Barry Island Pleasure Park
Barry Island Pleasure Park is an amusement park situated on the coast at Barry Island in the Vale of Glamorgan, about 10 miles south west of the capital city Cardiff, Wales. The park opened annually at weekends from Easter onwards and daily during the school summer holidays, until the first weekend in September. Barry Island contains shops and restaurants; the Pleasure Park was once famous for its Scenic Railway which dominated half of the site in the mid-20th century, but was destroyed in a gale in 1973 before being dismantled. Many of the scenic railway's beams were used in the building of the Log Flume ride, one of the park's most popular attractions; the Pleasure Park has over rides. However lack of investment in the park resulted in the majority of these being removed, notably the Viper rollercoaster and the Log Flume. Park entrance is free of charge. Several Amusement arcades are located around the pleasure park. Barry Island Pleasure Park is part owned by Ian Rogers, who ran Welsh discount chain Hypervalue before it ran into financial difficulties.
In 2006, Hilco UK Ltd who specialise in dealing with failing retail businesses assumed control of the ailing Hypervalue group and commenced disposing of various Hypervalue stores and settling accounts with the many creditors. Mr Rogers now owns part of the reorganised group, renamed Hypa Xtra; the park was operated by showman Vernon Studt between 2010 and 2014 under a lease from the joint owners. The only access to Barry Island before 1896 had been either by foot across the sands and mud at low tide or by Yellow Funnel Line paddle steamer when the tide was in; as a further incentive for visitors to come to Barry, an extension to the railway line, through a boxed in tunnel on a 250 yard long pier structure, was built from the mainland to a new station next to the main Barry Pierhead. This enabled visitors to board the paddle steamers that plied in the Channel to Bristol and Weston-super-Mare. Once the rail link was completed the visitor numbers to the island exploded and one Bank Holiday weekend, over 150,000 visitors were recorded arriving on the island, most of those came by train.
Trains by 5 p.m. were leaving at the same rate. The station opened in time for the August Bank Holiday week in 1896 giving the impetus for the development of further attractions on the island; until 1897, there was no established fairground on the island apart from a few carousels run by Bavarian showman Jacob Studt, a set of swing-boats hand-made by Sydney White of Cardiff and a playground slide set up on the main beach for each summer season. In that year the first major ride attraction was built. A Switchback Railway had been designed and built by the famous American coaster engineer LaMarcus Thompson specially for the Cardiff Empire Exhibition at Sophia Gardens in 1896, dismantled following the year-long exhibition and put up for sale, it was bought by the White family and installed at the western end of the beach edge on the present day site of The Olde Pavilion Café. Barry Athletic Club's car park now stands. With no competition the Switchback was a popular and crowded attraction with Victorian holidaymakers and day trippers from the South Wales Valleys for fifteen years until a much larger Figure 8 roller coaster built by LaMarcus Thompson, opened on the edge of the beach level with the present pleasure park site in the spring of 1912.
The Switchback’s trade declined, in competition with the more exciting Figure Eight and it only operated for another two years closing in 1914 just as World War I in Europe started and the number of holiday visitors dropped off dramatically. A military hospital was established on the island, near the fairground and thousands of injured soldiers recuperated on the beaches and sand-dunes; when in 1923 Barry Town Council replaced the previous rough tarmac shoreline roadway with a new brick and concrete Promenade, together with a more substantial road connection with the mainland constructed along a raised causeway, the fairground was relocated from the beach onto its current permanent site where the sand dunes were levelled and the site enclosed inside an iron railing fence. The White Bros, who held the beach concession, bid for and became the first tenants of the newly formed Barry Island Pleasure Park on land rented from the Whitmore Bay Pavilion Syndicate; the White brothers remained in control of the park until the close of the 1929 season.
