Valdivia is a city and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia. The city is named after its founder Pedro de Valdivia and is located at the confluence of the Calle-Calle and Cau-Cau Rivers 15 km east of the coastal towns of Corral and Niebla. Since October 2007, Valdivia has been the capital of Los Ríos Region and is the capital of Valdivia Province; the national census of 2002 recorded the commune of Valdivia as having 140,559 inhabitants, of whom 127,750 were living in the city. The main economic activities of Valdivia include tourism, wood pulp manufacturing, forestry and beer production; the city is the home of the Austral University of Chile, founded in 1954 and the Centro de Estudios Científicos. The city of Valdivia and the Chiloé Archipelago were once the two southernmost outliers of the Spanish Empire. From 1645 to 1740 the city depended directly on the Viceroyalty of Peru, which financed the building of the Valdivian fort system that turned Valdivia into one of the most fortified cities of the New World.
In the second half of the 19th century, Valdivia was the port of entry for German immigrants who settled in the city and surrounding areas. In 1960 Valdivia was damaged by the Great Chilean earthquake, the most powerful earthquake recorded at magnitude 9.5. Debris and destroyed buildings from the earthquake can still be found in the suburban areas. In addition, land subsidence and sediments have resulted in complex navigation challenges on the local rivers and in some areas, ruins of buildings are visible from the water; the area around Valdivia may have been populated since 12,000 – 11,800 BC, according to archaeological discoveries in Monte Verde, which would place it about a thousand years before the Clovis culture in North America. This challenges the "Clovis First" model of migration to the New World. Researchers speculate that the first inhabitants of Valdivia and Chile travelled to America by watercraft and not across a land-bridge in the Bering Strait. During at least the Middle Archaic, southern Chile was populated by indigenous groups who shared a common lithic culture called the Chan-Chan Complex, named for the archaeological site of Chan-Chan located some 35 km north of Valdivia along the coast.
By the time of the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores, Valdivia was inhabited by the Huilliche. The Huilliche and Mapuche were both referred to by the Spaniards as Araucanos, their main language was a variant of the Mapuche language. A large village called; the Huilliche called Ainilebu. Ainil seemed to have been an important trade center. Ainil may be described as "a kind of little Venice," as it had large areas of canals. Since that period, most of these waterways and wetlands have been filled; the market in Ainil received shellfish and fish from the coast, legumes from Punucapa, other foods from San José de la Mariquina, an agricultural zone northeast of Valdivia. A remnant of this ancient trade is the modern Feria Fluvial on the banks of Valdivia River; the surroundings of Valdivia were described as extensive plains having a large population that cultivated potatoes, maize and legumes, among other crops. The population has been estimated by some historians as 30 to 40 thousand inhabitants as of 1548, based on descriptions made by the conquistadors.
Pedro Mariño de Lobera, an early conquistador and chronicler, wrote that there were half a million Indians living within ten leagues from the city. Other historians consider these numbers too high and argue that early Spaniards exaggerated in their descriptions; the British naturalist Charles Darwin observed that "there is not much cleared land near Valdivia." This suggests that pre-Hispanic agriculture in Valdivia was far more extensive than the agriculture practiced in the early 19th century at the time of his visit. The first European to visit Valdivia River's estuary was the Genoese captain Juan Bautista Pastene, who took possession of it in 1544 in the name of the Spanish king, Charles V, he named the river after the Governor of Chile Pedro de Valdivia. Pedro de Valdivia travelled by land to the river described by Pastene, founded the city of Valdivia in 1552 as Santa María la Blanca de Valdivia, it was the southernmost Spanish settlement in the Americas at the time of the founding. Following the establishment of the church of Santa María la Blanca in Valdivia, more buildings were constructed.
