Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community. It is a historic Mediterranean port; the population of the city of Alicante proper was 330,525, estimated as of 2016, ranking as the second-largest Valencian city. Including nearby municipalities, the Alicante conurbation had 452,462 residents; the population of the metropolitan area was 757,085 as of 2014 estimates, ranking as the eighth-largest metropolitan area of Spain. The name of the city echoes the Arabic name Laqant or Al-Laqant, which in turn reflects the Latin Lucentum; the area around Alicante has been inhabited for over 7000 years. The first tribes of hunter-gatherers moved down from Central Europe between 5000 and 3000 BC; some of the earliest settlements were made on the slopes of Mount Benacantil. By 1000 BC Greek and Phoenician traders had begun to visit the eastern coast of Spain, establishing small trading ports and introducing the native Iberian tribes to the alphabet and the pottery wheel.
The Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca established the fortified settlement of Akra Leuka, in the mid-230s BC, presumed to have been on the site of modern Alicante. Although the Carthaginians conquered much of the land around Alicante, the Romans would rule Hispania Tarraconensis for over 700 years. By the 5th century AD, Rome was in decline and the Roman predecessor town of Alicante, known as Lucentum, was more or less under the control of the Visigothic warlord Theudimer and thereafter under Visigothic rule from 400 to 700 A. D; the Goths did not put up much resistance to the Arab conquest of Medina Laqant in the beginning of the 8th century. The Moors ruled eastern Spain until the 13th century Reconquista. Alicante was taken in 1247 by the Castilian king Alfonso X, but it passed soon and definitively to the Kingdom of Valencia in 1296 with King James II of Aragon, it gained the status of Royal Village with representation in the medieval Valencian Parliament. After several decades of being the battlefield where the Kingdom of Castile and the Crown of Aragon clashed, Alicante became a major Mediterranean trading station exporting rice, olive oil and wool.
But between 1609 and 1614 King Felipe III expelled thousands of Moriscos who had remained in Valencia after the Reconquista, due to their cooperation with Barbary pirates who continually attacked coastal cities and caused much harm to trade. This act cost the region dearly. Things got worse in the early 18th century; the end of the 19th century witnessed a sharp recovery of the local economy with increasing international trade and the growth of the city harbour leading to increased exports of several products. During the early 20th century, Alicante was a minor capital that enjoyed the benefit of Spain's neutrality during World War I, that provided new opportunities for local industry and agriculture; the Rif War in the 1920s saw numerous alicantinos drafted to fight in the long and bloody campaigns in the former Spanish protectorate against the Rif rebels. The political unrest of the late 1920s led to the victory of Republican candidates in local council elections throughout the country, the abdication of King Alfonso XIII.
The proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic was much celebrated in the city on 14 April 1931. The Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936. Alicante was the last city loyal to the Republican government to be occupied by General Franco's troops on 1 April 1939, its harbour saw the last Republican government officials fleeing the country. Vicious air bombings were targeted on Alicante during the three years of civil conflict, most notably the bombing by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria of the Mercado de Abastos on 25 May 1938 in which more than 300 civilians perished; the late 1950s and early 1960s saw the onset of a lasting transformation of the city by the tourist industry. Large buildings and complexes rose in nearby Albufereta and Playa de San Juan, with the benign climate being the biggest draw to attract prospective buyers and tourists who kept the hotels reasonably busy. New construction benefited the whole economy, as the development of the tourism sector spawned new businesses such as restaurants and other tourist-oriented enterprises.
