Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida was a Spanish painter. Sorolla excelled in the painting of portraits and monumental works of social and historical themes, his most typical works are characterized by a dexterous representation of the people and landscape under the bright sunlight of his native land and sunlit water. Joaquín Sorolla was born on 27 February 1863 in Spain. Sorolla was the eldest child born to a tradesman named Joaquin Sorolla, his wife, Concepción Bastida, his sister, was born a year later. In August 1865, both children were orphaned when their parents died from cholera, they were thereafter cared for by a locksmith. He received his initial art education at the age of 9 in his native town, under a succession of teachers including Cayetano Capuz, Salustiano Asenjo. At the age of eighteen he traveled to Madrid, vigorously studying master paintings in the Museo del Prado. After completing his military service, Sorolla, at age twenty-two, obtained a grant which enabled a four-year term to study painting in Rome, where he was welcomed by and found stability in the example of Francisco Pradilla, the director of the Spanish Academy in Rome.
A long sojourn to Paris in 1885 provided his first exposure to modern painting. Back in Rome he studied with José Benlliure, Emilio Sala, José Villegas Cordero. In 1888, Sorolla returned to Valencia to marry Clotilde García del Castillo, whom he had first met in 1879, while working in her father's studio. By 1895, they would have three children together: Maria, born in 1890, Joaquín, born in 1892, Elena, born in 1895. In 1890, they moved to Madrid, for the next decade Sorolla's efforts as an artist were focussed on the production of large canvases of orientalist, mythological and social subjects, for display in salons and international exhibitions in Madrid, Venice, Munich and Chicago, his first striking success was achieved with Another Marguerite, awarded a gold medal at the National Exhibition in Madrid first prize at the Chicago International Exhibition, where it was acquired and subsequently donated to the Washington University Museum in St. Louis, Missouri, he soon rose to general fame and became the acknowledged head of the modern Spanish school of painting.
His picture The Return from Fishing was much admired at the Paris Salon and was acquired by the state for the Musée du Luxembourg. It indicated the direction of his mature output. Sorolla painted two masterpieces in 1897 linking art and science: Portrait of Dr. Simarro at the microscope and A Research; these paintings were presented at the National Exhibition of Fine Arts held in Madrid in that year and Sorolla won the Prize of Honor. Here, he presents his friend Simarro as a man of science who transmits his wisdom investigating and, in addition, it is the triumph of naturalism, as it recreates the indoor environment of the laboratory, catching the luminous atmosphere produced by the artificial reddish-yellow light of a gas burner that contrasts with the weak mauvish afternoon light that shines through the window; these paintings may be among the most outstanding world paintings of this genre. An greater turning point in Sorolla's career was marked by the painting and exhibition of Sad Inheritance, an large canvas finished for public consideration.
The subject was a depiction of crippled children bathing at the sea in Valencia, under the supervision of a monk. They are the victims of hereditary syphilis. Campos has suggested that the polio epidemic that struck the land of Valencia some years earlier is present for the first time in the history of painting, through the image of two affected children; the painting earned Sorolla his greatest official recognition, the Grand Prix and a medal of honor at the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1900, the medal of honor at the National Exhibition in Madrid in 1901. A series of preparatory oil sketches for Sad Inheritance were painted with the greatest luminosity and bravura, foretold an increasing interest in shimmering light and of a medium deftly handled. Sorolla thought well enough of these sketches that he presented two of them as gifts to American artists. After this painting Sorolla never returned to a theme of such overt social consciousness; the exhibit at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 won him a medal of honour and his nomination as Knight of the Legion of Honour.
A special exhibition of his works—figure subjects and portraits—at the Galeries Georges Petit in Paris in 1906 eclipsed all his earlier successes and led to his appointment as Officer of the Legion of Honour. The show included nearly 500 works, early paintings as well as recent sun-drenched beach scenes and portraits, a productivity which amazed critics and was a financial triumph. Though subsequent large-scale exhibitions in Germany and London were greeted with more restraint, while in England in 1908 Sorolla met Archer Milton Huntington, who made him a member of The Hispanic Society of America in New York City, invited him to exhibit there in 1909; the exhibition comprised 356 paintings. Sorolla painted more than twenty portraits. Sorolla's work is exhibited together with that of his contemporaries and friends, John Singer Sargent and Anders Zorn. Although formal portr
Gijón railway station
Gijón Railway Station is the main railway station of Gijón, Spain. It is temporary located in Sanz Crespo street due to the works for the Metrotrén Asturias project
Castelló de la Plana railway station
Castelló de la Plana Railway Station is the central railway station of Castelló de la Plana, Spain. The station is part of Adif and high-speed rail systems, i.e. it accommodates RENFE long-distance and medium-distance trains. By the end of 2013, AVE railway is expected to reach Alicante
Madrid Atocha railway station
Madrid Atocha is the largest railway station in Madrid. It is the primary station serving commuter trains and regional trains from the south, the AVE high speed trains from Barcelona, Sevilla, Málaga and Alicante; these train services are run by Renfe. As of 2018, this station has daily services to Marseille in France; the station is in the Atocha neighborhood of the district of Arganzuela. The original façade faces Plaza del Emperador Carlos V, a site at which a variety of streets converge, including the Calle de Atocha, Paseo del Prado, Paseo de la Infanta Isabel, Avenida de la Ciudad de Barcelona, Calle de Méndez Álvaro, Paseo de las Delicias, Paseo de Santa María de la Cabeza, Ronda de Atocha. Atocha station is a railway complex, formed by the Madrid Atocha Cercanías and Madrid Puerta de Atocha stations of the Spanish national railways and a station of the Madrid underground called Atocha RENFE. At this site, Madrid's first railway station was inaugurated on 9 February 1851 under the name Estación de Mediodía.