Mariño de Lobera described it as "the second city in the Kingdom of Chile". Many of Chile's most influential conquistadors and future governors were granted land in Valdivia, such as Jerónimo de Alderete, Rodrigo de Quiroga and Pedro de Villagra, apart from the proper Pedro de Valdivia. Jerónimo de Bibar, a chronicler who witnessed the founding wrote: "Having the governor seen such good comarca and site for populate a city and riverside of such good river, having such good harbour he founded a city and named it ciudad de Valdivia, he assigned Alcaldes and a town council." After Pedro de Valdivia's death, the war with the Mapuches, called the War of Arauco, continued. The Spanish made many attempts to defeat the Mapuche and defend the cities and forts built on their territory. On March 17 of 1575 the city was damaged by a massive earthquake, it has since been likened to the Great Chilean earthqua
The 1884 Men's tennis tour was the eighth annual tennis tour, consisting of 55 tournaments it began at the beginning of the year in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and ended 21 December in Melbourne, Australia.. Herbert Lawford wins the Irish Lawn Tennis Championships at his 3rd attempt in Dublin defeating Ernest Renshaw in straight sets. William Renshaw a fourth consecutive Wimbledon Championship. Former Wimbledon champion Donald Stewart wins the Northern Championship in Liverpool against Herbert Wilberforce. In America Richard Sears collects a fourth successive US National Championship beating Howard Taylor in straight sets; the title leader this season was Charles Walder Grinstead winning 5 tournaments from 5 finals. Notes 1: Challenge Round: the final round of a tournament, in which the winner of a single-elimination phase faces the previous year's champion, who plays only that one match; the challenge round was used in the early history of tennis, in some tournaments not all.* Indicates challenger Notes 2:Tournaments in italics were events that were staged only once that season Men's 1884 Tennis tour included: No events No events'No events No events No Events Source: The Concise History of Tennis Garcia, Gabriel.
"Tournament Roll of Honour - Worcesterships Championships - 1884-1970". Thetennisbase.com. Madrid, Spain: Tennismem SAL. Gillmeister, Heiner. Tennis:Cultural History. London: A&C Black. ISBN 9780718501952. "History - KZN Tennis". KZN Tennis. Kwazulu Natal Tennis Association. 2018. Mazak, Karoly; the Concise History of Tennis. Independently published. ISBN 9781549746475. Nauright, John. Sports Around the World: History and Practice. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598843002. Nieuwland, Alex. "Tournaments 1884". Www.tennisarchives.com. Harlingen, Netherlands: Idzznew BV. Total Tennis:The Ultimate Tennis Encyclopedia, by Bud Collins, Sport Classic Books, Canada, ISBN 0-9731443-4-3 The Tennis Book, edited by Michael Bartlett and Bob Gillen, Arbor House, New York, 1981 ISBN 0-87795-344-9 Ayre's Lawn Tennis Almanack And Tournament Guide, A. Wallis Myers Dunlop Lawn Tennis Almanack And Tournament Guide, G. P. Hughes Lowe's Lawn Tennis Annuals and Compendia, Sir F. Gordon, Eyre & Spottiswoode. Https://app.thetennisbase.com/1884 Men's Tennis Season http://www.tennisarchives.com/Tournaments 1884
Ulrich Lichtenthaler is a German economist who held the Chair of Management and Organization at the University of Mannheim until March 2015. Ulrich Lichtenthaler studied European Economy at the Otto-Friedrich University in Bamberg and at the Universidad de Granada, graduating with a double degree as Dipl.-Kfm. and European Master of Business Sciences. He went on to receive a doctorate at the WHU-Otto Beisheim School of Management under Prof. Holger Ernst at the Chair for Technology and Innovation Management in 2006, writing a dissertation with the title Leveraging Knowledge Assets: Success Factors of External Technology Commercialization. In late 2009, he received his Habilitation with a thesis by publication at the WHU before becoming a visiting professor at the Technical University Berlin for a few months, he followed a call by his alma mater in February 2010 and became professor of the newly created Chair for Innovation and Organization at the WHU. Lichtenthaler held the Chair of Management and Organization at the University of Mannheim from 2011 to 2015.
