFPE, Krytox grease contains telomers of PTFE and in fact was designed as a liquid or grease form of PTFE, it is thermally stable and insoluble in water, acids and most organic solvents. It is useful over a broad temperature range of − 75 to 350 °C or higher, its high resistance to ionizing radiation makes it useful for nuclear industries. Formulations exist able withstand extreme pressure, resist outgassing in high vacuum, operate under intense mechanical stress.

Other companies manufacture PFPE lubricants, such as Solvay's Fomblin range, with some formulations having comparable properties. The manufacturer states on Krytox tubes, "May cause eye irritation. Contact with hot surfaces can generate fumes which can cause coughing or respiratory irritation. Large amounts could lead to lung damage; these fumes may cause flu-like symptoms." Grease Fluorocarbon Official website

Marjorie Hope Nicolson

Marjorie Hope Nicolson was an American literary scholar. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1955. Nicolson was born in Yonkers, New York, was the daughter of Charles Butler Nicolson, editor-in-chief of the Detroit Free Press during World War I and that paper's correspondent in Washington, DC, Lissie Hope Morris. Nicolson graduated from the University of Michigan with a B. A. degree in 1914, followed by her M. A. in 1918. Afterwards, she attended Yale, where she received a Ph. D. in 1920, where she was the first woman to receive the distinguished John Addison Porter Prize for her dissertation. This was followed by post-doctoral work at Johns Hopkins from 1923–26. Nicolson worked for her father at the newspaper for a while, as a drama critic, before becoming dean and professor at Smith College from 1929–41, she left when she was hired as the first female graduate school professor at Columbia University, where she remained until 1962 becoming chairman of the graduate department of English and Comparative Literature.

In 1940, she became the first woman president of Phi Beta Kappa. She was president of the Modern Language Association in 1963. An authority on 17th-century literature and thought, she was the author of numerous books, she was awarded the Pilgrim Award from the Science Fiction Research Association in 1971 for her pioneering work in the relationship between science and literature. She died on March 9, 1981, in White Plains, NY; the Art of Description, F. S. Crofts & Co. Newton Demands the Muse: Newton's Opticks and the Eighteenth Century Poets, Princeton University Press Voyages to the Moon, Macmillan Co; the Breaking of the Circle Science and Imagination. Le Guin: A Festschrift in Memory of Pilgrim Award Winner, Marjorie Hope Nicolson, ed. George Edgar Slusser & Robert Reginald. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press "Two Voices: Science and Literature", Rockefeller Institute Review, Vol. 1, No. 3:1–11. Works by Marjorie Hope Nicolson at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Marjorie Hope Nicolson at Internet Archive