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Valencia

Valencia València, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia. In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment.

He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016. From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war. The Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, e with grave accent indicates /ɛ/ in contrast to /e/, but the word València is an exception to this rule, since è is pronounced /e/; the spelling "València" was approved by the AVL based on tradition after a debate on the matter.

Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 10 °C. In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28 to 34 °C, about 21 to 23 °C at night.

Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Snowfall is rare. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per yea

H. J. Rose

Herbert Jennings Rose FBA was a British classical scholar, best remembered as the author of A Handbook of Greek Mythology published in 1928, which became for many years the standard student reference book on the subject, reaching a sixth edition by 1958. Rose's Handbook was brought up-to-date along the same framework by Robin Hard, in The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, a project that began as a mere revision. Rose was born in Orillia, Canada, to a family of Scottish descent, he attended McGill University, where he was awarded a Rhodes scholarship, with which he went on to Balliol College, Oxford. He was said to be the first Oxford undergraduate to wear a soft hat on Sundays, he drew a chess game on Board 1 with the famous J R Capablanca in a cable match between American and English universities on 23 March 1907. For four years he was a tutor of Exeter College. In 1911 he married Eliza Plimsoll, elder daughter of Samuel Plimsoll, the British social reformer who advocated improved safety standards at sea.

From 1919 - 1927 Rose was Professor of Latin at the University of Wales and from 1927 - 1953 he was Professor of Greek at the University of St Andrews. During this time in 1934 he became a fellow of the British Academy. Rose is best remembered as the author of A Handbook of Greek Mythology, 1928; this was his most successful work and is still used as a student reference book. Upon his death it was written in the Glasgow Herald: "The Scottish Universities have lost one of their most learned personalities by the death of Emeritus Professor H. J. Rose... as a lecturer he was much liked by both learned and popular audiences, while as teacher and colleague he was beloved by generations of pupils and colleagues". Modern Methods in Classical Mythology A Handbook of Greek Literature from Homer to Lucian Hygini Fabulae A Handbook of Latin Literature Primitive Culture in Greece Primitive Culture in Italy A Handbook of Greek Mythology Ancient Greek Religion Ancient Roman Religion Gods and Heroes of the Greeks A Commentary on the Surviving Plays of Aeschylus, 1957–8 Outline of Classical Literature for Students of English Works written by or about H. J. Rose at Wikisource H. J. Rose at the Database of Classical Scholars BAD LINK

Bill Sizemore

Bill Sizemore is an American political activist and writer in Happy Valley, United States. Sizemore has never held elected office, but has nonetheless been a major political figure in Oregon since the 1990s, he is considered one of the main proponents of the Oregon tax revolt, a movement that seeks to reduce taxes in the state. Oregon Taxpayers United, a political action committee he founded in 1993, has advanced numerous ballot initiatives limiting taxation, has opposed spending initiatives. Sizemore made an unsuccessful run for Governor of Oregon in 1998, he announced his intention to run for governor in 2010, but was indicted by the state on charges of tax evasion. The charges were amended to failure to file tax returns. Sizemore was born in Aberdeen, Washington on June 2, 1951, he graduated from Montesano High School in Montesano, Washington where he played varsity basketball and was voted by his teammates as the best defensive player and most inspirational player. He earned a degree in theology from Portland Bible College in 1976.

After graduating, Sizemore taught Old Testament History and Systematic Christian Theology at Portland Bible College and ran a series of businesses, including a retail carpet business, a toy manufacturing company, two Portland radio stations. For four years he hosted the Bill Sizemore Show, a two-hour daily news/talk program on Great Talk 1150 AM. In 1993, Sizemore became its executive director, he is noted as driving force behind a number of ballot initiatives in Oregon. One of the first measures Sizemore was involved in was a referendum which stopped Portland's $3.4 billion light rail expansion. Sizemore added several initiatives in 2008. Sizemore's most notable success was passing Measure 47 in 1996; the measure rolled back property taxes to 1995 levels. Measure 47 mandated a double majority for ballot measures increasing taxes. With Sizemore's assistance, the Oregon Legislative Assembly amended some of the provisions of Measure 47 in 1997, referred the amendments back to the voters as Measure 50, which passed.

In 2000, Sizemore drafted and placed on the ballot Measure 7, which required governments to pay just compensation to property owners when a government-imposed regulation reduced the fair market value of their property. Oregon voters approved Measure 7, but the Oregon Supreme Court nullified it. A similar measure, 2004's Measure 37, subsequently passed, was amended by 2007's Measure 49. Sizemore ran for Governor of Oregon as a Republican in 1998, he won his party's primary, defeating the Republican Party Chairman and three other candidates who had little or no name recognition. During the general election, The Oregonian ran three major articles detailing Sizemore's alleged shady business practices, both in private business and in the operation of his political action committee and non-profit educational foundation; these included one about a "Trail of Debt" he had left behind, one of which involved an outstanding loan from a fellow church member, which Sizemore says was repaid. Sizemore said he did not check the boxes on the loan application relating to bankruptcy and that the loan officer who submitted the application did that on his own.

Sizemore lost the November general election to a Democrat. Sizemore won 30% of the vote, to Kitzhaber's 64%. In July 2000, the Oregon Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers filed a civil racketeering lawsuit against two of Sizemore's organizations: Oregon Taxpayers United and the OTU Education Foundation. Sizemore was not named as a defendant or party to the case. During the trial Becky Miller, Sizemore's top aide, under protection of state and federal immunity deals, testified in detail about unethical and illegal practices of Oregon Taxpayers United; these included alleged money laundering involving both Sizemore and Americans for Tax Reform founder Grover Norquist, as well as falsification of federal tax returns and state campaign finance reports. Additional testimony reported financial deals designed to disguise or hide the sources of funding for campaigns, as well as to allow Sizemore to profit from the campaigns. After three weeks of testimony and a million dollars in union legal fees, the jury found Sizemore's organizations guilty of racketeering, the organizations were fined $2.5 million.

Sizemore refused to pay the fines and attempted to continue doing business by changing the name of his organizations to Oregon Taxpayers Association and carrying on with business as usual. After a post-trial hearing in which no evidence was submitted Sizemore was found liable for his organization's civil racketeering liability, the judge shut down his 501 education foundation. On appeal both sides claimed victory, as the Oregon Taxpayers United organizations were found liable for the judgments but the personal judgment against Sizemore was nullified by the Oregon Supreme Court. In 2006, Sizemore broke with his pattern of anti-tax measures by filing Measure 42, a consumer-oriented bill that would have denied insurance companies the ability to take credit scores into account when setting insurance premiums. In the most expensive Oregon ballot measure campaign of 2006, the insurance industry spent $4 million to defeat the measure; the campaign to defeat the measure, which focused on Sizemore's credibility, was successful.

On December 1, 2008, Sizemore was sent to jail after a Multnomah