Peralta, New Mexico
Peralta is a town in Valencia County, New Mexico, United States. Prior to its incorporation on July 1, 2007, it was a census-designated place; the CDP population was 3,750 as of the 2000 census. Peralta is part of the Albuquerque Metropolitan Statistical Area. Peralta is located at 34°49′35″N 106°41′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP had a total area of 4.4 square miles, all land. Peralta was the site of the Battle of Peralta a minor engagement near the end of Confederate General Henry Hopkins Sibley's 1862 New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War. "The Padre of Isleta", Anton Docher served as a priest in Peralta during his long period in Isleta. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,750 people, 1,314 households, 1,034 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 851.4 people per square mile. There were 1,413 housing units at an average density of 320.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 66.88% White, 0.75% African American, 2.27% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 24.24% from other races, 5.55% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 51.28% of the population. There were 1,314 households out of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.3% were non-families. 16.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.19. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $38,039, the median income for a family was $39,605. Males had a median income of $31,916 versus $26,442 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $15,511. About 10.6% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.
The community's single public school, Peralta Elementary, is operated by Los Lunas Schools
Cibola National Forest
The Cibola National Forest is a 1,633,783 acre United States National Forest in New Mexico, USA. The name Cibola is thought to be the original Zuni Indian name for tribal lands; the name was interpreted by the Spanish to mean, "buffalo." The forest is disjointed with lands spread across central and northern New Mexico, west Texas and Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest is divided into four Ranger Districts: the Sandia, Mountainair, Mt. Taylor, Magdalena; the Forest includes the San Mateo, Datil, Gallina, Sandia, Mt. Taylor, Zuni Mountains of west-central New Mexico; the Forest manages four National Grasslands that stretch from northeastern New Mexico eastward into the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest and Grassland is administered by Region 3 of the United States Forest Service from offices in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Elevation ranges from 5,000 ft to 11,301 ft; the descending order of Cibola National Forest acres by county are: Socorro, Cibola, McKinley, Torrance, Sandoval County, New Mexico, Lincoln and Valencia counties in New Mexico.
The Cibola National Forest has 137,701 acres designated as Wilderness. In addition to these acres, it has 246,000 acres classified as Inventoried Roadless Areas pursuant to the Roadless Area Conservation Rule; the Cibola National Forest is organized into several divisions over three states. The Rita Blanca National Grassland 92,989 acres in Dallam County and Cimarron County, Black Kettle National Grassland 31,286 acres in Roger Mills County and Hemphill County, McClellan Creek National Grassland 1,449 acres in Gray County, Texas are in the Oklahoma-Texas panhandle region; the combined Cibola National Grasslands are 262,141 acres in size. New Mexico is home to much of the Forest, including the Kiowa National Grassland 136,417 acres in Harding, Union and Colfax counties, New Mexico; the Cibola National Forest's Sandia Ranger District is just east of Albuquerque in Central New Mexico and includes the most visited mountains in the state of New Mexico. The Sandia District includes national forest land in eastern Bernalillo and southeastern Sandoval counties, includes the Sandia Peak Tram and the Sandia Crest National Scenic Byway.
The Sandia Mountains lie in the northern portion of the District. It is here where Congress designated the Sandia Mountain Wilderness in 1978; the Cibola's Sandia Ranger District includes the Manzanita Mountains, which stretch south, between the Sandia and the Manzano Mountains. The Manzano Mountains are managed by the Cibola National Forest's Mountainair Ranger District; the Mountainair Ranger District manages national forestland in Torrance, northwestern Lincoln, eastern Valencia counties, which are in central New Mexico. Within the Mountainair District are the Manzano Mountains. Congress designated the Manzano Wilderness in 1978; the Mount Taylor Ranger District manages land in northern Cibola, southern McKinley, western Sandoval counties in western New Mexico. Mount Taylor and Zuni Mountains are within the Mount Taylor District. Overseeing 800,000 acres, the Magdalena Ranger District is the largest of the Cibola National Forest's four mountain districts; the Cibola’s Magdalena District manages land in south central New Mexico in western Socorro, northeastern Catron, northern Sierra counties.
