Frederick VI of Denmark
Frederick VI was King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814. From 1784 until his accession, he served as regent during his fathers illness and was referred to as the Crown Prince Regent. For his motto he chose God and the just cause and since the time of his reign, Frederick was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Frederick belonged to the House of Oldenburg and his parents were King Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. He was born after 15 months of marriage, just a day before his fathers 19th birthday, as the eldest son of the ruling king, he automatically became crown prince at birth. On 30 January of the year, he was baptised at Christiansborg Palace by Ludvig Harboe. His godparents were King Christian VII, the dowager queen Juliana Maria and his half-uncle, from 1770 to 1772, Struensee was de facto regent and lover of Caroline Matilda, Fredericks mother. Both were ideologically influenced by Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau, while Struensee was in power, young Frederick was raised at Hirschholm Palace following the educational approach advocated by Rousseau in his famous work Émile.
Instead of receiving direct instruction, Frederick was expected to learn everything through his own efforts through playing with two boys as per Struensees instructions. On 8 January 1772, after the revolt against Struensee, Fredericks 18-year-old half-uncle Hereditary Prince Frederick was made regent, the real power, was held by Hereditary Prince Fredericks mother, Queen Dowager Juliana Maria, aided by Ove Høegh-Guldberg. It is said that during the coup, he engaged in a fistfight with his half-uncle over the regency and he continued as regent of Denmark under his fathers name until the latters death in 1808. During the regency, Frederick instituted widespread liberal reforms with the assistance of Chief Minister Andreas Peter Bernstorff, crises encountered during his reign include disagreement with the British over neutral shipping. This resulted in two British attacks on Copenhagen, the Battle of Copenhagen of 1801 and the Battle of Copenhagen of 1807, the conflict continued in the Gunboat War between Denmark-Norway and the United Kingdom, which lasted until the Treaty of Kiel in 1814.
There was speculation that he was to marry a Prussian princess and they married in Gottorp on 31 July 1790 and had eight children. Their eldest daughter, Princess Caroline married her father’s first cousin, the youngest, Princess Wilhelmine, became the wife of the future Frederick VII of Denmark. None of Frederick VIs sons survived infancy and when he died, he was succeeded by his cousin Christian VIII of Denmark, Frederick became King of Denmark on 13 March 1808. When the throne of Sweden seemed likely to become vacant in 1809, Fredericks brother-in-law, Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenborg, was first elected to the throne of Sweden, followed by the French Marshal Bernadotte. During the Napoleonic Wars, he tried to maintain Danish neutrality, however after the British bombardment of Copenhagen, after the French defeat in Russia in 1812, the Allies again asked him to change sides but he refused
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Frederiksberg Gardens is one of the largest and most attractive greenspaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjacent Søndermarken it forms an area of 64 hectares at the western edge of Inner Copenhagen. It is a landscape garden designed in the English style. Frederiksberg Gardens was established by King Frederik IV in connection with the construction of Frederiksberg Palace as his new summer retreat on high grounds atop Valby Hill. Work on the began in the last half of the 1690s with inspiration from Italy and France which Frederick. He commissioned the eminent Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin to draw a proposal and the plan was subsequently made by Hans Heinrich Scheel. The plan involved a parterre with a system of cascades on the sloping terrain in front of the new palace. It was fed by a complicated but inefficient system of pumps which never came to work properly. In the end, Johan Cornelius Krieger, who was at the time working on an extension and adaption of Fredensborg Palace.
Unusually of the time, he gave up the parterre completely, in the 1790s, as fashion changed, the park was adapted into an English landscape garden. P. Petersen created a new plan in 1795. He created a typical English-style landscape garden with winding lawns, lakes and spinneys as well as grottos, pavilions, the final result may well have been based on Johan Ludwig Mansas book on English-style gardening written in 1798. Frederik VI was particularly fond of the garden, from 1804, he sailed the canals in a gondola. Not until 1865 did access to the park become unrestricted, in line with what was the case elsewhere in the city, smørrebrødsplænen, on the corner of Toskildevej and Pile Allé, where K. B. s tennis halls are today, became a popular picnic destination. Frederiksberg Gardens is an English-style Romantic landscape garden with winding paths, lakes, small islands, a large variety of plants and birds can be seen, including mute swans, greylag geese, grey herons, and Canada geese. Typically of the landscape garden, the park houses two follies, waterfalls and other garden features.
