Orange juice is a liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing oranges. It comes in several different varieties, including blood orange, navel oranges, valencia orange and tangerine; as well as variations in oranges used, some varieties include differing amounts of juice vesicles, known as "pulp" in American English, " bits" in British English. These vesicles contain the juice of the orange and can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process. How juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors, such as species and season. In American English, the beverage name is abbreviated as "OJ". Commercial orange juice with a long shelf life is made by pasteurizing the juice and removing the oxygen from it; this removes much of the taste, necessitating the addition of a flavor pack made from orange products. Additionally, some juice is further processed by drying and rehydrating the juice, or by concentrating the juice and adding water to the concentrate; the health value of orange juice is debatable: it has a high concentration of vitamin C, but a high concentration of simple sugars, comparable to soft drinks.
As a result, some government nutritional advice has been adjusted to encourage substitution of orange juice with raw fruit, digested more and limit daily consumption. During World War II, American soldiers rejected vitamin C-packed lemon crystals because of their unappetizing taste, thus the government searched for a food that would fulfill the nutritional needs of the soldiers, have a desirable taste, prevent diseases such as scurvy in a transportable vitamin C product. The federal government, the Florida department of Citrus, along with a group of scientists desired to develop a superior product to canned orange juice and developed frozen concentrated orange juice. Frozen concentrated orange juice was developed three years after the war had ended. By 1949, orange juice processing plants in Florida were producing over 10 million gallons of concentrated orange juice. Consumers were captivated with the idea of concentrated canned orange juice as it was affordable, convenient, a vitamin-C packed product.
The preparation was simple, thaw the juice, add water, stir. However, by the 1980s, food scientists developed a more fresh-tasting juice known as reconstituted ready to serve juice. In the 1990s, "not from concentrate" orange juice was developed and gave consumers an new perspective of orange juice transforming the product from can to freshness in a carton. Orange juice is a common breakfast beverage in the United States. Due to the importance of oranges to the economy of Florida, "the juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis and hybrids thereof" was adopted as the official beverage of Florida in 1967. A cup serving of raw, fresh orange juice, amounting to 248 grams or 8 ounces, has 124 mg of vitamin C, it has 20.8 g of sugars, 112 Calories and 26 grams of carbohydrates. It supplies potassium and folate. Citrus juices contain flavonoids. Orange juice is a source of the antioxidant hesperidin; because of its citric acid content, orange juice is acidic, with a typical pH of around 3.5.
Commercial squeezed orange juice is pasteurized and filtered before being evaporated under vacuum and heat. After removal of most of the water, this concentrate, about 65% sugar by weight, is stored at about 10 °F. Essences, Vitamin C, oils extracted during the vacuum concentration process may be added back to restore flavor and nutrition; when water is added to freshly thawed concentrated orange juice, it is said to be reconstituted. The product was developed in 1948 at the University of Florida's Citrus Research and Education Center. Since, it has emerged as a soft commodity, futures contracts have traded in New York since 1966. Options on FCOJ were introduced in 1985. From the late 1950s to the mid-1980s, the product had the greatest orange juice market share, but not-from-concentrate juices surpassed FCOJ in the 1980s. Orange juice, pasteurized and sold to consumers without having been concentrated is labeled as "not from concentrate". Just as "from concentrate" processing, most "not from concentrate" processing reduces the natural flavor from the juice.
The largest producers of "not from concentrate" use a production process where the juice is placed in aseptic storage, with the oxygen stripped from it, for up to a year. Removing the oxygen strips out flavor-providing compounds, so manufacturers add a flavor pack in the final step, which Cooks Illustrated magazine describes as containing "highly engineered additives." Flavor pack formulas vary by region, because consumers in different parts of the world have different preferences related to sweetness and acidity. According to the citrus industry, the Food and Drug Administration does not require the contents of flavor packs to be detailed on a product's packaging. One common component of flavor packs is ethyl butyrate, a natural aroma that people associate with freshness, and, removed from juice during pasteurization and storage. Cooks Illustrated sent juice samples to independent laboratories, found that while fresh-squeezed juice contained about 1.19 milligrams of ethyl butyrate per liter, juice, commercially processed had levels as high as 8.53 milligrams per liter.