That year the White Brothers had outbid Pat Collins, showman from the famous Collins fairground dynasty, for his lease on a profitable and major pleasure park at Evesham in the West Midlands, that served day trippers from metropolitan Birmingham and Wolverhampton. When the brothers returned from a period of touring with their mobile fair rides and tried to renew their own Barry Island lease, the following year in 1930, they were stunned to discover that Pat Collins had outbidden them on their home territory. To make it clear why he had taken this step Collins, tongue in cheek, renamed the park as'The New Evesham Pleasure Park', a name it carried until 1950; the White Bros moved their operations across the road to a new and much smaller site, which they named'White's Cosy Corner' and established a restaurant, an amusement arcade and a dodgem cars rink. Cosy Corner was destroyed by arson in 1999 and the shell demolished, but after several stalled planning applications the site was redeveloped and reopened in 2007 as a family entertainments centre.
A measure of the growth in trade on the island is that in 1934 during the seven days of the August Bank Holiday week the official estimate
Glamorgan, or sometimes Glamorganshire, is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales. It was an early medieval petty kingdom of varying boundaries known as Glywysing until taken over by the Normans as a lordship. Glamorgan is latterly represented by the three preserved counties of Mid Glamorgan, South Glamorgan and West Glamorgan; the name survives in that of Vale of Glamorgan, a county borough. Although a rural and pastoral area of little value, the area that became known as Glamorgan was a conflict point between the Norman lords and the Welsh princes, with the area being defined by a large concentration of castles. After falling under English rule in the 16th century, Glamorgan became a more stable county, exploited its natural resources to become an important part of the Industrial Revolution. Glamorgan was the most populous and industrialised county in Wales, was once called the "crucible of the Industrial Revolution," as it contained the world centres of three metallurgical industries and its rich resources of coal.
The county of Glamorgan comprises several distinct regions: the industrial valleys, the agricultural Vale of Glamorgan, the scenic Gower Peninsula. The county is bounded to the north by Brecknockshire, east by Monmouthshire, south by the Bristol Channel, west by Carmarthenshire and Carmarthen Bay, its total area is 2,100 km2, the total population of the three preserved counties of Glamorgan in 1991 was 1,288,309. Glamorgan contains two cities, the county town and from 1955 the capital city of Wales, Swansea; the highest point in the county is Craig y Llyn, situated near the village of Rhigos in the Cynon Valley. Glamorgan's terrain has been inhabited by humankind for over 200,000 years. Climate fluctuation caused the formation and reformation of glaciers which, in turn, caused sea levels to rise and fall. At various times life has flourished, at others the area is to have been uninhabitable. Evidence of the presence of Neanderthals has been discovered on the Gower Peninsula. Whether they remained in the area during periods of extreme cold is unclear.
Sea levels have been 150 metres lower and 8 metres higher than at present, resulting in significant changes to the coastline during this period. Archaeological evidence shows; the oldest known human burial in Great Britain – the Red Lady of Paviland – was discovered in a coastal cave between Port Eynon and Rhossili, on the Gower Peninsula. The'lady' has been radiocarbon dated to c. 29,000 years before present – during the Late Pleistocene – at which time the cave overlooked an area of plain, some miles from the sea. From the end of the last ice age Mesolithic hunter-gatherers began to migrate to the British Peninsula – through Doggerland – from the European mainland. Archaeologist Stephen Aldhouse-Green notes that while Wales has a "multitude" of Mesolithic sites, their settlements were "focused on the coastal plains", the uplands were "exploited only by specialist hunting groups". Human lifestyles in North-West Europe changed around 6000 BP, they cleared the forests to establish pasture and to cultivate the land and developed new technologies such as ceramics and textile production.
A tradition of long barrow construction began in continental Europe during the 7th millennium BP – the free standing megalithic structures supporting a sloping capstone. Nineteen Neolithic chambered five possible henges have been identified in Glamorgan; these megalithic burial chambers, or cromlechi, were built between 6000 and 5000 BP, during the early Neolithic period, the first of them about 1500 years before either Stonehenge or the Egyptian Great Pyramid of Giza was completed. Two major groups of Neolithic architectural traditions are represented in the area: portal dolmens; such massive constructions would have needed a large labour force – up to 200 men – suggestive of large communities nearby. Archaeological evidence from some Neolithic sites has shown the continued use of cromlechi in the Bronze Age; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – has made a lasting impression on the area. Over six hundred Bronze Age barrows and cairns, of various types, have been identified all over Glamorgan.