The old airfield at Rabassa was closed and air traffic moved to the new El Altet Airport, which made a more convenient and modern facility for charter flights bringing tourists from northern European countries. When Franco died in 1975, his successor Juan Carlos I played his part as the living symbol of the transition of Spain to a democratic constitutional monarchy; the governments of regional communities were given constitutional status as nationalities, their governments were given more autonomy, including that of the Valencian region, the Generalitat Valenciana. The Port of Alicante has been reinventing itself since the industrial decline the city suffered in the 1980s. In recent years
L'Alcora (Valencian pronunciation: is a municipality in the comarca of Alcalatén, Valencian Community, Spain. Traces of human presence in the area date from the Bronze Age. Present are remains from the Iberian and Moorish ages, the latter including the castle, which gives the name to L'Alcora's comarca; the fortress was reconquered by the Christians in 1233, after which the current town started to expand at the expenses of the fortress's previous borough. Castle of Alcalatén, a Moorish fortress modified after the Christian conquest, it has an irregular triangular plan, with two large towers. Hermitage of St. Vincent Hermitage of St. Christopher Iberian settlement of Montmirá Fortified hermitage of El Salvador Museum of Ceramics Page at the Touristi Guide of the Valencian Community
Simat de la Valldigna
Simat de la Valldigna is a municipality in the comarca of Safor in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is 50 km from Valencia, 20 km from Cullera and Gandia, it is near Xàtiva and Alzira. It is one of the four villages, it is a natural area, surrounded by the mountains of the Serra de Corbera, in the north, by the Montdúver in the south, by the Mediterranean Sea to the east. Coming from Valencia the V-31 must be taken, afterwards the CV-42 and the CV-50; the final access is through the CV-600. There are two hamlets in the municipality of Simat de la Valldigna: Les Foies; the municipality of Simat de la Valldigna is bordered by the municipalities of Benifairó de la Valldigna, Barx, Barxeta and Pinet, which are in the province of Valencia. Simat de la Valldigna has a privileged climate. Since it is placed in the middle of a valley and it is surrounded and protected by the mountains, the weather is mild, with hot summers and warm winters. Together with the areas of la Safor and part of the Marina Alta, Simat has one of the highest rain indices of the Valencian Country.
The land around Simat de la Valldigna has been inhabited since the beginning of history, as the coves de Bolomor in Tavernes de la Valldigna, Medalletes and Parpalló in Barx show. Nonetheless the first concrete historical references appear during the Muslim period; the Christian conquest of the 13th century began a new period in this village history. James I conquered these lands; when James II came back from an expedition against the kingdoms of Murcia and Almeria at the end of the 13th century, they came through the vall d'Alfàndec. The king was impressed by the valley's beauty, he exclaimed: Vall digna per a un monestir de la vostra religió!. The Santes Creus abbot replied: Vall digna!. On 15 March 1297 James II of Aragon donated the vall d'Alfàndec to the Cistercian order in order to found a monastery devoted to the Virgin Mary. Since this moment, the Alfàndec valley will change its name and it will be called Valldigna. Christians and Muslims lived together in the Valldigna area, they worked in the lands that the monastery abbot lent them in usufruct though the conditions were harder for the Muslims.
Nonetheless they were allowed to remain as Muslims. The Valldigna Moorish people gathered around the la Xara mosque. In this place they received teaching as well, contracts were made, the Muslims judges made trials; this convivence ended with the expulsion from Spain of all Moorish people. Life in the Valldigna valley went on, according to the evolution of the feudal society, under the rule of the monastery and its abbot, it lasted until 1835. The rule of the monastery and its abbot over the valley and its people ended, a time of neglect and destruction of the monastery began, it was a private property until 1991. The most important monument of the village is the Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna, it was founded in 1297 by James II of Aragon. Since the beginning, it was one of the most important monasteries of the Cistercian order, it was founded by the monks of Santes Creus in the Tarragona province. The whole Valldigna valley belonged according to a royal order; the monastery was inhabited by monks until 1835, when a revolt in the Valldigna valley took place after the Ecclesiastical Confiscations of Mendizábal.
After that, the monks were forced to abandon the monastery. Most of its goods and works of art were plundered or destroyed. After decades of abandonment, many restorations projects are envisaged, nowadays the monastery of Santa Maria de Valldigna is, according to the 57th article of the Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community, "the spiritual and cultural temple of the ancient Kingdom of Valencia, it is as well a symbol of the grandeur of the Valencian people". The same article states that "the Generalitat Valenciana will recover and preserve the monastery a law from the Valencian Parliament will determine the destiny and usage of the monastery as a meeting point of all Valencians, as a research center for the recovery of the Valencian Community history". Simat de la Valldigna was the first village from the Valencian Country that requested a.cat domain for the town hall website. Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna: It is the most interesting monument of the whole valley, it is placed in the municipality of Simat de la Valldigna.