The gate was designed by Lauritz de Thurah who had become general master builder after Eigtveds death, the vases at the top of the two sandstone pillars were executed by the sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel. The gate opens to a path which passes between two long, yellow buildings with white details and they are the two surviving wings of the Princes House
Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania KG was King Eric III of Norway, King Eric VII of Denmark, and King Eric XIII of Sweden, in all three known mainly as Erik af/av Pommern. He was the first King of the Nordic Kalmar Union, succeeding his adoptive mother Margaret I of Denmark, and was Duke Eric I of Pomerania. Referring to Eric of Pomerania as King Eric XIII of Sweden is an invention, counting backwards from Eric XIV. Going back into prehistory, it is not known how many Swedish monarchs were named Eric before this one, born Boguslaw, he was the son of Wartislaw VII, Duke of Pomerania, and Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Erics paternal grandparents were Boguslaw V, Duke of Pomerania and his second wife Adelheid of Brunswick-Grubenhagen and his maternal grandparents were Henry III, Duke of Mecklenburg and Ingeborg of Denmark, Duchess of Mecklenburg. Their son Albert was a rival of Olaf Haakonsson in regard to the Danish succession in 1375, Ingeborg was a daughter of Valdemar IV of Denmark and his Queen consort Heilwig of Schleswig.
Eric was born in 1382 in Rügenwalde, initially named Boguslaw, he was son to the only surviving grandson of Valdemar IV of Denmark and a descendant of Magnus III of Sweden and Haakon V of Norway. On 2 August 1387, Olav Håkonsson, King of Denmark since he was five years old and King of Norway since the death of his father, died unexpectedly at seventeen years of age. His mother the Dowager Queen of Norway had added the phrase the true heir of Sweden to Boguslaws list of titles at his coronation, Boguslaws claim to the Swedish throne came through his great-granduncle, Magnus IV of Sweden, who was forced to abdicate by the Swedish nobles. After the abdication, the Swedish nobles, led by Bo Jonsson, had invited Duke Albert of Mecklenburg to take the Swedish throne, when Albert attempted to introduce reduction of their large estates, they quickly turned against him. The Rigsråd elected Queen Margaret as all powerful lady and mistress, just a year later, the Norwegians proclaimed Margaret the reigning queen and Albert of Sweden fought off an incursion from Norway.
His respite was temporary — the Swedish nobility soon enlisted the Danish regents help to remove Albert from the Swedish throne, in 1388, several of the Swedish nobles wrote secretly to Margaret telling her that if she could rid them of Albert, they would make her Regent. Margaret lost no time and sent an army into Sweden to attack Albert while the Swedish nobles raised their own army to him out of the country. In 1389, Alberts forces were defeated at the Battle of Falköping in Västergötland and his son Erik were captured when their horses became mired in mud so deep they could not escape. They were put into chains and sent by Queen Margaret to Scania and it took until 1395 for Margaret to force Alberts supporters out of Stockholm. She made provisions for the three kingdoms in the event of her death and she wanted the kingdoms to be unified and peaceful and hence, chose the son of her fathers surviving granddaughter, Boguslaw, to be named heir. Young Boguslaw was the grandson of Margarets sister, in 1389 he was brought to Denmark to be brought up by Queen Margaret.
His name was changed to the more Nordic-sounding Erik, on 8 September 1389, he was hailed as King of Norway at the Ting in Trondheim
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Roskilde, located 30 km west of Copenhagen on the Danish island of Zealand, is the main city in Roskilde Municipality. With a population of 50,046, the city is a business and educational centre for the region, Roskilde is governed by the administrative council of Roskilde Municipality. Roskilde has a history, dating from the pre-Christian Viking Age. Its UNESCO-listed Gothic cathedral, now housing 39 tombs of the Danish monarchs, was completed in 1275, among the largest private sector employers today are the IT firm BEC and GPI, specializing in plastics. The Risø research facility is becoming a major employer, extending interest in sustainable energy to the clean technology sphere. The local university, founded in 1972, the historic Cathedral School, Roskilde has a large local hospital which has been expanded and modernized since it was opened in 1855. It is now active in the research sphere. The Sankt Hans psychiatric hospital serves the Capital Region with specialized facilities for forensic psychiatry, the cathedral and the Viking Ship Museum, which contains the well-preserved remains of five 11th-century ships, attract more than 100,000 visitors annually.
The city is home to the FC Roskilde football club play in the Danish 1st Division, the Roskilde Vikings RK rugby club. In the 1970s, the city benefited from the opening of the university, Roskilde has the oldest operational railway station in Denmark, with connections across Zealand as well as with Falster and Jutland. The local airport opened in 1973, mainly serving light aircraft for business use, from the 11th century until 1443, it was the capital of Denmark. By the Middle Ages, with the support of kings and bishops, the Saxo Grammaticus and other early sources associate the name Roskilde with the legendary King Roar who possibly lived there in the 6th century. According to Adam of Bremen and the Saxo Grammaticus, Roskilde was founded in the 980s by Harald Bluetooth, on high ground above the harbour, he built a wooden church consecrated to the Holy Trinity as well as a royal residence nearby. Although no traces of buildings have been discovered, in 1997 archaeologists found the remains of Viking ships in the Isefjord.