A small fraction of fresh orange juice is canned. Canned orange juice retains vitamin C much better than bottled juice; the canned product loses flavor, when stored at room temperature for more than 12 weeks. In the early years
The citron is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick rind. It is one of the original citrus fruits from which all other citrus types developed through natural hybrid speciation or artificial hybridization. Though citron cultivars take on a wide variety of physical forms, they are all related genetically, it is used in Asian cuisine, in traditional medicines and for religious rituals and offerings. Hybrids of citrons with other citrus are commercially prominent, notably many limes; the fruit's English name "citron" derives from Latin, the origin of the genus name. A source of confusion is that citron in French and English are false friends, as the French word refers to the lemon. Indeed, into the 16th century, the English name citron included the lemon and the lime as well. In Italian it is known as cedro. In Persian languages, it is called turunj, as against naranj. Both names were borrowed into Arabic and introduced into Spain and Portugal after their occupation by Muslims in AD 711, whence it became the source of the name orange.
In Syria it is called kabbad. In Hebrew, the citron is known as etrog. In Gujarati it is called bijora. In Chinese, it is known as xiāngyuán; the citron is an original citrus species. There is molecular evidence that most cultivated citrus species arose by hybridization of a small number of ancestral types, including citron, mandarin and to a lesser extent and kumquat; the citron is fertilized by self-pollination. This results in them displaying a high degree of genetic homozygosity, it is the male parent of any citrus hybrid rather than a female one; the citron is thought to have been native to India, in valleys at the foothills of the eastern Himalayas. It is thought that by the 4th century BC, when Theophrastus mentions the "Persian or Median apple", the citron was cultivated in the Persian Gulf on its way to the Mediterranean basin, where it was cultivated during the centuries in different areas as described by Erich Isaac. Many mention the role of Alexander the Great and his armies as they attacked Persia and what is today Pakistan, as being responsible for the spread of the citron westward, reaching the European countries such as Greece and Italy.
Leviticus mentions the "fruit of the beautiful tree" as being required for ritual use during the Feast of Tabernacles. According to Rabbinical tradition, the "fruit of the tree hadar" refers to the citron, which the Israelites brought to Israel from their exile in Egypt, where the Egyptologist and archaeologist Victor Loret claimed to have identified it depicted on the walls of the botanical garden at the Karnak Temple, which dates back to the time of Thutmosis III 3,000 years ago; the citron has been cultivated since ancient times, predating the cultivation of other citrus species. The following description on citron was given by Theophrastus In the east and south there are special plants... i.e. in Media and Persia there are many types of fruit, between them there is a fruit called Median or Persian Apple. The tree has a leaf similar to and identical with that of the andrachn, but has thorns like those of the apios or the firethorn, except that they are white, smooth and strong; the fruit is not eaten, but is fragrant, as is the leaf of the tree.
It is useful when one has drunk deadly poison, for when it is administered in wine. It is useful to improve the breath, for if one boils the inner part of the fruit in a dish or squeezes it into the mouth in some other medium, it makes the breath more pleasant; the seed is removed from the fruit and sown in the spring in tilled beds, it is watered every fourth or fifth day. As soon the plant is strong it is transplanted in the spring, to a soft, well watered site, where the soil is not fine, for it prefers such places, and it bears its fruit at all seasons, for when some have gathered, the flower of the others is on the tree and is ripening others. Of the flowers I have said those that have a sort of distaff projecting from the middle are fertile, while those that do not have this are sterile, it is sown, like date palms, in pots punctured with holes. This tree, as has been remarked, grows in Persia. Citron was described by Pliny the Elder, who called it nata Assyria malus; the following is from his book Natural History: There is another tree with the same name of "citrus," and bears a fruit, held by some persons in particular dislike for its smell and remarkable bitterness.