Other technological innovations – including the wheel. Deforestation continued to the more remote areas as a warmer climate allowed the cultivation of upland areas. By 4000 BP people had begun to bury, or cremate their dead in individual cists, beneath a mound of earth known as a round barrow. From c. 3350 BP, a worsening climate began to make agriculture unsustainable in upland areas. The resulting population pressures appear to have led to co
Dinas Powys is a large village and a community in the Vale of Glamorgan in South Wales which takes its name from the Dinas Powys hillfort that dates from the Iron Age. The village is 5.6 miles south-west of the centre of Cardiff and conveniently situated on the A4055 Cardiff to Barry main road. It is regarded as a pleasant dormitory village for Cardiff's commerce and industry commuters since the city has expanded with widespread development around the Cardiff Bay area. Despite the addition of several housing developments over the past fifty years, the old village centre of Dinas Powys still has a unspoiled and rural feel, retaining a large village common and a traditional village centre complete with a post office and a range of small independent shops, public houses and community facilities. In addition there are shops, small supermarkets, Pharmacy and a Vets on the main Cardiff Road and a selection of shops on the Murch estate including a post office; the Health Centre consisting of the doctors and Murch pharmacy relocated in April 2017 to the new Medical centre at the top of Murch Road, on the site of the old St Cyres, Dinas Powys site.
According to recent electoral rolls the population is in the region of 8,800. This establishes the village as the fifth largest settlement in the Vale of Glamorgan and larger than many chartered towns in the UK; the Dinas Powys area has been populated since prehistoric times. The most ancient artifact found in the area is a Neolithic stone age axe-head, discovered by P. W. Brooks in 1949 and now displayed in the National Museum Cardiff; the village features substantial remains of a Norman castle and the adjacent Cwm George was the site of the celtic hill fort from which the village takes its name. The hill fort site was excavated by Leslie Alcock of University College, Cardiff between 1954 and 1958 and was found to contain evidence of major wooden structures and a large quantity of high-status metalwork and jewellery. There were glass items and imported pottery dating from the sub-Roman period of between the 5th and 7th centuries; the castle was the seat of a Norman noble called Baron de Sumeri or Sumery, but the structure went into decline around 1322 when the de Sumeri male family line came to an end.
According to the historian John Davies, the name Dinas Powys is derived from the Latin "Dinas Pagus" — meaning "city of pagans". In the 11th century Dinas Powis was under the control of Sir Reginald de Sully, one of the Twelve Knights of Glamorgan. In 1591, Sir Edward Mansel of Margam wrote his historical document recording The winning of Glamorgan and recorded: To Sir Reginald de Sully he gave the castle and town to be called Sully with the Manor of it, the Manors of St Andrews and Dinas Powys for his Granary and provisions; this Sir Reginald bestowed much land in fee frankliege to his men and came to be a man of wealth and fame. He had at Sully besides his Castle a fair Manor house built after a new manner, where he did live the most of his time, which house as well as the Castle was broke down by Owain GlendowrLater in The winning of Glamorgan Mansel records: The Lordship of Llantwit is described as so fertile that as Glamorgan was called the Garden of Wales was this Lordship called the Garden of Glamorgan... and it is the flower of all the Country... and it was full of goodly villages and Courtly houses, most of them still in remaining.
The Lord had in this Lordship a noble Castle at Dinas Powys and one at Barry, with his Court house of Llantwit and Grange house of Boverton, so that in the whole it is a most Goodly Country. Dinas Powis was included in the original medieval Welsh political sub-division called the Cantref Brenhinol which became the commote known as the Hundred of Dinas Powis, which encompassed St Andrews Major, Michaelston-le-Pit, Penarth, Sully and Llandough. By 1833, Dinas Powys existed, but was still larger than nearby Penarth, until Penarth amalgamated with Cogan and Llandough to form a new Town Board. However, St. Andrews Major was at the time larger than Dinas Powis, but added together their population was still only 474 in total; the village population had remained static at about 300-400 people until the second half of the 19th century when there was an influx into this thriving rural community, including a large contingent from the West Country. The growth of the coal industry saw the first passenger train arrive in Dinas Powys on Sunday, 20 December 1898, thereafter the population increased rapidly.