It was an ancient Cistercian monastery, neglected and in ruins, until the Generalitat Valenciana began a process of restoration that still lasts. La Xara mosque or Saint Anne hermitage, it is a little hermitage, placed in the middle of the orange fields. It is the only remaining building from the ancient village of la Xara, abandoned in 1609, after the expulsion of the Moorish people from Spain, it is the building of the old mosque. It is rectangular, there is a gate in the eastern part with a horsehoe arch. Four columns divide the building in three naves: Next to the gate there is a spiral staircase, which had the old function of the minaret; the Qibla is the most important element, since it shows the direction of Mecca and thus it was the place towards which the Muslims had to address their prayers
Torres de Serranos
The Serrans Gate or Serranos Gate known as Serrans Towers or Serranos Towers is one of the twelve gates that formed part of the ancient city wall, the Christian Wall, of the city of Valencia, Spain. It was built in Valencian Gothic style at the end of the 14th century, its name is due to its location in the northeast of the old city centre, making it the entry point for the royal road connecting Valencia with the comarca or district of Els Serrans as well as the entry point for the royal road to Barcelona, or because the majority of settlers near there in the time of James I of Aragon were from the area around Teruel, whose inhabitants were called serrans by the Valencians. Alternatively, the gate may have been named after an important family, the Serrans, who lived in a street with the same name, it is an important one of the best preserved monuments of Valencia. Of the ancient city wall, pulled down in 1865 on the orders of the provincial governor Cirilio Amorós, only the Serrans Towers, the 15th century Quart Towers, some other archaeological remains and ruins, such as those of the Jewish Gate, have survived.
The Torres de Serrans were built in 1392, by Pere Balaguer. It was the main entrance to the city and it was built with a defensive function. From 1586 until 1887 the towers were used as a prison for nobles. Commissioned by the Valencian government, the Serrans Towers were built by the architect Pere Balaguer, inspired by other Gothic gates with polygonal towers, such as the Porta de Sant Miquel in Morella and the Royal Gate of the Poblet Monastery, showing Genoese influences. Construction began on 6 April 1392, on the site of an older gateway; the walls consist of solid stone, as their main purpose was fortification. However, they are covered with a cladding of limestone from Alginet, a town near Valencia, in order to give the building a more luxurious, distinguished appearance. In 1397, when the works were nearly finished, it became apparent that the access to the main floor had to be improved. An enormous, monumental stone staircase was built, enlarging the building and facilitating its use for welcoming parties.
The works were completed in March 1398. For a long time, its main purpose was to defend the city in the event of a siege or attack, but it was regularly used for ceremonies, such as official welcoming ceremonies for ambassadors and kings, as it was deemed to be the main entrance to the city. After one of the main prisons of Valencia burnt down in 1586, the towers were turned into a prison for knights and the nobility until the prisoners were transferred to the monastery of Saint Austin in 1887. Since they have been used for different purposes, for instance for a wide range of official ceremonies and as a museum. During the Spanish Civil War, works of art from the Prado Museum were stored in the building, which made a number of modifications necessary; the reinforced concrete was covered by a one-meter layer of soil. Another one-meter layer of soil was laid on the second floor, the terrace was covered with sandbags. Moreover, an automatic system of humidity and temperature control was installed.
This project was directed by the architect of the Artistic Treasures Board. Like the Cuart Towers, the Serranos Towers survived the demolition of the city wall due to their use as a prison, but the building its internal structure, was damaged. Thus, the large arches opening out onto the internal part of the building were walled up, several windows were built into the outside walls, the battlements crowning the towers disappeared. In 1871, the city council decided to fill in the ditch in front of the gate, which affected the appearance of the building. Between 1893 and 1914, its restoration, directed by the sculptor José Aixá, was carried out by The Royal Academy of San Carlos. In 2000, the stone surfaces were cleaned. At present, the Serranos Towers are open to the public. From the top of the building, visitors can enjoy an amazing view of the city of Valencia, they are used for different official ceremonies of the City of Valencia, the most famous of, the crida, the opening ceremony of the Fallas.
On the last Sunday of February, the Fallera Mayor declares the Fallas open from a platform erected in front of the building, followed by the singing of the anthem of the Valencian Community
Castielfabib is a municipality in the comarca of Rincón de Ademuz in the Valencian Community, Spain. Known as "the small Albarracín", Castielfabib is located on a hill near the right bank of the river Ebrón. Located in the northwest corner of Rincon de Ademuz, it is mountainous with elevation ranging between 800 and 1,550 m; the most important points of elevation are: Mill Creek, Peña de Águila and third order geodetic vertices of Cabezo, Umbria La Muela and Cross of the Three Kingdoms, so named because its summit brings together the old kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia. The river Turia enters the north, it flows on the east of Riodeva. Ebrón River crosses the territory from northwest to southeast, flowing into Turia, the boulevard of Palomarejos runs north and comes to the precipice of the Canaleja; the climate is continental, the prevailing winds are from the north and east, the latter causing the rains in April. In the municipality of Castielfabib, there are the following civil parishes: Arroyo Cerezo.