This tree is used as an ornament to houses. The citron tree, called the Assyrian, by some the Median apple, is an antidote against poisons; the leaf is similar to that of the arbute. As to the fruit, it is never eaten, but it is remarkable for its powerful smell, the case with the leaves; the tree bears fruit at all seasons of the year. Various nations have attempted to naturalize this tree amo
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University is a public research university in College Station, United States. Since 1948, it has been the founding member of the Texas A&M University System; the Texas A&M system endowment is among the 10 largest endowments in the nation. As of 2017, Texas A&M's student body is the largest in Texas and the second largest in the United States. Texas A&M's designation as a land and space grant institution–the only university in Texas to hold all three designations–reflects a range of research with ongoing projects funded by organizations such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research. In 2001, Texas A&M was inducted as a member of the Association of American Universities; the school's students, alumni—over 450,000 strong—and sports teams are known as Aggies. The Texas A&M Aggies athletes compete in 18 varsity sports as a member of the Southeastern Conference; the first public institution of higher education in Texas, the school opened on October 4, 1876, as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas under the provisions of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts.
The college taught no classes in agriculture, instead concentrating on classical studies, languages and applied mathematics. After four years, students could attain degrees in scientific agriculture and mechanical engineering, language and literature. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder in the 1960s, A. M. C. Desegregated, became coeducational, dropped the requirement for participation in the Corps of Cadets. To reflect the institution's expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963; the letters "A&M," A. M. C. Short for "Agricultural and Mechanical College," are retained as a link to the university's tradition; the main campus is one of the largest in the United States, spanning 5,200 acres, is home to the George Bush Presidential Library. About one-fifth of the student body lives on campus. Texas A&M has more than 1,000 recognized student organizations. Many students observe the traditions, which govern daily life, as well as special occasions, including sports events.
Working with various A&M-related agencies, the school has a direct presence in each of the 254 counties in Texas. The university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes; as a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of six American public universities with a full-time, volunteer Corps of Cadets who study alongside civilian undergraduate students. The U. S. Congress laid the groundwork for the establishment of A. M. C. in 1862 with the adoption of the Morrill Act. The act auctioned land grants of public lands to establish endowments for colleges where the "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanical arts... to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life". In 1871, the Texas Legislature used these funds to establish the state's first public institution of higher education, the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas known as Texas A.
M. C. Brazos County donated 2,416 acres near Bryan, for the school's campus. A detailed listing and backgrounds of all of the University's presidents can be found on the Brazos County Texas Genealogical Association's site Enrollment began on October 2, 1876. Six students enrolled on the first day, classes began on October 4, 1876, with six faculty members. During the first semester, enrollment increased to 48 students, by the end of the spring 1877 semester, 106 students had enrolled. Admission was limited to white males, all students were required to participate in the Corps of Cadets and receive military training. Although traditional Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets "campusologies" indicate 40 students began classes on October 4, 1876, the exact number of students enrolled on that day is unknown. Enrollment climbed to 258 students before declining to 108 students in 1883, the year the University of Texas opened in Austin, Texas. Although envisioned and annotated in the Texas Constitution as a branch of the University of Texas, Texas A.
M. C. had a separate Board of Directors from the University of Texas from the first day of classes and was never enveloped into the University of Texas System. In the late 1880s, many Texas residents saw no need for two colleges in Texas and clamored for an end of Texas A. M. C. In 1891, Texas A. M. C. was saved from potential closure by its new president Lawrence Sullivan Ross, former governor of Texas, well-respected Confederate Brigadier General. Ross made many improvements to the school and enrollment doubled to 467 cadets as parents sent their sons to Texas A. M. C. "to learn to be like Ross". During his tenure, many enduring Aggie traditions were born, including the creation of the first Aggie Ring. After his death in 1898, a statue was erected in front of what is now Academic Plaza to honor Ross and his achievements in the history of the school. In 2017, the status of this statue was in doubt after other schools removed statues of former Confederate officers. In contrast, the Texas A&M Chancellor and President announced the Sul Ross statue would remain as Ross's statue's place of honor was not based upon his service in the Confederate Army.
