Uruguayan Portuguese, known as Fronteiriço, is a variety of Portuguese with influences from Spanish. It is spoken in northern Uruguay, near the Brazilian border, mainly in the region of the cities of Rivera. This section of the frontier is called Frontera de la Paz, the origin of Portuguese in Uruguay can be traced back to the time of the dominion of the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal, and the Empire of Brazil. In those times, the ownership of lands were not very well defined, passing back. Portuguese was the language spoken throughout northern Uruguay until the end of the 19th century. The varieties of Uruguayan Portuguese varies in dialect continuum which range from Rioplatense Spanish to Brazilian Portuguese and it should be noted that not all Portuñol-speaking persons use the same pronunciation for the same words. Nevertheless, the script that is chosen is very representative of the most frequent, the Spanish vowels are the ones which are pronounced like the five vowels of the Spanish language, These vowels are found in Portuguese, but not in Spanish.
They are like the e and o, but pronounced in a more open way. They dont exist in Spanish and therefore are generally derived from Portuguese words. Before s, sh, y, z, ce, ci. before s, sh, y, z, ce, ci, or when it is the first syllable and is not followed by ga, gui, go, gu, ca, qui, co, cu or k. Differences between Spanish and Portuguese CARVALHO, Ana Maria and diffusion of Uruguayan Portuguese in a bilingual border town, by Ana Maria Carvalho, University of California at Berkeley USA. Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, ed. Timothy L. Face and Carol A. Klee, 1-22. Nicolás Brian, Claudia Brovetto, Javier Geymonat, Portugués del Uruguay y educación bilingüe Penny, Ana Maria, I speak like the guys on TV, Palatalization and the urbanization of Uruguayan Portuguese, Language Variation and Change,16, 127–151, doi,10
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a form of information storage. The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script, the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category, in the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora, in a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, alphabets typically use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to fully express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, and logographies can have several hundreds of symbols.
Systems will enable the stringing together of these groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language. The reading step can be accomplished purely in the mind as an internal process, writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and express a range of thoughts. Soon after, writing provided a form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for a form of mass communication. Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity.
However, the development of writing systems, and the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, once established, writing systems generally change more slowly than their spoken counterparts. Thus they often preserve features and expressions which are no current in the spoken language. One of the benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field
Saint-Pierre, Aosta Valley
Saint-Pierre is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of north-western Italy. There are about 150 medieval castles and fortified houses in the Aosta Valley, the main sight is the Saint-Pierre Castle. Nearby, the Sarriod family built the Sarriod de la Tour Castle, Saint-Pierre is a town in the Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps,110 km north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, near the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire baltée, and near the junction of the Great and Little St. Bernard routes. Saint-Pierre is twinned with, Saint-Pierre-en-Faucigny, France Saint-Pierre Castle Saint-Pierre, Office for Tourism, Sports and Transport, Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley,2017
The Aosta Valley is a mountainous semi-autonomous region in northwestern Italy. It is bordered by Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France to the west, Switzerland to the north, covering an area of 3,263 km2 and with a population of about 128,000 it is the smallest, least populous, and least densely populated region of Italy. It is the only Italian region that is not sub-divided into provinces, provincial administrative functions are provided by the regional government. The region is divided into 74 comuni, the Aosta Valley is an Alpine valley which with its tributary valleys includes the Italian slopes of Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso and the Matterhorn, its highest peak is Mont Blanc. The region is cold in the winter, especially when compared with other places in the Western Alps. Winter temperatures average around −3 °C or −4 °C, and summers between 13 °C and 15 °C, the snow season starts in November and lasts until March. Mist is common during the morning from April until October, the main communities in this area are Gressoney-Saint-Jean and Gressoney-La-Trinité.
The valleys above 1600 metres usually have a Cold Continental Climate, in this climate the snow season is very long, as long as 8 or 9 months at the highest points. During the summer, mist occurs almost every day and these areas are the wettest in the western Alps. Temperatures are low, between −7 °C and −3 °C in January, and in July between 10 °C and 13 °C. In this area is the town of Rhêmes-Notre-Dame. which may be the coldest town in the Western Alps, areas between 2000 metres and 3500 metres usually have a Tundra Climate, where every month has an average temperature below 10 °C. Temperature averages in Pian Rosà, at 3400 metres high, are −11.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July and it is the coldest place in Italy where the climate is verifiable. In the past, above 3500 metres, all months were having a temperature below freezing. In recent years there was a rise in temperatures. See as an example the data for Pian Rosà, the first inhabitants of the Aosta Valley were Celts and Ligures, whose language heritage remains in some local placenames.