The Bear Mountains, Datil Mountains, Magdalena Mountains and San Mateo Mountains are all within the Magdalena District. There are two Wilderness areas in this District - the Apache Kid and the Withington Wilderness areas, both of which are in the San Mateo Mountains. In addition to the designated Wilderness, the Magdalena Ranger District has 205,972 acres of Inventoried Roadless Areas; the Magdalena Ranger District's officers are stationed in the Village of Magdalena. The District has roots in the Gila Forest Reserve, created by President William McKinley in 1899, making the U. S. Forest Service the “oldest continuous business in Magdalena.” Cibola biomes range from Chihuahuan desert to short grass prairie to piñon-juniper to sub-alpine spruce and fir. The region boasts wildlife as diverse as the biomes they inhabit. Animals represented include: Due to the Rio Grande, a large variety of migrating waterfowl and other birds follow the river's flyway during the spring and fall. Birds of prey are present using the updrafts and thermals along the north-south alignment of the central mountains for their migration.
Wildlife in the Cibola National Forest The ‘sky islands’ region of the Cibola hosts more than 200 rare plant and animal species, with more than 30 species listed as endangered or threatened by New Mexico or the federal government. The region is home to more mammal species than any other ecoregion in the Southwest; the Rio Grande Watershed, which contains the Cibola’s four mountain ranger districts, ranked second out of eight watershed regions for species of greatest conservation need in the New Mexico Game and Fish’s Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. The Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy ranked the Arizona-New Mexico Mountain Ecoregion, within which the Magdalena and Mt. Taylor Ranger Districts are located, second out of six ecoregions in the state for SGCN, with 80 identified SGCN; the Nature Conservancy has identified the San Mateo and Datil Mountains within the Cibola's Magdalena Ranger Distri
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Cibola County, New Mexico
Cibola County is a county in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,213, its county seat is Grants. It is New Mexico's youngest county, the third youngest county in the United States, created on June 19, 1981, from the westernmost four-fifths of the much larger Valencia County. Cibola County comprises the Grants, NM Micropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Albuquerque-Santa Fe-Las Vegas, NM Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,542 square miles, of which 4,539 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. McKinley County - north Sandoval County - northeast Bernalillo County - east Valencia County - east Socorro County - southeast Catron County - south Apache County, Arizona - west Cibola National Forest El Malpais National Conservation Area El Malpais National Monument El Morro National Monument As of the 2000 census, there were 25,595 people, 8,327 households, 6,278 families residing in the county.
The population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 10,328 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 39.61% White, 0.96% Black or African American, 40.32% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 15.44% from other races, 3.24% from two or more races. 33.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,327 households out of which 38.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.60% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 21.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.41. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.70% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 10.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years.
For every 100 females there were 95.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,774, the median income for a family was $30,714. Males had a median income of $27,652 versus $20,078 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,731. About 21.50% of families and 24.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.00% of those under age 18 and 17.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 27,213 people, 8,860 households, 6,274 families residing in the county; the population density was 6.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,101 housing units at an average density of 2.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 41.8% white, 41.0% American Indian, 1.0% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 12.4% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 36.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 5.4% were Irish, 1.5% were American.
Of the 8,860 households, 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 20.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families, 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.30. The median age was 36.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,361 and the median income for a family was $41,187. Males had a median income of $36,027 versus $25,318 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,712. About 20.1% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.7% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over. All public schools in the county are operated by Grants/Cibola County Schools. Cibola County is home to three prisons: the Cibola County Correctional Center, operated by Corrections Corporation of America, housing 1129 federal inmates under a contract with the Federal Bureau of Prisons and the United States Marshal Service the New Mexico Women's Correctional Facility, run by CCA for the state of New Mexico, Western New Mexico Correctional Facility and operated by the state, with about 440 male inmatesIn November 2018, following a private autopsy, a unit of the Cibola County Correctional Center was named in the abuse and wrongful death on May 25, 2018 of Roxsana Hernández Rodriguez.
Rodriguez was a 33yo transgender immigrant from Honduras. The CCCC is operated under contract by CoreCivic. Grants Milan National Register of Historic Places listings in Cibola County, New Mexico Specific GeneralCounty status and boundary changes United States Census Bureau Baldwin, J. A. and D. R. Rankin.. Hydrogeology of Cibola County, New Mexico. Albuquerque: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Maxwell, C. H.. Mineral resources of the Petaca Pinta wilderness study area, Cibola County, New Mexico. Denver: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Media related to Cibola County, New Mexico at Wikimedia Commons
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of