Lichtenthaler's research focuses on the management of artificial intelligence and digital transformation as well as organization theory, innovation management and strategic management using quantitative, empirical methods. He published in some business journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science and the Strategic Management Journal, he is author of the book Integrated Intelligence. Lichtenthaler's research publications earned him several awards in Germany, he received the "Best Paper Award in Innovation Management", awarded by WHU, the "Nachwuchspreis des Verbands der Deutschen Hochschullehrer für Betriebswirtschaft", an award given to promising young academics in the field of business research, the 2009 Handelsblatt ranking listed him first among German business and economic researchers under 40 and 17th in term of lifetime publications. These achievements were based on the publication record of Lichtenthaler. However, this publication record collapsed when a large number of Lichtenthalers' paper were retracted after severe irregularities were discovered through investigations by different research groups, several of the affected journals, as well as commissions of WHU and the University of Mannheim.
In 2012, a publications controversy emerged that resulted in several of Lichtenthaler's publications being retracted. This included publications in the Academy of Management Journal, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Strategic Organization, Research Policy, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of World Business, Organization Science, Journal of Business Venturing and Corporate Change, Journal of Product Innovation Management. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Technological Forecasting and Social Change. By 2014, 16 of Lichtenthaler's articles had been retracted. In addition, after the controversy erupted, Lichtenthaler withdrew three articles from the Journal of Product Innovation Management, accepted but not yet published. Based on the publications controversy, the WHU and the University of Mannheim created commissions tasked with investigating academic fraud by Lichtenthaler in 2012. In September 2013, the WHU revoked his Habilitation teaching certificate because an "essential condition for the granting of the teaching certificate was not met".
In October 2014, the University of Mannheim announced that Lichtenthaler would resign from his position in Mannheim in March 2015
Baron Gautsch was an Austro-Hungarian passenger ship that sank in the northern Adriatic Sea on 13 August 1914, during its voyage from Kotor to Trieste, after running into a minefield laid by the Austro-Hungarian Navy. The sinking resulted in the deaths of crew members; the ship was operated by Österreichischer Lloyd, was built by the Gourlay Brothers shipyard in Dundee, United Kingdom. Österreichischer Lloyd was the largest and most successful Austro-Hungarian shipping company of its time, founded in 1833. The company's fleet was growing under the leadership of Julius Derschatta von Standhalt, Minister of Railways in the Austro-Hungarian Imperial Council and president of Lloyd. During his tenure as president, three new modern sister ships were ordered; these were Baron Gautsch in May 1908, Prinz Hohenlohe in October 1908, Baron Bruck in the summer of 1913. Since one of the largest shipyards in Austria-Hungary, the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino in Trieste, was busy, Baron Gautsch and Prinz Hohenlohe were built at the Gourlay Brothers shipyard in Dundee, Scotland.
The ship was named after the former Austrian Prime Minister and Interior Minister Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn. Baron Gautsch and its sister ships were built for the so-called Dalmatian Express Line, a route that went south of the Austrian Riviera along the coast of Istria and Dalmatia; the home port of each ship was Trieste. Baron Gautsch carried commuters and leisure travelers and summer guests who wanted to visit the popular seaside resorts of the Adriatic, it had its maiden voyage on 16 June 1908. The 2069 GRT steamer Baron Gautsch was built at the Gourlay Brothers shipyard in the Scottish city of Dundee, it was transferred to the water on 3 May 1908. The ship had a maximum draft of 7.5 meters. The ship had three heated steam boilers, with heavy oil, that powered three bronze propellers via one steam engine; the engines had 4600 HP. Lloyd hoped to increase the ship's performance with the installation of three steam engines, but when that did not happen Lloyd returned the ship to the shipyard for extensive modifications in Trieste at the cost of Gourlay Brothers.
