Helmsley Castle is a medieval castle situated in the market town of Helmsley, within the North York Moors National Park, North Yorkshire, England. Although the estate of Helmsley was granted to Robert, Count of Mortain following the Norman conquest; the castle, constructed in wood around 1120, was built by Walter l'Espec. Positioned on a rocky outcrop overlooking the river Rye. Featuring double ditches surrounding a rectangular inner bailey, the castle bears little resemblance to the motte and bailey castles built at the time; the castle at Helmsley was only 1.9 miles from Rievaulx Abbey and Walter l'Espec granted the land for the abbey. Aelred, the abbey's first novice master, was known to be involved in l'Espec's affairs and Helmsley was used as a place of safety during periods of instability. Walter was childless and on his death in 1154 the castle passed to his sister Adelina who had married Peter de Roos. In 1186 Robert de Ros, son of Everard de Ros, began work on converting the castle to stone.
He built two main towers, the round corner towers and the main gateway on the south side of the castle. He died in 1227, granting the castle to his older son William who lived there from 1227 to 1258; the only change made to the castle during this time was the construction of the chapel in the courtyard. William's son, inherited the castle and was Lord of Helmsley from 1258 to 1285, his marriage to Isabel d'Aubigny funded the building of the new hall and kitchen, as well as strengthening the castle. This may include the building of the impressive South Barbican, constructed between 1227 and 1285, he built a wall dividing the castle into north and south sides, with the southern half for the private use of the lord's family in the new hall and east tower, the northern half containing the old hall to be used by the steward and other castle officials. The strengthening of the castle continued into Robert's son William's life. William de Ros II died in 1316; the East Tower may have been heightened for the visit of King Edward III.
Helmsley Castle remained in the possession of the de Roos family until 1478 when Edmund de Roos sold it to Richard, Duke of Gloucester who became Richard III. Richard did nothing to the castle. After Richard III's death at the Battle of Bosworth, Helmsley Castle was restored to Edmund de Roos by Henry VII. Edmund died childless in 1508 and the castle passed to his cousin Sir George Manners of Etal on whose death in 1513 his son Thomas inherited it, he was created Earl of Rutland in 1525. On his death in 1543, Thomas was succeeded by his son, but it was under the rule of his grandson Edward, that the castle was altered next, he had the old hall converted into a Tudor mansion, converted the 13th-century chapel into a kitchen linked to the old hall by a covered gallery, knocked the new hall down. The south barbican was converted into a more comfortable residence at this time. A letter of April 1578 describes the slow progress of the mason's work, that timber was available for a gallery in the attic of the mansion.
On Edward's death in 1587 his brother John Manners inherited the castle, followed by John's son Roger, Roger's younger brother Francis. On the death of Francis in 1632 the castle passed to George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham through his marriage to Katherine, Francis' daughter. During the English Civil War, the castle was besieged by Sir Thomas Fairfax in 1644. Sir Jordan Crosland held it for the king for three months before surrendering. Parliament ordered the castle to be slighted and much of the walls and part of the east tower were destroyed; however the mansion was spared. The castle had by this time been inherited by George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham who married Mary, daughter of Thomas Fairfax in 1657. After his death in 1687 the castle was sold to Charles Duncombein 1695, he was a banker and politician, knighted in 1699 and became Lord Mayor of London in 1708. The 40,000 acre estate was purchased for the sum of £90,000, his sister Mary's husband, Thomas Brown, inherited the castle on Charles's death in 1711.
Thomas changed his name to Duncombe. He hired William Wakefield, a protégé of Sir John Vanbrugh, to build a country house at Duncombe Park overlooking the castle and left the castle to decay; the castle was designed as a picturesque backdrop for the Duncombe Park estate, was sketched by the great JMW Turner. As the castle fell into disrepair the local community took advantage of the site to hold fêtes and agricultural shows; the vicar of All Saint's Church Charles Norris Gray held events in the castle throughout the latter part of the 19th century. The castle passed into the hands of the Office of Works in 1923, who began the clearing of debris and trees from the site; the castle's remarkable earthworks were planned to be part of an anti-tank defence during the Second World War. Although it is still owned by the Feversham family of Duncombe Park, the castle is now in the care of English Heritage. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Coppack, Glyn. Helmsley Castle. London: English Heritage.