Under pressure from the legislature, in 1911 the school began allowing women to attend classes during the summer semester. At the same time, A. M. C. began expanding its academic pursuits with the establishment o
A lime is a citrus fruit, round, green in color, 3–6 centimetres in diameter, contains acidic juice vesicles. There are several species of citrus trees whose fruits are called limes, including the Key lime, Persian lime, kaffir lime, desert lime. Limes are a rich source of vitamin C, sour and are used to accent the flavours of foods and beverages, they are grown year-round. Plants with fruit called; the difficulty in identifying which species of fruit are called lime in different parts of the English-speaking world is increased by the botanical complexity of the citrus genus itself, to which the majority of limes belong. Species of this genus hybridise and it is only that genetic studies have started to throw light on the structure of the genus; the majority of cultivated species are in reality hybrids, produced from the citron, the mandarin orange, the pomelo and in particular with many lime varieties, the micrantha. Australian limes Australian desert lime Australian finger lime Australian lime Blood lime Kaffir lime.
Key lime is one of three most produced limes globally. Musk lime, a kumquat × mandarin hybrid Persian lime a key lime × lemon hybrid, is the single most produced lime globally, with Mexico being the largest producer. Rangpur lime, a mandarin orange × citron hybrid Spanish lime. Although the precise origin is uncertain, wild limes are believed to have first grown in Indonesia or Southeast Asia, were transported to the Mediterranean region and north Africa around 1000 CE. To prevent scurvy during the 19th century, British sailors were issued a daily allowance of citrus, such as lemon, switched to lime; the use of citrus was a guarded military secret, as scurvy was a common scourge of various national navies, the ability to remain at sea for lengthy periods without contracting the disorder was a huge benefit for the military. The British sailor thus acquired the nickname, "Limey" because of their usage of limes. In 2016, global production of lemons and limes was 17.3 million tonnes, led by India with 17% of the world total.
Mexico and China were other major producers. Limes have higher contents of acids than lemons do. Lime juice may be squeezed from fresh limes, or purchased in bottles in both unsweetened and sweetened varieties. Lime juice is used to make limeade, as an ingredient in many cocktails. Lime pickles are an integral part of Indian cuisine. South Indian cuisine is based on lime. In cooking, lime is valued both for the floral aroma of its zest, it is a common ingredient in authentic Mexican and Thai dishes. Lime soup is a traditional dish from the Mexican state of Yucatan, it is used for its pickling properties in ceviche. Some guacamole recipes call for lime juice; the use of dried limes as a flavouring is typical of Persian cuisine and Iraqi cuisine, as well as in Persian Gulf-style baharat. Lime is an ingredient of many cuisines from India, many varieties of pickles are made, e.g. sweetened lime pickle, salted pickle, lime chutney. Key lime gives the character flavoring to the American dessert known as Key lime pie.
In Australia, desert lime is used for making marmalade. Lime is an ingredient in several highball cocktails based on gin, such as gin and tonic, the gimlet and the Rickey. Freshly squeezed lime juice is considered a key ingredient in margaritas, although sometimes lemon juice is substituted. Lime extracts and lime essential oils are used in perfumes, cleaning products, aromatherapy. Raw limes are 10 % carbohydrates and less than 1 % each of fat and protein. Only vitamin C content at 35% of the Daily Value per 100 g serving is significant for nutrition, with other nutrients present in low DV amounts. Lime juice contains less citric acid than lemon juice, nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, about five times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice. Lime pulp and peel contain diverse phytochemicals, including polyphenols and terpenes, many of which are under basic research for their potential properties in humans. Contact with lime peel or lime juice followed by exposure to ultraviolet light may lead to phytophotodermatitis, sometimes called margarita photodermatitis or lime disease.