After the building was destroyed by fire, it was rebuilt and reopened in 1892. The architect for the replacement, in a wrought iron renewal style was Alberto de Palacio Elissagne, who collaborated with Gustave Eiffel. Engineer Henry Saint James took part in the project; the name Atocha has become attached to the station because of the nearby basilica dedicated to Our Lady of Atocha. The train platforms were covered by a roof in the form of inverted hull with a height of 27 meters and length of 157 meters; the steel and glass roof spreads between two brick flanking buildings. This complex of railway tracks expanded through the years. In 1985, a project of complete remodeling began, based on designs by Rafael Moneo. In 1992, the original building was taken out of service as a terminal, converted into a concourse with shops, cafés, a nightclub. Like the Orsay Museum in Paris, the concourse has been given a new function, this time a stunning 4,000 m2 covered tropical garden. A modern terminal was designed by Moneo, built in adjacent land to serve both the new AVE trains and local commuter lines.
The main lines end in the new terminal. The station is served by two Madrid Metro stations and Atocha Renfe; the latter was added when the new terminal building was constructed and is directly linked to the railway station. On 11 March 2004, packed arriving commuter trains were bombed in a series of coordinated bombings, killing 191 people and wounding 1,800; the official investigation by the Spanish Judiciary determined the attacks were directed by a terrorist cell. On 10 June 2004, a somber and minimalist Atocha station memorial was dedicated to the victims of the Attack; the monument includes a virtual shrine. Visitors to the attacked stations can leave a hand silhouette and a message through special-purpose consoles. A second monument to this event, known as 11-M in Spain, is the Bosque del Recuerdo in the Parque del Buen Retiro near Atocha; this monument is made up of 192 olive and cypress trees, one for each person who died on that day, with a tree planted in remembrance of the police officer who died on 3 April 2004, along with seven of the perpetrators whose capture was underway.
Inaugurated as the Bosque de los Ausentes, on the first anniversary of the devastating attack, on 11 March 2005, the site was renamed the following year. The forest is surrounded with water as the symbol of life. 1977 Massacre of Atocha Atocha at Google Maps Madrid train services visitor guide The 11-M memorial website |Forest of Remembrance
Jesús is a station in the Metrovalencia network in the La Raiosa area of Valencia. It is served by line 1, line 2 and line 7; the station was opened on 8 October 1988. On 3 July 2006, a serious crash, which killed 43 people, occurred between the station and Plaça d'Espanya station. On 12 December 2010, the station was renamed Joaquín Sorolla, after the painter and to reflect its proximity to the high speed train station Joaquín Sorolla which opened a week after the name change; the name change was opposed by opposition political parties and residents groups, who considered it an attempt to forget the tragedy. Groups representing victims of the crash criticised the name change, pointing out that the Joaquín Sorolla name would be more appropriate for the 2 metro stations, Bailén and Xàtiva, which were closer to the high-speed station, they requested. In February 2012, Valencia city council unanimously adopted their suggestion, changing the name to Joaquín Sorolla-Jesús. On 30 June 2016, the station reverted to its original name to mark the tenth anniversary of the metro accident
Alicante railway station
Alicante Terminal is the central railway station of Alicante, Spain. Referred locally as the RENFE station, the station is part of Adif system, is a terminal station; the station accommodates RENFE long-distance and medium-distance trains, it is the origin of lines C-1 and C-3 of Cercanías Murcia/Alicante. The station is not related to the narrow gauge railway Alicante-Dénia managed by FGV and part of the city's tram network. By the end of 2013, AVE railway is expected to reach Alicante. While a new intermodal station is to be constructed in place of the current terminal, a temporal terminal is to be utilized by the high speed trains; the first train to Alicante arrived from Madrid on 4 January 1858. It took 10 years to construct a railway from Madrid to Alicante, carried out by Compañía de los Ferrocarriles de Madrid a Zaragoza y Alicante, a predecessor of RENFE. Passenger services began on 1 March 1858, but the official opening awaited the arrival of Queen Isabella II on 25 May 1858; the initial design of the stations along the Almansa-Alicante part of the railway was approved in 1853.