ISBN 1-85074-291-X. Fry, Plantagenet Somerset; the David & Charles Book of Castles. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3. English Heritage official site
The ruins of Kirkham Priory are situated on the banks of the River Derwent, at Kirkham, North Yorkshire, England. The Augustinian priory was founded in the 1120s by Walter l'Espec, lord of nearby Helmsley, who built Rievaulx Abbey; the priory was surrendered in 8 December 1539 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Legend has it that Kirkham was founded in remembrance of l'Espec's only son who had died nearby as a consequence of his horse being startled by a boar; the area was used to test the D-Day landing vehicles, was visited by Winston Churchill. The ruins are now Grade I listed and in the care of English Heritage; the Gatehouse of Kirkham Priory, built c. 1290–95, is a specimen of English Gothic medieval architecture. It is a rare survival of such a gatehouse, comparable to that of Butley Priory in Suffolk, it has a wide arch of continuous mouldings with a crocketed gable running up to the windows, with sculptures of S. George and the Dragon on the left, David and Goliath to the right.
Above the arch is Christ in a pointed oval recess, plus two figures below of St. Bartholomew and St. Philip, in niches. There are many escutcheons with the armorials of the various benefactors of the Priory, including the arms of de Ros, Scrope, de Forz, FitzRalph & Espec. Arms of Scrope: Azure, a bend or Arms of de Forz Arms of de Clare Arms of de Ros Sir William de Ros, father of Robert de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros. Robert de Ros William de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros Ralph Greystoke, 5th Baron Greystoke "Houses of Austin canons: Priory of Kirkham". A History of the County of York: Volume 3. Victoria County History. 1974. Pp. 219–222. English Heritage Listed Buildings text Kirkham priory Priory Portal Visitor information: English Heritage Historic England. "Details from image database". Images of England. Map sources for Kirkham Priory
An anticyclone is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere". Effects of surface-based anticyclones include clearing skies as well as drier air. Fog can form overnight within a region of higher pressure. Mid-tropospheric systems, such as the subtropical ridge, deflect tropical cyclones around their periphery and cause a temperature inversion inhibiting free convection near their center, building up surface-based haze under their base. Anticyclones aloft can form within warm core lows such as tropical cyclones, due to descending cool air from the backside of upper troughs such as polar highs, or from large scale sinking such as the subtropical ridge; the evolution of an anticyclone depends on a few variables such as its size, moist-convection, Coriolis force etc. Sir Francis Galton first discovered anticyclones in the 1860s.
Preferred areas within a synoptic flow pattern in higher levels of the hydrosphere are beneath the western side of troughs, or dips in the Rossby wave pattern. High-pressure systems are alternatively referred to as anticyclones, their circulation is sometimes referred to as cum sole. Subtropical high pressure zones form under the descending portion of the Hadley cell circulation. Upper-level high-pressure areas lie over tropical cyclones due to their warm core nature. Surface anticyclones form due to downward motion through the troposphere, the atmospheric layer where weather occurs. Preferred areas within a synoptic flow pattern in higher levels of the troposphere are beneath the western side of troughs. On weather maps, these areas show converging winds known as confluence, or converging height lines near or above the level of non-divergence, near the 500 hPa pressure surface about midway up the troposphere; because they weaken with height, these high-pressure systems are cold. Heating of the earth near the equator forces upward motion and convection along the monsoon trough or intertropical convergence zone.
The divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft. As air moves towards the mid-latitudes, it cools and sinks leading to subsidence near the 30° parallel of both hemispheres; this circulation known as the Hadley cell forms the subtropical ridge. Many of the world's deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas; because these anticyclones strengthen with height, they are known as warm core ridges. The development of anticyclones aloft occurs in warm core cyclones such as tropical cyclones when latent heat caused by the formation of clouds is released aloft increasing the air temperature. In the absence of rotation, the wind tends to blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure; the stronger the pressure difference between a high-pressure system and a low-pressure system, the stronger the wind. The coriolis force caused by Earth's rotation gives winds within high-pressure systems their clockwise circulation in the northern hemisphere and anticlockwise circulation in the southern hemisphere.