Bartenders handling limes and other citrus fruits while preparing cocktails may develop phytophotodermatitis. A class of organic chemical compounds ca
The lemon, Citrus limon Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to South Asia North eastern India. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses; the pulp and rind are used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie; the origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam, northern Burma or China. A genomic study of the lemon indicated it was a hybrid between bitter citron. Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome. However, they were not cultivated, they were introduced to Persia and to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD. The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, was used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.
It was distributed throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century; the lemon was introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds, it was used as an ornamental plant and for medicine. In the 19th century, lemons were planted in Florida and California. In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known as an important dietary ingredient; the origin of the word lemon may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, a cognate of Sanskrit. The'Bonnie Brae' is oblong, thin-skinned and seedless; these are grown in San Diego County, USA.
The'Eureka' grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon known as'Four Seasons' because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year; this variety is available as a plant to domestic customers. There is a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green and yellow variegated outer skin. The'Femminello St. Teresa', or'Sorrento' is native to Italy; this fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello. The'Yen Ben' is an Australasian cultivar. Lemons are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving. Other essential nutrients, have insignificant content. Lemons contain numerous phytochemicals, including polyphenols and tannins. Lemon juice contains more citric acid than lime juice, nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, about five times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice. Lemon juice and peel are used in a wide variety of foods and drinks; the whole lemon is used to make lemon curd and lemon liqueur.
Lemon slices and lemon rind are used as a garnish for food and drinks. Lemon zest, the grated outer rind of the fruit, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings and other dishes. Lemon juice is used to make lemonade, soft drinks, cocktails, it is used in marinades for fish, where its acid neutralizes amines in fish by converting them into nonvolatile ammonium salts. In meat, the acid hydrolyzes tough collagen fibers, tenderizing the meat, but the low pH denatures the proteins, causing them to dry out when cooked. In the United Kingdom, lemon juice is added to pancakes on Shrove Tuesday. Lemon juice is used as a short-term preservative on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced, such as apples and avocados, where its acid denatures the enzymes. In Morocco, lemons are preserved in barrels of salt; the salt penetrates the peel and rind, softening them, curing them so that they last indefinitely. The preserved lemon is used in a wide variety of dishes. Preserved lemons can be found in Sicilian, Italian and French dishes.
The leaves of the lemon tree are used to make a tea and for preparing cooked seafoods. Lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid before the development of fermentation-based processes; the juice of the lemon may be used for cleaning. A halved lemon dipped in salt or baking powder is used to brighten copper cookware; the acid dissolves the tarnish, the abrasives assist the cleaning. As a kitchen cleaning agent the juice can deodorize, remove grease, bleach stains, disinfect; the oil of the lemon's peel has various uses. It is used as a wood cleaner and polish, where its solvent property is employed to dissolve old wax and grime. Lemon oil and orange oil are used as a nontoxic insecticide treatment. Lemon oil may be used in aromatherapy. Lemon oil aroma may contribute to relaxation. One educational science experiment involves attaching electrodes to a lemon and using it as a battery to produce electricity. Although low power, several lemon batteries can power a small digital watch; these experiments work with other fruits and vegetables.
Lemon juice may
Ventura County, California
Ventura County is a county in the southern part of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 823,318; the largest city is Oxnard, the county seat is the city of Ventura. Ventura County comprises the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is considered the southernmost county along the California Central Coast. It is a separate metropolitan area west of the more populous Los Angeles metropolitan area. Ventura County has been named the "most desirable" place to live in the U. S. by the Washington Post and the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 2015, it is home to several of the safest communities in the U. S. including Thousand Oaks, Simi Valley, Newbury Park, Moorpark. Overall, crime in the county is 33% lower than California and U. S. rates. Two of the California Channel Islands are part of the county: Anacapa Island, the most visited island in Channel Islands National Park, San Nicolas Island.