Cuesta del Rato. Mas de Jacinto. Mas de los Mudos. Los Santos; the municipality of Castielfabib shares borders with the following towns: Ademuz and Vallanca, all of them situated in the province of Valencia. Farther afield to the west the municipality borders Salvacañete in the province of Cuenca, Castilla-La Mancha. Castielfabib is, together with Ademuz, one of the two historic towns of the Rincón de Ademuz region, established through the thirteenth century Christian conquest of the Aragonese, when both towns were incorporated into the real domain and property of the Crown and had representation in parliament. In Soreico Solana, there are remnants of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, another Iberian was established. Romans appear in the Faber Castle, west of the town. In Castillejo in the departure of the Saints, was found in 1971 a Roman tombstone fragment preserved in the Museum of Prehistoric Valencia; the population was captured in 1210 by Peter II of Aragon, was recovered by the Muslims again.
When conquered by James I it was a place of the Crown, cediéndose the tithes into the Temple. In 1304 was committed by James II Gil Ruiz de Lihori as collateral for a loan. In 1319 dissolved the Knights Templar, their rights were transferred to the Montesa, the barony of Castielfabib, consisting of the territory of Ademuz corner. In 1390, there was a dispute between the Order of Montesa and the bishopric of religious intervention in the village, requiring the intervention of the Pope to solve it; as a royal town, Castielfabib trustee periodically sent to the Generalitat Valenciana, the Valencian Parliament. The township has remained unchanged since medieval times and since has only been a municipality at the expense of the territory of Castielfabib: Torrebaja, tiny Lordship in the Middle Ages. During the War of Independence Castielfabib was occupied by the French; the Carlist entered into 1835 and rebuilt the castle demolished to be won back by government forces. The economy is traditionally based on livestock.
The banks of rivers have irrigated land and produce apples, pears and cereals. In the rain-fed area and vine are grown; the sheep are the most important, followed by goat. There are a number of hives. There is a youth hostel, with room service and swimming pool; the town entrance is from the road N-420, the Tourism Office of the Rincón de Ademuz is located at "Los Centenares" of Castielfabib, along with a rural tourism complex. From the 7th to 11th of September festivities are dedicated to Our Lady of Grace; the pattern is Castielfabib San Guillermo. Easter is the most traditional of the municipality. Events occur as the bringing of two poplars from the banks of the river to the place, it is planted in the square, the popular dance on Saturday night, the singing of the "Aurora" in the houses of the "Mayoral" and "Mayoralesas" in the early hours of Sunday and the "courtesy" of Easter morning with the traditional human Turning the Bell. Castielfabib shares with the other towns of Rincon de Ademuz several recipes such as gachas and others, in which pork and its derivatives are central.
Almond and other fruits are grown in the fertile plain of the River Ebrón and they are a key ingredient in the local bakery. In recent times other local products such as mushrooms and tomatoes are being promoted. Francisco Novella, was Professor of Rhetoric at the University of Valencia. Antonio Diaz Tortajada. Journalist and writer. Since March 2011, Castielfabib has an Astronomical Association established by amateur astronomer from the "Circolo Astrofili Bergamaschi" Carlos García Villalba, with the aim of bringing this science to the general public taking advantage of the exceptional conditions for viewing the sky
Flamboyant is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture in vogue in France from about 1350, until it was superseded by Renaissance architecture during the early 16th century. The term has been used to describe French buildings and sometimes the early period of English Gothic architecture called the Decorated Style. A version of the style spread to Portugal during the 15th century, it evolved from the Rayonnant style and the English Decorated Style and was marked by greater attention to decoration and the use of double curved tracery. The term was first used by Eustache-Hyacinthe Langlois, like all the terms mentioned in this paragraph except "Sondergotik" describes the style of window tracery, much the easiest way of distinguishing within the overall Gothic period, but ignores other aspects of style. In England the part of the period is known as Perpendicular architecture. In Germany Sondergotik is the more usual term; the name derives from the flame-like windings of its tracery and the dramatic lengthening of gables and the tops of arches.