Friction with land slows down the wind flowing out of high-pressure systems and causes wind to flow more outward from the center. High-pressure systems are associated with light winds at the surface and subsidence of air from higher portions of the troposphere. Subsidence will warm an air mass by adiabatic heating. Thus, high pressure brings clear skies; because no clouds are present to reflect sunlight during the day, there is more incoming solar radiation and temperatures rise near the surface. At night, the absence of clouds means that outgoing longwave radiation is not blocked, giving cooler diurnal low temperatures in all seasons; when surface winds become light, the subsidence produced directly under a high-pressure system can lead to a buildup of particulates in urban areas under the high pressure, leading to widespread haze. If the surface level relative humidity rises towards 100 percent overnight, fog can form; the movement of continental arctic air masses to lower latitudes produces strong but vertically shallow high-pressure systems.
The surface level, sharp temperature inversion can lead to areas of persistent stratocumulus or stratus cloud, colloquially known as anticyclonic gloom. The type of weather brought about by an anticyclone depends on its origin. For example, extensions of the Azores high pressure may bring about anticyclonic gloom during the winter because they pick up moisture as they move over the warmer oceans. High pressures that build to the north and move southwards bring clear weather because they are cooled at the base which helps prevent clouds from forming. Once arctic air moves over an unfrozen ocean, the air mass modifies over the warmer water and takes on the character of a maritime air mass, which reduces the strength of the high-pressure system; when cold air moves over warm oceans, polar lows can develop. However and moist air masses which move poleward from tropical sources are slower to modify than arctic air masses; the circulation around mid-level ridges, the air subsidence at their center, act to steer tropical cyclones ar
Pickering Castle is a motte-and-bailey fortification in Pickering, North Yorkshire, England. Pickering Castle was a timber and earth motte and bailey castle, it was developed into a stone bailey castle which had a stone shell keep. The current inner ward was the bailey, was built between 1180 and 1187; the keep was developed into a stone shell keep sometime during the years 1216 to 1236 along with the chapel – there is a reconstruction of the chapel at the site. Between the years 1323 and 1326 there was an outer ward and curtain wall built, along with three towers. There were two ditches, one situated outside of the curtain wall and one in the outer ward. After this a gatehouse, ovens and the storehouses were built; the castle is situated in the Vale of Pickering and has a steep cliff on the west side which would have been a great defensive attribute. The original structure was built by the Normans under William the Conqueror in 1069–1070; this early building included the large, central mound, the outer palisades and internal buildings, notably the keep on top of the motte.
Ditches were dug to make assault on the walls difficult. The main purpose of the castle at this time was to maintain control of the area after the Harrying of the North, its remains are well-preserved because it is one of only a few castles which were unaffected by the 15th-century Wars of the Roses and the English Civil War of the 17th century. In 1926, the Ministry of Works took possession of the castle, it open to the public. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Teachers' resource pack: English Heritage Official page: English Heritage
Helmsley is a market town and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England. Part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, the town is located at the point where Rye Dale leaves the moorland and joins the flat Vale of Pickering, it is situated on the River Rye on the A170 road, 14 miles east of Thirsk, 13 miles west of Pickering and some 24 miles due north of York. The southern boundary of the North York Moors National Park passes through Helmsley along the A170 road so that the western part of the town is within the National Park; the settlement grew around its position at a road river crossing point. Helmsley is a compact town, retaining its medieval layout around its market place with more recent development to the north and south of its main thoroughfare, Bondgate, it is a historic town of considerable architectural character whose centre has been designated as a conservation area. The town is associated with the Earls of Feversham, whose ancestral home Duncombe Park was built overlooking Helmsley Castle.
A statue of William Duncombe, 2nd Baron Feversham stands in the town's square. The town is a popular tourist centre and has won gold medals in the Large Village category of Yorkshire in Bloom for three years; the town square is a meeting place for motorcyclists as it is at the end of the B1257 road from Stokesley, a favourite with bikers. The Cleveland Way National Trail starts at Helmsley, follows a horseshoe loop around the North York Moors National Park and Yorkshire coast for 110 miles to Filey; the remains of Helmsley Castle tower over the town. Archaeological discoveries indicate that the area around Helmsley was first settled in around 3,000 BC and small farming communities existed here throughout the Neolithic and Iron Ages and into Roman times. Finds of beehive querns confirm local agriculture and the milling of grain since at least the Iron Age. There are reports of finds of Roman pottery and a second-century Roman coin; the ancient settlement, whose Old English name was Elmeslac, pre-dates the Domesday Book.