At the time, there were two churches in the area, St Jørgensbjerg, an early stone church, and a wooden church discovered under todays St Ibs Church. Harald was buried in the church he had built on the site of todays Roskilde Cathedral. In 1020, King Canute elevated Roskilde to a bishopric, giving it high national status, the Danish bishop, had a brick church built on the site of Haralds church in 1170. Todays cathedral was completed in 1275 after five of Absalons successors had contributed to its construction, as a result of Absalons influence, many other churches were built in the vicinity, making Roskilde the most important town in Zealand
Kongens Enghave, known as Sydhavnen, is a district in southern Copenhagen. Since the turn of the millennium, this picture is starting to change, a significant cluster of IT and telecommunications companies have emerged in the area. Kongens Enghave covers an area of 4.46 km², has a population of 15,414 and it used to be one of 15 administrative districts of Copenhagen, but since an administrative reform in 2006-08, it has been part of the official district of Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave. Kongens Enghave is bounded by the Carlsberg area to the north, Vesterbro to the north-east and Valby to the west, while Copenhagen Harbour to the east, Kongens Enghave is first mentioned in 1632. The area was used for harvesting of hay for the stables at Copenhagen Castle. In 1776, a plague hospital was built on Kalvebod Beach. The name Frederiksholm is first seen in 1667–68 when large areas on the coast were reclaimed and drained, the land was divided into 22 estates at the same event. Frederiksholm, the only of houses that still exist today, was built by king Frederick VI.
The estate covered about 50 hectares, about half of which was gardens, in 1834, it kept about 40 cows and 10 horses. From the 1870s, it served as residence for the manager of Frederiksholm Brickyard, copenhagens city walls were decommissioned in 1857, leading to new development in the area. Vestre Cemetery was established in 1870, in 1871, two brothers, Køhler, purchased the Frederiksholm estate and established a brickyard in the grounds. The storm surge in November 1872 led to widespread floodings in the area, the brick yard produced many of the bricks used in the construction of Vesterbro prior to its closure in 1918. Karens Minde, an institution, was opened by Johan Keller in 1876. In the beginning of the 20th century, Port of Copenhagen was expanded with extensive docklands with many enterprises in the area. Otto Mønsted opened a factory in 1911. It was joined by Lemvig Møller & Munch amd Sømderværftet, a subsidiary of Københavns Flydeværft & Skibsdok, burmeister & Wain established in the a foundry in the area in 1920 and took over Sønderværftet in 1926.
In 1924 Ford Motor Company moved its assembly plant from Nørrebro to the Southern Docklands, the factory was designed by Albert Kahn and opened on 15 November 1924. The Kongens Enghave district developed around the industry of the Southern Docklands
Vestre Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Vestre Cemetery is located in a large park setting in the Kongens Enghave district of Copenhagen, Denmark. With its 54 hectares it is the largest cemetery in Denmark, beautifully landscaped, it serves as an important open space, popular for people to take a stroll, and look at the old graves and monuments. It is located southwest of the city center, between the Enghave, Sydhavn, Sjælør and Valby train stations on Copenhagens S-train system, the cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen municipality. The other cemeteries are Assistens Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery, the cemetery has a Catholic section, and next to that is a Jewish cemetery. Vestre Kirkegård was opened on 2 November 1870 to accommodate an urgent need for adequate burial places for the population of Copenhagen. Assistens Cemetery, till the cemetery of the city, had long been unable to cope with the increasing number of burials. First a burial place for the poor, Vestre Kirkegaard became the burial place during the 1990s.
The cemetery is noted for its scenery, offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, overgrown tombs, tree-lined avenues, ponds. Many graves have distinctive gravestones, sculptures or large mausoleums and are eclectically placed, the cemeterys grounds boast a huge variety of trees with many rare species and is a heaven to birds and small mammals. Almost all the buildings in the grounds have been designed by Hans Jørgen Holm or Holger Jacobsen who succeeded him as resident architect for the Copenhagen Burial Services, Holm designed both the North Chapel and South Chapel as well as an office building the gate at the main entrance. It is unclear who were responsible for the design of the former inspectors house just inside the main entrance, the East Chapel was inaugurated in 1914 to a design by Holger Jacobsen but only remained in use until 1926. The Crossroads Project, designed by Schønher Landskab, is a project centred on the remains of the West Chapel. The complex is intended to serve a dual purpose both relating to the function as a burial place and as an open space and meeting place in the city.
