Valens was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Valens and his brother Valentinian were both born in Cibalae in southern Pannonia into an Illyrian family in 328 and 321 respectively, they had grown up on estates purchased by their father Gratian the Elder in Britain. While Valentinian had been distinguished in an active military career prior to his election, though 35 years old, had not participated in either the civil or military affairs of the empire previous to his selection as Augustus by his brother. In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian, while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, died in his sleep during a stop at Dadastana, 100 miles east of Ankara. Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum, who owed his advancement to the deceased, was elected by the legions to succeed Jovian.
He was proclaimed Augustus on 26 February, 364. It was the general opinion that Valentinian needed help to handle the cumbersome administration and military, of the large and unwieldy empire, and, on 28 March of the same year, at the express demand of the soldiers for a second Augustus, he selected his brother Valens as co-emperor in the palace of Hebdomon. Both emperors were ill, delaying them in Constantinople, but as soon as they recovered, the two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Mediana, where they divided their territories. Valentinian went on to the West, where the Alemannic wars required his immediate attention. Valens obtained the eastern half of the Empire: Greece, The Balkans, Anatolia and as far east as The Levant that bordered the Sassanid Persian Empire. Valens was back in his capital of Constantinople by December 364. Valens inherited the eastern portion of an empire that had retreated from most of its holdings in Mesopotamia and Armenia because of a treaty that his predecessor Jovian had made with Shapur II of the Sassanid Empire.
Valens's first priority after the winter of 365 was to move east in hopes of shoring up the situation. By the autumn of 365 he had reached Cappadocian Caesarea when he learned that a usurper, Julian's maternal cousin, named Procopius, had proclaimed himself in Constantinople. Procopius had commanded an auxiliary northern contingent of his relative's army during the Persian expedition and had not been present when Jovian was named his successor in the camp beyond the Tigris. Though Jovian, aside from depriving him of his command, took no further measures against this potential rival, Procopius fell under the suspicion of Valentinian upon the latter's election. After narrowly escaping arrest, he went into hiding but reemerged some time at Constantinople where he was able to convince two Gallic legions passing through the capital to proclaim him emperor on 28 September 365. Though his early reception in the city seems to have been lukewarm, Procopius won favor by using propaganda to his advantage: he sealed off the city to outside reports and began spreading rumors that Valentinian had died.
This program met with some success among soldiers loyal to the Constantinians and eastern intellectuals who had begun to feel persecuted by the Valentinians. Valens' dismissal shortly before of Julian's popular minister Sallustius contributed to the general disaffection and to the acceptability of a revolution. Valens, faltered; when news arrived that Procopius had revolted, Valens considered abdication and even suicide. After he steadied his resolve to fight, Valens's efforts to forestall Procopius were hampered by the fact that most of his troops had crossed the Cilician gates into Syria when he learned of the revolt. Procopius gained control of the provinces of Asia and Bithynia, winning increasing support for the insurrection. However, Valens recovered, reappointed Sallustius, dispatched the available legions under veteran generals and Arbetio, to march on Procopius. In the spring of 366 Valens' lieutenants encountered and routed Procopius at the battle of Thyatira, again shortly after at Nacoleia.
On both occasions, Procopius was deserted by his own following in fear of their Imperial adversaries' formidable commanders. Procopius was delivered to justice by members of his own escort, executed on 27 May, his head was sent to Valentinian in Trier for inspection. During Procopius's insurrection, the Gothic king Ermanaric, who ruled a powerful kingdom north of the Danube from the Euxine to the Baltic Sea, had engaged to supply him with troops for the struggle against Valens; the Gothic army numbering 30,000 men, arrived too late to help Procopius, but invaded Thrace and began plundering the farms and vineyards of the province. Valens, marching north after defeating Procopius, surrounded them with a superior force and forced them to surrender. Ermanaric protested, when Valens, encouraged by Valentinian, refused to make atonement to the Goths for his conduct, war was declared. In the spring of 367, Valens crossed the Danube and attacked the Visigoths under Athanaric, Ermanaric's tributary; the Goths fled into the Carpathian Mountains, the campaign ended with no decisive conclusion.
The following spring, a Danube flood prevented Valens from crossing.