This was one of the reasons why the Gourlay Brothers shipyard went into bankruptcy and had to be liquidated in October 1910. With the outbreak of World War I on 28 July 1914, all merchant ships in Austria-Hungary were put into the military service of the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Ships received camouflage and from that point served as auxiliary cruisers, troop carriers or supply ships. Many officers entered the service of the Navy. On 27 July 1914 Baron Gautsch was pressed into service the Navy; this was followed by four sailings on which Baron Gautsch brought supplies for troops stationed in Kotor. During these four voyages, Baron Gautsch transported 2855 people. On each return trip, civilians were evacuated to the ports of the northern Adriatic. On 11 August 1914 Baron Gautsch was thus returned to Lloyd. Before Baron Gautsch sailed one last time from Kotor back to Trieste, a conference of war naval authorities was held in Trieste. Baron Gautsch's second officer Tenze was present as a representative of Captain Paul Winter.
At the conference, the commanders of ships were informed that the Navy planned to set mine fields in the northern Adriatic in order to protect the entrance to its main naval port, Pula. Tenze informed his captain about it, so the first officer Luppis set the ship's route for the following journey; the crew of Baron Gautsch received further instructions regarding navigation from military authorities in Zadar via radio. On its way back, Baron Gautsch was carrying refugees from the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina, people that were coming back home from holiday, including many women and children, as well as members of the Austro-Hungarian military that were on their way back to Austria. There were 240 passengers on board. On 12 August 1914 Baron Gautsch sailed from Kotor to Trieste for the last time; the commander was Captain Paul Winter. On 13 August 1914, at 11:00 am, Baron Gautsch departed from harbour on the island of Veli Lošinj, was sailing directly to the port of Trieste, where it was scheduled to arrive at 6.00 pm.
From Veli Lošinj to Pula, the ship was sailing under the command of First Officer Josef Luppis, but this was not the case in reality. In fact, Luppis was handed over command by the captain in 2:00 pm, but he left the bridge, without Captain's knowledge, handing command to the inexperienced second officer Tenze, went to lunch with the first class passengers. Captain Winter was asleep in his cabin. Baron Gautsch began sailing much further north than the military authorities had ordered earlier, passed near the ship Prinz Hohenloheom, sailing south to Dalmatian Islands more than 3 nautical miles away from the coast. Warnings by several passengers did not cause Tenze to change the ship's course. Tenze made several references about minefields in surrounding areas, how Austro-Hungarian Navy had placed them to protect the port of Pula, but that did not make him change course. At 2:45 pm, seven nautical miles from the Brijuni islands, Baron Gautsch entered at full speed into a minefield that had just been set by the Navy forces.
At this time the minelayer Basilisk saw Baron Gautsch sailing directly into the danger zone, so it gave warning signals, but the signals were not noticed or understood. At the last moment, Tenze recognized the threat and turned th
The Burr-Brown Corporation was a United States technology company in Tucson, which designed and marketed a broad line of proprietary, high-performance and mixed-signal integrated circuits used in electronic signal processing. The company's products were used in a wide range of applications: industrial process and control, including nuclear power generation, telecommunications and measurement, medical and scientific instrumentation, medical imaging, digital audio and video, personal computing and multimedia. In September 2000, Texas Instruments acquired the company for US$7.6 billion. The company was incorporated in Tucson, Arizona in 1956 by founders Page Burr and Thomas R. Brown, Jr. to commercialize semiconductor transistors. Brown bought out Burr's share of the company. In 1983, the company reincorporated in Delaware, went public with stock trading on NASDAQ under the symbol BBRC; the company employed over 1,300 people worldwide with manufacturing and technical facilities located in Tucson, Arizona.