A key feature is the ogee arch, originating in Beverley Minster, England around 1320, which spread to York and Durham, although the form was never used in England, being superseded by the rise of the Perpendicular style around 1350. A possible point of connection between the early English work and the development in France is the church at Chaumont; the Manueline in Portugal, the Isabelline in Spain were more extravagant continuations of the style in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. In the past the Flamboyant style, along with its antecedent Rayonnant, has been disparaged by critics. More some have sought to rehabilitate it. William W Clark commented: The Flamboyant is the most neglected period of Gothic architecture because of the prejudices of past generations; the time has come to look anew at Late Gothic architecture. Abbeville, St. Vulfran Collegiate Church Auch, Auch Cathedral Beauvais and chapels of the Church of Saint-Étienne de Beauvais Bourg-en-Bresse, Royal Monastery of Brou Caudebec-en-Caux, Church of Notre-Dame L'Épine, Notre-Dame de l'Épine Évreux, north transept of Évreux Cathedral Louviers, Notre-Dame de Louviers Nantes, Nantes Cathedral Paris, Church of Saint-Séverin Paris, Saint-Jacques Tower, bell tower of the former church of Saint-Jacques de la Boucherie Pont-de-l'Arche, Notre-Dame-des-Arts Rouen, Rouen Cathedral Rouen, Church of Saint-Maclou Rouen, abbey-church of Saint-Ouen Rue, Chapel of Saint-Esprit Saint-Nicolas-de-Port, Basilica of Saint-Nicolas Saint-Riquier, Abbey Senlis, transepts of Senlis Cathedral Sens, Sens Cathedral Thann, St Theobald's Church Toul, west façade of Toul Cathedral Tours, Tours Cathedral Vendôme, west façade of the Abbaye de la Trinité Vincennes, Sainte-Chapelle.
Beaune, hospices Beauvais, former episcopal palace Bourges, palace of Jacques-Cœur Paris, Hôtel de Cluny Paris, Hôtel de Sens Rouen, Palais de Justice St. Lorenz, Germany Milan Cathedral, a rare Italian building in the style, adopted fully here Vladislav Hall in Prague Castle, Czech Republic Seville Cathedral, Spain Batalha Monastery, Portugal Brussels Town Hall, Belgium Leuven Town Hall, Belgium Church of St. Anne, Lithuania French Gothic architecture Gothic architecture International Gothic Romano-Gothic Isabeline Gothic Manueline Perpendicular Sondergotik Yves Bottineau-Fuchs, Haute-Normandie Gothique: Architecture Religieuse. Paris: Picard, 2001. Ethan Matt Kavaler, Renaissance Gothic: Architecture and the Arts in Northern Europe, 1470-1540. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. Steven James Kerrigan, "Normandy's role in the development of the Flamboyant style: decoration and exchange in Late Gothic architecture." PhD diss. University of Iowa, 2013. Linda Elaine Neagley, Disciplined Exuberance: The Parish Church of Saint-Maclou and Late Gothic Architecture in Rouen.
University Park, Penn: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998. Roland Sanfaçon, L'architecture Flamboyante en France. Quebec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1971
The Cathedral of the Assumption of Our Lady of Segorbe is a Roman Catholic church in Segorbe, province of Castellón, Spain. It is the see of the Diocese of Segorbe-Castellon, it was elevated to the rank of minor basilica in 1985. Located against the city's walls, the church, once a mosque, has been rebuilt in 1246 in Valencian Gothic style in such a manner that it preserves no trace of Arab architecture. Of this 13th-century edifice, only parts of the western façade, the vaults of several chapels, the load-bearing walls, the tower of Santa Barbara, the bell tower and the cloister remain, it was consecrated on 7 May 1534, has a single, cross-vaulted nave, without transept and dome, with chapels located between the buttresses. It is connected by a bridge with the old episcopal palace; the bell tower, with a massive appearance and a square plan, is Romanesque in his simplicity. It stands at a height of 36 metres; the Gothic cloister has a trapezoidal plan and two floors: the lower one dates to the 14th-15th centuries, while the other was added in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
The main façade dates to 1665. The presbytery was renewed in Renaissance style during the 16th century; the church is decorated by frescoes of Luis Planes. The church was renovated in 1791-1795 in Neo-classic style, resulting in the nearly total hiding of the Gothic structure; the nave was lengthened, new altars were added. The Cathedral museum houses several artworks by local and foreign artists, belonging to the International Gothic, the 15th-century Flemish painting, the 16th-century Valencian school and more recent ones. Artists represented include Jaume Mateu, Vicente Juan Masip and his son Juan, as well as the Italian Donatello, with an attributed work. Ruiz Amado, Ramon. "Segorbe". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Villanueva, Jaime. "Restauracion de la moderna iglesia de Segorve". Viage literario á iglesias de España: Le Publica con algunas observaciones. 3–4. Madrid: Imprenta real. Pp. 1–26. Retrieved 16 May 2011. Official website