In sociology, a peer group is both a social group and a primary group of people who have similar interests, background, or social status. The members of this group are to influence the person's beliefs and behaviour. Peer groups contain distinct patterns of behavior. In a high school setting for example, 18 year olds are a peer group with 14 year olds because they share similar and paralleled life experiences in school together. In contrast, teachers do not share students as a peer group because teachers and students fall into two different roles and experiences. During adolescence, peer groups tend to face dramatic changes. Adolescents tend to have less adult supervision. Adolescents’ communication shifts during this time as well, they prefer to talk about school and their careers with their parents, they enjoy talking about sex and other interpersonal relationships with their peers. Children look to join peer groups who accept them if the group is involved in negative activities. Children are less to accept those who are different from them.
Cliques are small groups defined by common interests or by friendship. Cliques have 2-12 members and tend to be formed by age, gender and social class. Clique members are the same in terms of academics and risk behaviors. Cliques can serve as an agent of socialization and social control. Being part of a clique can be advantageous since it may provide a sense of autonomy, a secure social environment, overall well-being. Crowds are larger. Crowds serve as peer groups, they increase in importance during early adolescence, decrease by late adolescents; the level of involvement in adult institutions and peer culture describes crowds. At an early age, the peer group becomes an important part of socialization as supported by a 2002 study titled "Adolescents' Peer Groups and Social Identity" published in the journal Social Development. Unlike other agents of socialization, such as family and school, peer groups allow children to escape the direct supervision of adults. Among peers, children learn to form relationships on their own, have the chance to discuss interests that adults may not share with children, such as clothing and popular music, or may not permit, such as drugs and sex.
Peer groups can have great influence or peer pressure on each other's behavior, depending on the amount of pressure. Developmental psychologists, Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Harry Stack Sullivan, social learning theorists have all argued that peer relationships provide a unique context for cognitive and emotional development. Modern research echoes these sentiments, showing that social and emotional gains are indeed provided by peer interaction. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory focuses on the importance of a child's culture and notes that a child is continually acting in social interactions with others, he focuses on language development and identifies the zone of proximal development. The Zone of Proximal development is defined as the gap between what a student can do alone and what the student can achieve through teacher assistance; the values and attitudes of the peer group are essential elements in learning. Those who surround themselves with academically focused peers will be more to internalize this type of behavior.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development identifies four stages of cognitive development. He believes that children construct their understanding of the world based on their own experiences. In addition Piaget identified with aspects of development, occurring from middle childhood onwards, for which peer groups are essential, he suggested. Egocentric speech is referring to the speech, not adapted to what the listener just said. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development include eight stages ranging from birth to old age, he has emphasized the idea that the society, not just the family, influences one's ego and identity through developmental stages. Erikson went on to describe how peer pressure is a key event during the adolescences stage of psychosocial development. In his Latency stage, which includes children from 6–12 years old and this is when the adolescents begin to develop relationships among their peers. Harry Stack Sullivan has developed the Theory of Interpersonal Relations. Sullivan described friendships as providing the following functions: offering consensual validation, bolstering feelings of self-worth, providing affection and a context for intimate disclosure, promoting interpersonal sensitivity, setting the foundation for romantic and parental relationships.
Sullivan believed these functions developed during childhood and that true friendships were formed around the age of 9 or 10. Social learning theorists such as John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, Albert Bandura, all argue for the influences of the social group in learning and development. Behaviourism, Operant Learning Theory, Cognitive Social Learning Theory all consider the role the social world plays on development. In The Nurture Assumption and No Two Alike, psychologist Judith Rich Harris suggests that an individual's peer group influences their intellectual and personal development. Several longitudinal studies support the conjecture that peer groups affect scholastic achievement, but few studies have examined the effect peer groups have on tests of cognitive ability. However, there is some evidence. Peer groups provide perspective outside of the individual's viewpoints. Members inside peer groups learn to develop relations
Forestburg High School or Forestburg School is a public high school located in unincorporated Forestburg and classified as a 1A school by the UIL. It is part of the Forestburg Independent School District located in southeastern Montague County. In 2015, the school was rated "Met Standard" by the Texas Education Agency; the Forestburg Longhorns compete in these sports - Basketball Cross Country 6-Man Football Golf Tennis Track and Field VolleyballForestburg ISD fielded their first football team in 2007. The Longhorns made the six man playoffs following a 7-3 regular season in 2012, which included a 38-16 victory over rival St. Jo; the Horns have compiled a 28-43 record since restarting the program. List of high schools in Texas List of Six-man football stadiums in Texas Official website