The new rail link was laid at the bottom end of the Dinas Powys valley and provided a rapid link to the new docks, built in Cardiff and Penarth to handle the expanding coal trade from the South Wales valleys. At that time the only features below St Andrews Major were the small hamlet of Dinas Powis, the rail line, Cadoxton Brook and a number of small farms; the new rail link provided far better communication and transport to the area making it a more attractive residential prospect and many workers from Barry and Cardiff moved into the Dinas Powys area. As as 1891, the village population had more than doubled to 1,149 and by the turn of the century ten years had expanded to over 2,000; the village expanded in two ways
Barry, Vale of Glamorgan
Barry is a town in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, on the north coast of the Bristol Channel 9 miles south-southwest of Cardiff. Barry is a seaside resort, with attractions including several beaches the resurrected Barry Island Pleasure Park. According to Office for National Statistics 2016 estimate data, the population of Barry was 54,673, making it the third largest town in Wales, after Wrexham and Merthyr Tydfil. Once a small village, Barry has absorbed its larger neighbouring villages of Cadoxton and Barry Island, now, Sully, it grew from the 1880s with the development of Barry Docks, which in 1913 was the largest coal port in the world. The place was named after Saint Baruc; the area now occupied. Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age microlith flint tools have been found at Friars Point on Barry Island and near Wenvoe and Neolithic or New Stone Age polished stone axe-heads were discovered in St. Andrews Major. A cinerary urn was found on Barry Island during excavations of Bronze Age barrows and two more were found in a barrow at Cold Knap Point.
A large defended enclosure or Iron Age promontory hillfort was located at the Bulwarks at Porthkerry and there was evidence of the existence of an early Iron Age farmstead during construction of Barry College off Colcot Road. In Roman times farmsteads existed on the site of Barry Castle and Biglis and there were verbal reports of discovery of a cemetery including lead coffins with scallop-shell decoration. Both St. Baruc's Chapel and St. Nicholas Church have re-used Roman bricks and tiles incorpoarated in their building fabric and a Roman villa was discovered in Llandough. In 1980 a Roman building consisting of 22 rooms and cellars in four ranges around a central courtyard was excavated at Glan-y-môr and is believed to be a third-century building associated with naval activity, maybe a supply depot; the Vikings launched raids in the area and Barry Island was known to be a raider base in 1087. Flat Holm and Steep Holm islands in the Bristol Channel have their name Holm name derived from a Scandinavian word for an island in an estuary.
The excavation of the Glan-y-môr site revealed the site had been reused in the 6th and 7th century and between AD 830 and 950 as a dry stone sub-rectangular building with a turf or thatched roof. The main feature of the area at this time was the island in the Bristol Channel, separated from the mainland by a tidal estuary, it is described in Giraldus Gerald of Wales' Itinerarium Cambriae. He states that Barry derives its name from St. Baruc whose remains are deposited in a chapel on the island; the local noble family who owned the island and the adjoining estates took the name of de Barri from the island. Following the Norman conquest of England the area was divided into manors with the Barry area split into two large lordships and Dinas Powys. Penmark was split into the sub-manors of West Penmark and Barry. Dinas Powys was split into the sub-manors of Uchelolau; the sub-manor of Barry was granted by the de Umfraville family to the de Barri family and the seat of the manor was Barry Castle, located on high ground overlooking the Bristol Channel, a site occupied in Roman times by a native homestead.