Ventura County was inhabited by the Chumash people, who settled much of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties, with their presence dating back 10,000-12,000 years. The Chumash were hunter-gatherers and traders with the Mojave and Tongva Indians; the Chumash are known for their rock paintings and for their great basketry. Chumash Indian Museum in Thousand Oaks has several reconstructed Chumash houses and there are several Chumash pictographs in the county, including the Burro Flats Painted Cave in Simi Valley; the plank canoe, called a tomol in Chumash, was important to their way of life. Canoe launching points on the mainland for trade with the Chumash of the Channel Islands were located at the mouth of the Ventura River, Mugu Lagoon and Point Hueneme; this has led to speculations among archeologists of whether the Chumash could have had a pre-historic contact with Polynesians. According to diachronic linguistics, certain words such as tomolo’o could be related to Polynesian languages; the dialect of the Chumash language, spoken in Ventura County was Ventureño.
Several place names in the county has originated from Chumash, including Ojai, which means moon, Simi Valley, which originates from the word Shimiyi and refers to the stringy, thread-like clouds that typify the region. Others include Point Mugu from the word Muwu, Saticoy from the word Sa’aqtiko’y, Sespe Creek from the word S’eqp’e. In October 1542, the expedition led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo anchored in an inlet near Point Mugu. Active occupation of California by Spain began in 1769. Gaspar de Portolà led a military expedition by land from San Diego to Monterey, passing through Ventura County in August of that year. A priest with the expedition, Father Juan Crespí, kept a journal of the trip and noted that the area was ideal for a mission to be established and it was a "good site to which nothing is lacking". On this expedition was Father Junípero Serra, who founded a mission on this site. On March 31, 1782, the Mission San Buenaventura was founded by Father Serra, it is named after Saint one of the early intellectual founders of the Franciscan Order.
The town that grew up around the mission and remains named San Buenaventura, although has been known as Ventura since 1891. In the 1790s, the Spanish Governor of California began granting land concessions to Spanish Californians who were retiring soldiers; these concessions were known as ranchos and consisted of thousands of acres of land that were used as ranch land for livestock. In Ventura County, Rancho Simi was granted in 1795 and Rancho El Conejo in 1802. Fernando Tico was granted part of Ventura by Gov. Alvarado. In 1822, California was notified of Mexico's independence from Spain and the Governor of California, the Junta, the military in Monterey and the priests and neophytes at Mission San Buenaventura swore allegiance to Mexico on April 11, 1822. California land, vested in the King of Spain was now owned by the nation of Mexico. By the 1830s, Mission San Buenaventura was in a decline with fewer neophytes joining the mission; the number of cattle owned by the mission dropped from first to fifteenth ranking in the California Missions.
The missions were secularized by the Mexican government in 1834. The Mexican governors began granting land rights to Mexican Californians retiring soldiers. By 1846, there were 19 rancho grants in Ventura County. In 1836, Mission San Buenaventura was transferred from the Church to a secular administrator; the natives, working at the mission left to work on the ranchos. By 1839, only 300 Indians were left at the Mission and it slipped into neglect. Several outhouses were discovered in July 2007 dating back to the 1800s where a new site had been cleared to prepare for development; the area proved to be a treasure trove for archaeologists who braved the lingering smell in the dirt to uncover artifacts that showed heavy utilization by mission inhabitants, early settlers and Spanish and Mexican soldiers. The Mexican–American War began in 1846 but its effect was not felt in Ventura County until 1847. In January of that year, Captain John C. Frémont led the California Battalion into San Buenaventura finding that the Europeans had fled leaving only the Indians in the Mission.
Fremont and the Battalion continued south to sign the Treaty of Cahuenga with General Andrés Pico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally transferred California to the United States in 1848. By 1849, a constitution had been adopted for the California territory; the n
Kumquats are a group of small fruit-bearing trees in the flowering plant family Rutaceae. They were classified as forming the now historical genus Fortunella, or placed within Citrus sensu lato; the edible fruit resembles the orange in color and shape but is much smaller, being the size of a large olive. Kumquat is a cold-hardy citrus; the English name "kumquat" derives from the Cantonese gām-gwāt 金橘 meaning "golden orange" or "golden tangerine". In Japanese they are called kinkan; the kumquat plant is native to the Asia-Pacific region. The earliest historical reference to kumquats appears in literature of China from the 12th century, they have long been cultivated in India, Taiwan, the Philippines, southeast Asia. They were introduced to Europe in 1846 by Robert Fortune, collector for the London Horticultural Society, shortly thereafter were brought to North America, they are slow-growing evergreen shrubs or short trees that stand 2.5 to 4.5 meters tall, with dense branches, sometimes bearing small thorns.