The complex consists of two intersecting axes with the former Southern Chapel in its centre, the chapel was partly demolished, leaving only the central part as an open pavilion-like domed structure. The building is partly overgrown by ivy, the surrounding garden spaces of the two axes, creating a Greek cross, are confined by tall yew hedges and have a grass surface. Embedded in the lawns of the arms are narrow, rust coloured paths made of oxidized iron plates. At the end of each arm is a 9 metre tall rust coloured iron arch. The design of the project is inspired by Bramantes Tempietto in Rome, the latter is characterized by the garden being contained in the two axes of the garden, instead of the axes being the connecting feature of the surrounding gardens as is normally the case
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is situated on Amager. Amager has a connection across the Øresund to Sweden, the Øresund Bridge and its western part begins with a tunnel from Amager to another Danish island, Peberholm. Copenhagen Airport is located on the island, around 7 km from Copenhagen city centre, Amager is the largest island in the Øresund, and the only one with a large population. As of 2016,192,709 people live on the island, including its northern tip, the northern part is included in the Copenhagen municipality. The middle part comprises Tårnby municipality, and Dragør municipality is located on the southeast part of the island, most of the western part is land that was reclaimed from the sea from the 1930s-1950s. This enlargement, from the sound towards Zealand, is known as Kalveboderne. The enlargement has never been built-up and its soil isnt suitable for agricultural use, however the area between Dragør town and the airport is cultivated land of high quality.
Amager has in the past been referred to as the kitchen of Copenhagen, at the border of the enlargement there is an old beech forest, Kongelunden. Amager has long been populated, and well used, thanks to its rich soil, in 1521, Christian II invited some Dutch farmers to move to Amager and grow vegetables to supply the Danish Court and Copenhagen. It was only in the late 19th century that Copenhagen began to expand onto the island, the area houses such major facilities as the Bella Center, a convention and exposition center, and Fields, the second-largest shopping center in Scandinavia. This project was initiated by the Danish government, the beach area to the east of the island, known as Amager Strandpark, which had fallen into disrepair since its inception in the 1930s, was extensively redeveloped between May 2004 and August 2005. A 2-km-long artificial island, was constructed just off the mainland from which it is separated by a small lagoon, until the 1970s, Amager was used as a place to dump litter, this led to a slang term for the island Lorteøen.
Large parts of Kalvebod Fælled are rich in nature and have many grazing cows and this area allows the citizens of Copenhagen to experience nature, without travelling far from the city. Amager is home to the Amager Bio, a cinema, top bands from the last 40 years have played there, both those of international origin and from Denmark. Various communities are located on Amager, including Islands Brygge, and the towns of Dragør, the Øresund Bridge connects Sweden to Denmark at Amager. The construction of the bridge has had a significant impact on the geography of the island. The Copenhagen Metro connects Amager to central Copenhagen, the metro line from Vanløse to Amager divides into M1 and M2 lines at Christianshavn and continue to Vestamager and Lufthavnen
Frederiksberg Palace is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo. It commands a view over Frederiksberg Gardens, originally designed as a palace garden in the Baroque style. Constructed and extended from 1699 to 1735, the served as the royal family’s summer residence until the mid-19th century. Since 1869, it has housed the Royal Danish Military Academy, as crown prince, Frederick IV had broadened his education by travelling in Europe. The original building, probably designed by Ernst Brandenburger, was completed in 1703 for Frederick IV as a small, one-storey summer residence. The first major extension, when it was converted into a three-storey H-shaped building, was completed in 1709 by Johan Conrad Ernst, giving the palace an Italian Baroque appearance. It was Lauritz de Thurah who executed the third and final extension from 1733 to 1738 when the palace received extensions to the lateral wings encircling the courtyard, Frederick IV spent many happy years at the palace.
Christian VII who was married to the English princess Caroline Matilda spent some time in the palace and their son, who was to become Frederick VI, loved the palace and lived there both as crown prince and as king. After Frederick VIs dowager wife Queen Marie died at the palace in March 1852, in 1868, it was transferred to the War Ministry and the following year it became the Officers Academy. The building has undergone significant restoration work, first from 1927 to 1932. During the construction of the palace building, it was decided that there should be a chapel in the east wing. This probably explains why there is no indication of the chapel from the outside and it actually covers the space behind the six central windows on the ground floor. Wilhelm Friedrich von Platen and Ernst Brandenburger designed the chapel in the Baroque style and it was inaugurated on 31 March 1710. When the palace was taken over by the Officers Academy, the chapels furnishings, they were returned in the 1930s and can still be seen there today.
The palace and the chapel can be visited and they contain imposing stucco work, ceiling paintings, an elegant marble bathroom with a secret access staircase, and the Princesses pancake kitchen. In 1854, British MP S. M. Peto gave a window to the King of Demark for the chapel. Since 1932, the chapel has been used as the parish church. The palace overlooks Frederiksberg Gardens which dates back to the first palace in 1703, from 1795 to 1804, it was redesigned by Peter Pedersen as an English landscape garden with the winding paths, lakes and canals which can be seen today