It means ‘Helm’s forest clearing’ and indicates the nature of the landscape at that time. Vikings left their mark in the Old Norse, "gate" ending of the names of many of the streets; the ownership of much of the town and its surrounding land has changed hands only twice since the Norman Conquest. After the conquest it was governed within the wapentake of Maneshou in the North Riding of Yorkshire, held by William the Conqueror’s half brother the Count of Mortain; the ancient pollarded oak trees in Duncombe Park date from this period and the park is now a national nature reserve. In about 1100 the estate passed to founder of Rievaulx Abbey. Walter Espec’s heirs were the eldest surviving sons of his three sisters and the Helmsley properties devolved upon Robert De Ros, the son of the youngest sister, Adeline. In 1191 Robert de Ros granted Helmsley its Borough Charter; the charter created the burgage plots – long, narrow plots which can still be seen in the property boundaries on the west side of Castlegate and east side of Bridge Street.
Large-scale sheep farming, wool production and weaving were the mainstay of Helmsley’s economy for several centuries. Despite setbacks, including marauding Scots and the Black Death, Helmsley grew throughout the Middle Ages; when wool production declined after the dissolution of Rievaulx Abbey, Helmsley’s weavers turned to flax, much of, imported. The weavers were located on Bridge Streets. By the beginning of the 17th century the form of Helmsley was complete, many buildings in use today date from this period; the oldest surviving house is the vicarage. The town remained with the holders of the barony of De Ros through the Earls of Rutland and the Dukes of Buckingham until it was sold to the city financier, Sir Charles Duncombe in about 1689; the ruined Norman castle is the most significant medieval survival of the buildings in the town, although parts of the parish church and Canon’s Garth are mediaeval in origin. The 18th and 19th centuries saw major developments and expansion in the hands of the Duncombe family, beginning with the construction of Duncombe Park outside the town.
At the beginning of the 19th century the cottage weaving industry declined in the face of competition from new industrial cities. Despite this, the 19th century saw various major development in the town, notably the rebuilding of All Saints' Church, at the end of the century, building of the town hall. More houses were built along Bondgate and, after the arrival of the railway in 1871, along Station Road; this period saw older houses remodelled so that little thatch remained in the town. With the decline of weaving, agriculture became the mainstay of the economy. On 30 June 2011, the BBC Two programme History Cold Case featured an archaeological investigation into four 2,000-year-old skeletons found in Windy Pits caves, concluding that at least one had been the victim of a ritual killing, including scalping; the findings, including the facial reconstruction of the scalping victim, were presented, at Duncombe Park, to local history experts. The conservation area contains some 433 buildings within its bounds.
It contains all 51 listed buildings in the town 12% of the building stock, two scheduled ancient monuments. Of the listed buildings, 48 are classified Grade II and three are Grade II*. Most small buildings in the conservation area are built of honey-coloured stone. Most buildings those of higher status, are constructed using rubble stone, laid to course. Most roofs are covered with pantiles. So
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic.
Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems; the overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined and smelted separately added to molten copper to make bronze alloy; the Bronze Age was a time of developing trade networks. A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik, although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age; the dating of the foil has been disputed. Western Asia and the Near East was the first region to enter the Bronze Age, which began with the rise of the Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC.
Cultures in the ancient Near East practiced intensive year-round agriculture, developed a writing system, invented the potter's wheel, created a centralized government, written law codes and nation states and empires, embarked on advanced architectural projects, introduced social stratification and civil administration and practiced organized warfare and religion. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and astrology. Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Ancient Near East Bronze Age can be divided as following: The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit, upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant conjectured to have been associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC.
Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast. Arzawa was the western neighbor – sometimes a rival and sometimes a vassal – of the Middle and New Hittite Kingdoms; the Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I, around 1400 BC. Arzawa has been associated with the much more obscure Assuwa located to its north, it bordered it, may be an alternative term for it. In Ancient Egypt the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt, known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, c. 3100 BC. It is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king.
Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age was the largest city of the time; the Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. Little monumental evidence survives from this period from the early part of it; the First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time when the rule of Egypt was divided between two competing power bases: Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt. These two kingdoms would come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the 11th Dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt laste
North Yorkshire Moors Railway
The North Yorkshire Moors Railway is a heritage railway in North Yorkshire, England running through the North York Moors National Park. First opened in 1836 as the Whitby and Pickering Railway, the railway was planned in 1831 by George Stephenson as a means of opening up trade routes inland from the important seaport of Whitby; the line between Grosmont and Rillington was closed in 1965 and the section between Grosmont and Pickering was reopened in 1973 by the North York Moors Historical Railway Trust Ltd. The preserved line has been awarded several industry accolades; the NYMR carries more passengers than any other heritage railway in the UK and may be the busiest steam heritage line in the world, carrying 355,000 passengers in 2010. The 18-mile railway is the third-longest standard gauge heritage line in the United Kingdom, after the West Somerset Railway and the Wensleydale Railway, runs across the North York Moors from Pickering via Levisham, Newton Dale and terminating at Grosmont; some heritage rail operations continue along Network Rail tracks to Whitby.
The railway is formed from the middle section of the former Whitby and Malton Line, closed in 1965 as part of the Beeching cuts. The NYMR is owned by the North York Moors Historical Railway Trust Ltd and is operated by its wholly owned subsidiary North Yorkshire Moors Railway Enterprises Plc, it is operated and staffed by volunteers. Trains run every day from the beginning of April to the end of October and on weekends and selected holidays during the winter. Trains are steam-hauled. At the height of the running timetable, trains depart hourly from each station; as well as the normal passenger running, there are dining services on some weekends. The extension of steam operated; the North Yorkshire Moors Railway was first opened in 1836 as the Pickering Railway. The railway was planned in 1831 by George Stephenson as a means of opening up trade routes inland from the important seaport of Whitby; the initial railway was built to be used by horse-drawn carriages. Construction was coordinated by top engineers.
Their three main achievements were cutting a 120 yards tunnel through rock at Grosmont, constructing a rope-worked incline system at Beck Hole and traversing the marshy and deep Fen Bog using a bed of timber and sheep fleeces. The tunnel is believed to be one of the oldest railway tunnels in England. In its first year of operation, the railway carried 10,000 tons of stone from Grosmont to Whitby, as well as 6,000 passengers, who paid a fare of 1 shilling to sit on the roof of a coach, or 1 shilling and 3 pence to sit inside, it took two and a half hours to travel from Whitby to Pickering. In 1845, the railway was acquired by the York and North Midland Railway who re-engineered the line to allow the use of steam locomotives, they constructed the permanent stations and other structures along the line which still remain today. The Beck Hole Incline was re-equipped with a steam powered iron rope, they added the line south from Pickering so that the line had a connection to York and London. In 1854 the York and North Midland Railway became part of the North Eastern Railway.
Steam locomotives could not operate on the Beck Hole incline. The original route is now a 3.5-mile rail trail named the Rail Trail. In 1923 the North Eastern Railway was absorbed into the London and North Eastern Railway as a result of the Railways Act 1921. In 1948 nationalisation meant. During this time, little changed on the line. However, in his controversial report Dr Beeching declared that the Whitby-Pickering line was uneconomic and listed it for closure; the line was used in June 1965 to house the Royal Train for the Duke of Edinburgh's visit to the RAF Fylingdales early warning station. In 1967, the NYMR Preservation Society was formed, negotiations began for the purchase of the line. After running various Open Weekends and Steam Galas during the early 1970s the NYMRPS transformed itself into a Charitable Trust and became The North York Moors Historical Railway Trust Ltd. Purchase of the line was completed and the necessary Light Railway Order obtained, giving powers to operate the railway.
The railway was able to reopen for running in 1973 as the North Yorkshire Moors Railway, with much of the traction provided by the North Eastern Locomotive Preservation Group. The preserved line has been awarded several industry accolades. Pickering railway station is the current terminus of the railway and serves the market town of Pickering; the station has been restored to its 1937 condition with help from the Heritage Lottery Fund. Original fixtures and fittings have been installed in the Booking Office and Parcels Office, as well as in the Tea Room. A park-and-ride service is provided to keep traffic out of the town during busy periods; the station is home to the railway's carriage workshops, there is a turntable. Pickering station had an overall roof designed by the architect G. T. Andrews; this roof was removed by British Railways in 1952 due to corrosion. A replacement roof was fitted to the station between Janu