The leaves are dark glossy green, the flowers are white, similar to other citrus flowers, can be borne singly or clustered within the leaf-axils. Depending on size, the kumquat tree can produce hundreds or thousands of fruits each year. Citrus taxonomy is controversial. Different systems place different types of kumquat in different species, or unite them in a single genus, they were viewed as falling within the genus Citrus, but the Swingle system of citrus taxonomy elevated them to their own genus, Fortunella. Recent phylogenetic analysis suggests; when the kumquats are divided into multiple species, the name Fortunella japonica is retained by the group. The round kumquat called Marumi kumquat or Morgani kumquat, is an evergreen tree that produces edible golden-yellow fruit; the round Hawaiian varietal, the "Meiwa kumquat", is eaten raw. The fruit is small and spherical but can be oval shaped; the peel has a sweet flavor. The fruit can be eaten cooked but is used to make marmalades and other spreads.
It can be used in bonsai cultivation. The plant symbolizes good luck in China and other Asian countries, where it is kept as a houseplant and given as a gift during the Lunar New Year. Round kumquats are more cultivated than other species due to their high cold tolerance; when the kumquats are divided into multiple species, the name Fortunella margarita is used for this group. The oval kumquat is called the Nagami kumquat; the most unusual feature of the Nagami kumquat is. The inside is still quite sour, but the skin has a sweet flavour, so when eaten together an unusual tart-sweet, refreshing flavour is produced; the fruit ripens mid- to late winter and always crops heavily, creating a spectacular display against the dark green foliage. The tree tends to be much smaller and dwarf in nature, making it ideal for pots and bonsai cultivation; when the kumquats are divided into multiple species, the name Fortunella obovata is used for this group. The Jiangsu kumquat or Fukushu kumquat bears edible fruit that can be eaten raw, as well as made into jelly and marmalade.
The fruit can be round or bell-shaped and is bright orange when ripe. The plant can be distinguished from other kumquats by its distinctly round leaves, it is grown for its edible fruit and as an ornamental plant, but cannot withstand frost like the round kumquat. These kumquats are seen near the Yuvraj section of the Nayak Province. The'Centennial Variegated' kumquat cultivar arose spontaneously from the oval kumquat, it produces a greater proportion of fruit to peel than the oval kumquat, the fruit are rounder and sometimes necked. Fruit are distinguishable by their variegation in color, exhibiting bright yellow stripes; the tree is distinguishable by its lack of thorns. Kumquats are much hardier than citrus plants such as oranges; the Nagami kumquat requires a hot summer, ranging from 25 °C to 38 °C, but can withstand frost down to about −10 °C without injury. In cultivation in the UK, Citrus japonica has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Kumquats do not grow well from seeds and so are vegetatively propagated by using rootstock of another citrus fruit, air layering, or cuttings.
Like most citrus, they are self-pollinating. The essential oil of the kumquat peel contains much of the aroma of the fruit, is composed principally of limonene, which makes up around 93% of the total. Besides limonene and alpha-pinene, both of which are considered monoterpenes, the oil is unusually rich in sesquiterpenes such as α-bergamotene, caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-muurolene, these contribute to the spicy and woody flavor of the fruit. Carbonyl compounds make up much of the remainder, these are responsible for much of the distinctive flavor; these compounds include esters such as terpinyl acetate. Other oxygenated compounds include trans-linalool oxide. Hybrid forms of the kumquat include the following: Calamondin: mandarin orange x kumquat Citrangequat: citrange x kumquat Limequat: key lime x kumquat Orangequat: Satsuma mandarin x k