Additional extensions to the projects were made in 1857. It was one of the largest terminals built in Spain in those years. Between 1967 and 1968 the original facade of the Alicante station was rebuilt; the station services Alicante and Murcia suburban areas with a frequency of 1 or 2 trains per hour on line C-1 and with eight trains per day on line C-3. The station is the origin for both lines and is located in tariff area 6 of the Cercanías Murcia/Alicante network; the station is used by medium-distance RENFE trains such as Regional Express or Regional with services to Valencia, Cartagena, Albacete and Ciudad Real as lines L-1 and L-2. Barcelona and Madrid are the primary destinations of long-distance trains operated by Renfe. With the completion of high-speed railway, a trip from Madrid to Alicante now takes between 2h20 mins and 2h40 mins
Alta Velocidad Española is a service of high-speed rail in Spain operated by Renfe, the Spanish national railway company, at speeds of up to 310 km/h. Alta Velocidad Española translates to "Spanish High Speed", but the initials are a play on the word ave, meaning "bird"; as of August 2017, the Spanish AVE system is the longest HSR network in Europe with 3,240 km and the second longest in the world, after China's. AVE trains run on a network of high-speed rail track owned and managed by ADIF, where other high-speed and mid-speed services operate; the first line was opened in 1992, connecting the cities of Córdoba and Seville. Unlike the rest of the Iberian broad gauge network, the AVE uses standard gauge; this permits direct connections to outside Spain through the link to the French network at the Perthus tunnel. AVE trains are operated by RENFE, but private companies may be allowed to operate trains in the future using other brands, in accordance with European Union legislation; some TGV-derived trains used to run on the broad-gauge network at slower speeds, but these were branded separately as Euromed until new rolling stock was commissioned for these services.
Towards the end of the 1980s a new line was planned to join the Castilian Meseta with Andalusia without passing through the Despeñaperros Natural Park. After considering various options it was decided that a standard-gauge line, allowing for Spain's first high-speed rail link, would be built; the project was meant to help revitalise the stagnant southern Spanish economy. The line was inaugurated on 14 April 1992 to coincide with Expo 92 being held in Seville. Seven days on 21 April 1992 commercial service began with six daily services stopping at Madrid, Seville, Córdoba and Ciudad Real. In October 1992 RENFE began the AVE Lanzadera service between Madrid and Puertollano and Ciudad Real, it has been suggested that the PSOE government chose the French Alstom bid over the Siemens and Talgo bids for political rather than technical reasons, rewarding the French government for its assistance in capturing ETA activists who took "sanctuary" across the border in southern France. Seville's hosting of the 1992 World's Fair prompted the choice of that city for the inaugural AVE line, with its being the home town of Spanish president Felipe Gonzalez playing some role.
Seville is the artistic and financial capital of southern Spain and the fourth largest city in Spain, after Madrid and Valencia, with a population of over 700,000 and a metropolitan area of 1.5 million people. It is the capital of Andalusia, Spain's most populous autonomous community. In January 1993 the Talgo 200 Madrid–Málaga service began, using AVE lines as far as Córdoba and Spanish-gauge conventional track to reach Málaga. On 23 April that year, the AVE set a new top speed of 356.8 km/h on a test run. In 1993 the mixed-method services Talgo 200 Madrid–Cádiz and Talgo 200 Madrid–Huelva began. In 1994 AVE trains on the Madrid–Seville line began to run at 300 km/h, cutting journey times by at least 40 minutes and covering the 471 km in 2½ hours, though it is unlikely that much of a saving came from the increase in maximum speed, because only a small section of the line near Los Yébenes has the alignments for 300 km/h operation; the maximum permitted speed is 270 km/h between Atocha station and Brazatortas, save for the approaches to the intermediate stations.
Beyond Brazatortas, the line is only authorised for 250 km/h operation, which drops to 215 km/h in the Sierra Morena mountains and 90 km/h around Córdoba station. It is more that time savings occurred as a result of there being fewer intermediate stops. Although in 1999 RENFE began a mixed-service Talgo 200 Madrid–Algeciras route, this was, along with the other mixed services, transferred to Grandes Líneas Renfe following changes to plans for high-speed rail in Spain; the last segment of the Madrid–Málaga high-speed rail line was completed on 24 December 2007 when the new high speed railway section between the cities of Córdoba and Málaga was inaugurated. It is designed for speeds of 300 km/h, it has compatibility with neighbouring countries' railway systems as well. In October 2015 an extension of the Madrid-Seville high-speed rail line to Cádiz was completed after 14 years of works and put in service by Alvia trains for speeds up to 200 km/h. In 1992, a new high-speed medium distance service began between Madrid, Ciudad Real and Puertollano, using spare class 100 trains.
In November 2003 a new service began between Seville and Córdoba using new class 104 trains, reducing journey times between the two cities to 40 minutes. In 2005 the brand was renamed RENFE Avant, all services started to use class 104 trains, leaving class 100 for AVE services; the construction of a 21-kilometre stretch of high-speed line from Madrid to Toledo allowed the inauguration of a medium distance service in November 2005. The journey time between the two cities is now less than 30 minutes; the high-speed link combined with high property prices in Madrid has encouraged many Madrid commuters to settle in Ciudad Real, the first stop on the Madrid–Seville line. There has, been controversy over the construction of this line as the change to standard-gauge track meant that towns such as Getafe and Algodor, which now have no commercial services, lost their direct services to Toledo. Furthermore