The castle was a small fortified manor house, built to replace an earlier earthwork. By the late 13th century the castle had two stone buildings on the east and west sides of a courtyard. Early in the 14th century the castle was strengthened by the addition of a large hall and gatehouse on its south side, the ruins of which are all that survive today. By now Barry had grown into a village and port with its own church and watermill but in the 14th century its population was drastically reduced by the Black Death and the consequences of the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr, it took the population some 300 years to recover and once more hold the title of village a sparsely populated area with a few scattered farms and much of the land a marsh that a small river flowed through. By 1622 the pattern of fields, where enclosure was complete, around Barry village was pretty much as it was to remain until the growth of the modern town. According to the 1673 Hearth-Tax list the parish contained thirteen houses.
Whitehouse Cottage, the oldest existing inhabited house in modern Barry, dates from the late 1500s with the east end of the building added in around 1600. It overlooks the sea at Cold Knap. By 1871 the population of Barry was over 100, with 21 buildings, the new estate-owning Romilly family being involved in the buildup of the village but it remained a agricultural community, it grew. The coal trade was growing faster than the facilities at Tiger Bay in Cardiff could and so a group of colliery owners formed the Barry Railway Company and chose to build the docks at Barry. Work commenced in 1884 and the first dock basin was opened in 1889 to be followed by two other docks and extensive port installations; the Barry Railway brought coal down from the South Wales Valleys to the new docks whose trade grew from one million tons in the first year, to over nine million tons by 1903. The port was crowded with ships and had flourishing ship repair yards, cold stores, flour mills and an ice factory. By 1913, Barry was the largest coal exporting port in the world.
Behind the docks rose the terraced houses of Barry which, with Cadoxton, soon formed a sizeable town. The railways which had played a major part in the development of the dock helped make Barry Island a popular resort. Barry Memorial Hall on Gladstone Road was inaugurated in November 1932, obtained its name to honour those loca
The M4, a motorway in the United Kingdom running from west London to southwest Wales, was referred to as the London-South Wales Motorway. The English section to the Severn Bridge was constructed between 1961 and 1971; the Second Severn Crossing renamed the Prince of Wales Bridge, was inaugurated on 5 June 1996 by HRH The Prince of Wales and the M4 was rerouted. Apart from its two spurs—the A48 and the M48—the M4 is the only motorway in Wales; the line of the motorway from London to Bristol runs in parallel with the A4. After crossing the River Severn, toll-free since 17 December 2018, the motorway follows the A48, to terminate at the Pont Abraham services in Carmarthenshire; the major towns and cities along the route—a distance of 189 miles —include Slough, Swindon, Newport, Bridgend, Port Talbot and Swansea. A new road from London to South Wales was first proposed in the 1930s. In 1956, the Ministry of Transport announced plans for the first major post-war road improvement projects; the Chiswick flyover, a short section of elevated dual-carriageway, not classed as a motorway, opened in 1959 to reduce the impact of traffic travelling between central London and the west.
The Maidenhead bypass opened in 1961 whilst J1-J5 opened in 1965. The stretch from J18 to the west of Newport was opened including the Severn Bridge; the Port Talbot by-pass built in the 1960s and now part of the M4, was the A48 motorway, a number now allocated to a short section of motorway near Cardiff. The Ministry of Transport intended that the M4 would terminate at Tredegar Park west of Newport, following the creation of the Welsh Office that the Government became committed to a high-standard dual carriageway to Carmarthenshire; the English section of the motorway was completed on 22 December 1971 when the 50-mile stretch between junctions 9 and 15 was opened to traffic. The Welsh section was completed in 1993; the Second Severn Crossing opened in 1996, together with new link motorways on either side of the estuary to divert the M4 over the new crossing. The existing route over the Severn Bridge was redesignated the M48, the new M49 was opened to connect the new crossing to the M5. In April 2005, speed checks carried out by police camera vans between junction 14 and junction 18 led to a public protest, involving a "go-slow" of several hundred vehicles along the affected sections of the motorway.