Thus, the name Valle dAosta literally means Valley of Augustus, saint Anselm of Canterbury was born in Aosta in 1033 or 1034. In the mid-13th century Emperor Frederick II made the County of Aosta a duchy, the region remained part of Savoy lands, with the exceptions of French occupations from 1539 to 1563, in 1691, between 1704 and 1706. As part of the Kingdom of Sardinia it joined the new Kingdom of Italy in 1861 and it was ruled by the First French Empire between 1800 and 1814
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Ayas, Aosta Valley
Ayas is a comune sparso in the Aosta Valley region of northwestern Italy, with 1359 inhabitants in 2010. It is made up of several frazioni, the two major ones being Antagnod which holds the town hall and the parish, and Champoluc. All the frazioni of Ayas were combined under the one parish of Saint-Martin dAntagnod in 1761. They remained combined in this way until the new parish of Sainte-Anne of Champoluc was built in 1946, the comune of Ayas lies up the Ayas valley from Brusson. The most notable of these peaks are Castor and the Breithorn, another important glacier is the Grand Glacier of Verra. It is the source of the Évançon, which flows down the Val dAyas. In the opposite direction from the Monte Rosa Massif is Dzerbion, a 2,720 metre mountain in the shape of a pyramid, which separated the comune of Ayas from that of Saint-Vincent. Seismic classification, zone 4 With respect to flora, the landscape of Ayas is dominated by species of Alpine plant, such as the cowberry, the gentian. The main trees in the woods are the European spruce, the Swiss pine, the fauna which inhabits the area of Ayas is very varied too.
There are marmots in the parts of the territory and foxes in the woods. The rivers and lakes are characterised by freshwater fish, like the marble trout. / The Latin name is Agatius which seems to be the name of the first Roman colony, the etymology of the name is uncertain - there are many opinions. For example, Ayas could be cognate with the river Ayasse in the Champorcher Valley, another theory is that it might derive from giàs, Piedmontese for livestock pen. As for the earliest human settlement in the valley, it is thought that Ayas was initially populated by the Salassi and these people practiced agriculture, pastoralism and fishing up to the Roman conquest in around 25 BC. The Val dAyas became an important route to other territories of the Empire, this role was consolidated and the connections with Valais were expanded. As a result of connections, Ayas became known as Krämertal. Around 515, the territory of Ayas became part of the controlled by the monks of Saint-Maurice dAgaune. This group imposed Christianity on the peasantry of Ayas and this is the period when the first churches were built and the roads connecting the villages were expanded.
Later the control of the Church over Ayas was strengthened, until the Pope gave total control of the valley to the Bishop of Aosta and this is the first certain attestation of Ayas
Saint-Nicolas, Aosta Valley
Saint-Nicolas is a town and comune in the autonomous region of Aosta Valley, in northern Italy. It consists of 13 hamlets located between 950 and 1,550 metres above sea level, sitting like a balcony above the Dora Baltea Valley, Saint-Nicolas overlooks the four major latteral valleys of the mid-upper Aosta valley. These are, Val de Cogne, Val de Rhêmes, Saint-Nicolas consists of a small city center and numerous hamlets or frazioni, locally called hameaux. Among the most scenic is Persod, which is protected by the Belle Arti laws and it consists of 35 stone houses with slate roofs connected by a thin road not large enough for a car to pass. Today, Persod has only six residents, and about 14 regular weekenders from Milan. The hamlet of Persod is recognizable even from the distance of an airplane as it the only village in the area surrounded by giant poplar trees. A noted artisanal maker of Fontina cheese may be found just above the village of Chaillod, Saint-Nicolas was the birthplace of Jean-Baptiste Cerlogne, a humble abbot who had pride in his region and its unique language, called Francoprovençal or Arpitan.
He authored several poems in his native patois and wrote the first grammar. The Center for Francoprovençal Studies, or CEFP, located in the village of Fossaz-dessus, is one of the most important centers for Francoprovençal language research and it opened November 12,1988 and was dedicated to the Aosta Valley writer and playwright René Willien. The CEFP occupies an 18th-century paysannes maison native to the Aosta Valley, the CEFP works in collaboration with the Regional Bureau of Ethnology and Linguistics of Aosta, and other research centers in France and Swiss Romandy on its border. This museum, situated in the village of Lyverloulaz, demonstrates the impact of mechanization on the lives of Aosta Valley residents through the experiences of Joseph Gerbore