Company headquarters was located in Tucson. Burr-Brown was one of the principal suppliers of precision analog and data acquisition products to the electronic industry; the company pioneered many analog semiconductor products and techniques, such as active laser-trimming. To mark Burr-Brown's history, a monument was erected in the main courtyard in Tucson, Arizona with the following text: From its humble beginnings in Tom Brown’s garage, Burr-Brown Corporation grew into one of the world’s leading designers and manufacturers of high-performance analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits. Robert Page Burr and Thomas R. Brown, Jr. co-founded the company in 1956 and gave their names to the new enterprise. Mr. Burr left in 1958 to form another company, while Mr. Brown continued to lead Burr-Brown for 44 years; the company developed the first commercial solid-state operational amplifier and led the world in high-precision data conversion technology. This monument honors their pioneering spirit. In the words of its stated Corporate Purpose, Burr-Brown did “provide something of value to mankind.”
On the occasion of becoming one company, this marker is hereby dedicated with deepest respect by Texas Instruments Incorporated to the people of Burr-Brown. August 30, 2000 Archive of Burr-Brown website at the Wayback Machine
Benjamin Heidersberger is a German media artist, journalist and culture manager. He works in Berlin and Wolfsburg. Heidersberger studied physics and computer science at the Technical University of Braunschweig in 1978. From 1978 to 1984, he was part of the interdisciplinary artist group Head Resonance in Wolfsburg. Along with vocalist and percussionist Peter Elsner, they conducted research on how ideas become reality in architecture, music and installation. In 1984, he moved to Hamburg to work for a PC-dealer. From 1988 onward, he was an editor of the Computer-Magazine, MACup, about hardware and software, about art and society. In 1989, he co-founded the Ponton-Lab as an artist group and realised interactive media and TV-projects on Documenta- 8 and Documenta- IX, in Japan 1993 as well as on Ars Electronica 1986, 89, 90 and 96 under the brand Van Gogh TV. In 1992, the international project Piazza virtuale was realised, transmitting during the 100 days of Documenta daily 90 minutes of live-TV from 12 studios across Europe.
The same year he curated the exhibition "Creative Software – On Men and Milestones" at Ars Electronica. In 1993 and 1994, Heidersberger taught Design of Electronic Media at Merz-Academy in Stuttgart. Ponton-Lab was formed into a full-service internet agency with up to 20 employees and realised the websites for the Lower Saxony State Government and for the Federal Press Office and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1998 he launched Kulturserver, an online community for art and culture consisting of online-services for 20.000 artists similar to social media. The project was invited to present at the international conference “Cultura y Desarrollo” in Havana. In 2002, he founded the Heidersberger Institute in Wolfsburg Castle to archive and publish the work of his father, photographer Heinrich Heidersberger; the Institute collaborates with contemporary artists to contextualise that work. In the same year he was curator for netart on the 4th Werkleitz Binnale. Beginning in 2011 Heidersberger gave lectures at the Department of Media Studies and Musicology in Humboldt-University.
In 2012, he curated and produced the concert of the Japanese composer Shinji Kanki, for the Alvar Aalto Festival in Wolfsburg. He realized the algorithmic piano composition Pentatonic Permutations in a series of concerts and sound installations, among others at Ars Electronica 2016. In 2017, he began curating the production-arts festival Drehmoment for the KulturRegion Stuttgart. 1991 Smithsonian Award, Washington – Nominee 1993 Siemens International Media Art award, by ZKM Karlsruhe 1993 Prix Ars Electronica 1994 Interactive Media Festival, Los Angeles – Nominee 2000 Best of Business-to-Business Award, as CEO, category Multimedia 2002 eMIL- Award, category User Interface 2003 eMIL- Award, category Internet 2004 WebFish award of the Evangelical Church in Germany, category Innovation 2008 WebFish of the EKD, category Internet Heinrich Heidersberger: Wolfsburg – Bilder einer jungen Stadt. Herausgeber, with Bernd Rodrian, ISBN 3-89479-826-2. Johannes Ehrhardt: Netzwerk-Dimensionen. Kulturelle Konfigurationen und Managementperspektiven, Die virtuelle Piazza.
1992, ISBN 3-89238-045-7. Manfred Waffender: Cyberspace: Ausflüge in virtuelle Wirklichkeiten, Die digitale Droge. 1993, ISBN 3-49918-185-1