Between 2007 and January 2010, the section from Castleton to Coryton was widened to six lanes. The scheme was formally opened on 25 January 2010 by Ieuan Wyn Jones the Deputy First Minister for Wales. During 2009, the Newport section of the motorway between junctions 23a and 29 was upgraded with a new concrete central barrier. In February 2010 it was proposed that the M4 in South Wales would become the first hydrogen highway with hydrogen stations provided along the route, with an aspiration for further stations to be provided along the M4 into South West England over time. Between 2008 and 2010, junction 11 was extensively remodelled with a new four-lane junction, two new road bridges and other works; the £65m scheme included work on the Mereoak roundabout and part of the A33 Swallowfield Bypass near Shinfield, the conversion of the two existing bridges, one of, available only to pedestrians and cyclists and the other to buses. It involved the movement of the local Highways Agency and Fire Service offices, the construction of a long footbridge network, a new bus-lane and a new gyratory.
Sound barriers for nearby residential areas were installed. In April 2008, the decision to preserve a rare Vickers machine gun pillbox and turn it into a bat roost was announced by the developers; the M4 crosses the River Severn on the Second Severn Crossing, toll free from 17 December 2018. Maintenance of the 123 miles section of the motorway in England is the responsibility of the Highways Agency; the 76 miles section in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Government. For the majority of its length, the national speed limit applies. Exceptions include the following: 40 miles per hour on the Chiswick Flyover within London in both directions. 60 miles per hour between junction 4 and the Chiswick Flyover eastbound only. 50 miles per hour when approaching the toll plaza after the Severn Crossing. 50 miles per hour on the Port Talbot elevated section between junction 40 and junction 41. The fixed speed camera was removed in 2006. In July 2014, an average speed camera system was installed; the M4 has two sections of smart motorway.
The one between junctions 19 and 20 north of Bristol has variable speed limits and a part-time hard-shoulder. Completion was in summer 2014; the section between junctions 24 and 29 in Newport has variable speed limits. In 2010 it was announced that a smart motorway would be constructed between junctions 3 and 12, with work starting in Autumn 2018; this will be the longest smart motorway scheme in the United Kingdom, with a length of 51km. Work is expected to be completed in March 2022 at a cost of £848 million; the Brynglas Tunnels carry the M4 under Brynglas Hill in Wales. The 404 yards-long tunnels are only twin -- bored tunnels in the UK motorway network. In July 2011, a lorry fire in one tunnel closed the motorway. Although there were no injuries and no deaths, the tunnel remained closed and a contraflow system was in place in the remaining tunnel for about one month, causing major tr
Cardiff is the capital of Wales, its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090.
The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, a BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.
The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as; the antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.
Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.
The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of th
Itton Court, Devauden, Monmouthshire is a country house. The origin of the house was as an outstation for Chepstow Castle. In the 18th century, much of the medieval manor was replaced. Further additions and alterations were made in the 19th and 20th centuries, including work by Guy Dawber. From the 18th until the mid-20th century, the court was the home of the Curre family, major landowners, who purchased the estate in 1749, it is a Grade II* listed building. The original medieval manor was a fortified outstation for Chepstow Castle; the gate house, of a 14th century date is all. In 1749, the court and estate were purchased by the Curre family; the Curres pulled down the remainder of the house, with the exception of a constructed wing in the William and Mary style, built an entirely new house in the current Queen Anne style. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Sir Guy Dawber, an architect noted for his Arts and Crafts work in the Cotswolds was employed to undertake significant renovations and rebuilding.
His work included a long gallery. The house remained the home of the Curres until the death of the last Lady Curre in 1956, it was sold and was subsequently divided into apartments. The building history of the house is "extremely complex." The remnants of the medieval gate tower are mixed with late nineteenth century reconstructions. The architectural historian John Newman considers the East front to be "one of the most distinguished in the county." The house is broadly rectangular, with seven bays. The interiors are unchanged from their late 19th century designs; the house is a Grade II* listed building, recognising its important historical development and its "fine interiors." The park and gardens surrounding the house are recorded, as important survivals with landscaping features from the 17th to the 19th centuries. Newman, John. Gwent/Monmouthshire; the Buildings of Wales. London: Penguin. ISBN 0140710531