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Valentine's Day

Valentine's Day called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is celebrated annually on February 14. It originated as a Western Christian feast day honoring one or two early Christian martyrs named Saint Valentine and is recognized as a significant cultural and commercial celebration of romance and love in many regions of the world. There are a number of martyrdom stories associated with various Valentines connected to February 14, including an account of the imprisonment of Saint Valentine of Rome for ministering to Christians persecuted under the Roman Empire in the third century. According to an early tradition, Saint Valentine restored sight to the blind daughter of his jailer. Numerous additions to the legend have better related it to the theme of love: an 18th-century embellishment to the legend claims he wrote the jailer's daughter a letter signed "Your Valentine" as a farewell before his execution; the Feast of Saint Valentine was established by Pope Gelasius I in AD 496 to be celebrated on February 14 in honour of Saint Valentine of Rome, who died on that date in AD 269.

The day became associated with romantic love in the 14th and 15th centuries when notions of courtly love flourished by association with the "lovebirds" of early spring. In 18th-century England, it grew into an occasion in which couples expressed their love for each other by presenting flowers, offering confectionery, sending greeting cards. Valentine's Day symbols that are used today include the heart-shaped outline and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, handwritten valentines have given way to mass-produced greeting cards. In Italy, Saint Valentine's Keys are given to lovers "as a romantic symbol and an invitation to unlock the giver's heart", as well as to children to ward off epilepsy. Saint Valentine's Day is not a public holiday in any country, although it is an official feast day in the Anglican Communion and the Lutheran Church. Many parts of the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrate Saint Valentine's Day on July 6 in honor of Roman presbyter Saint Valentine, on July 30 in honor of Hieromartyr Valentine, the Bishop of Interamna.

Numerous early Christian martyrs were named Valentine. The Valentines honored on February 14 are Valentine of Valentine of Terni. Valentine of Rome was a priest in Rome, martyred in 269 and was added to the calendar of saints by Pope Gelasius I in 496 and was buried on the Via Flaminia; the relics of Saint Valentine were kept in the Church and Catacombs of San Valentino in Rome, which "remained an important pilgrim site throughout the Middle Ages until the relics of St. Valentine were transferred to the church of Santa Prassede during the pontificate of Nicholas IV"; the flower-crowned skull of Saint Valentine is exhibited in the Basilica of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome. Other relics are found at Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Ireland. Valentine of Terni became bishop of Interamna and is said to have been martyred during the persecution under Emperor Aurelian in 273, he is buried in a different location from Valentine of Rome. His relics are at the Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni.

Professor Jack B. Oruch of the University of Kansas notes that "abstracts of the acts of the two saints were in nearly every church and monastery of Europe." The Catholic Encyclopedia speaks of a third saint named Valentine, mentioned in early martyrologies under date of February 14. He was martyred in Africa with a number of companions. A relic claimed to be Saint Valentine of Terni's head was preserved in the abbey of New Minster and venerated. February 14 is celebrated as St. Valentine's Day in various Christian denominations. In addition, the feast day of Saint Valentine is given in the calendar of saints of the Lutheran Church. However, in the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints, the feast day of Saint Valentine on February 14 was removed from the General Roman Calendar and relegated to particular calendars for the following reason: "Though the memorial of Saint Valentine is ancient, it is left to particular calendars, apart from his name, nothing is known of Saint Valentine except that he was buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14."The feast day is still celebrated in Balzan where relics of the saint are claimed to be found, throughout the world by Traditionalist Catholics who follow the older, pre-Second Vatican Council calendar.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, St. Valentine is recognized on July 6, in which Saint Valentine, the Roman presbyter, is honoured. J. C. Cooper, in The Dictionary of Christianity, writes that Saint Valentine was "a priest of Rome, imprisoned for succouring persecuted Christians." Contemporary records of Saint Valentine were most destroyed during this Diocletianic Persecution in the early 4th century. In the 5th or 6th century, a work called Passio Marii et Marthae published a story of martyrdom for Saint Valentine of Rome by borrowing tortures that happened to other saints, as was usual in the literature of that period; the same events are found in Bede's Martyrology, compiled in the 8th c

Spokane College

Spokane College was the name of two colleges in Spokane, Washington. The first operated from 1882 to 1891, the second operated from 1906 to 1929; the first Spokane College operated from October 1882 to October 1891 on 157 acres just north of the Spokane River. It was founded by Colonel David Jenkins, a Civil War veteran, who founded Jenkins College in December 1891; when it opened, tuition at Spokane College was $15. Enrollment peaked at 200 students in 1890, but Spokane College couldn't compete with other nearby institutions: Gonzaga University, the Washington Agricultural College and School of Science, the State Normal School; the second Spokane College was founded in 1906 by the United Norwegian Lutheran Church of America on Spokane's South Hill, operated until 1929. The four-year liberal arts college operated a law school; the college closed in 1929. Spokane Junior College operated on the site from 1935 to 1942. Spokane Junior College was a reorganization of Spokane University, which operated in the Spokane Valley from 1913 to 1933.

The junior college closed in 1942. During World War II, the building was used as housing for soldiers stationed at Fort George Wright; the building was turned into apartments after the war, was torn down in 1969 to make way for the Manito Shopping Center, which presently occupies the site

Trud Stadium (Tomsk)

The Trud Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Tomsk, Russia. It is used for football matches and is the home ground of FC Tom' Tomsk; the stadium holds 10,000.. It was built in 1929. Prior to their promotion to the Russian First Division, Trud lacked many facilities common to many European stadiums, including proper toilets. Once the team advanced and received increased sponsorship money, there were new stands built to increase the capacity of the stadium; the field was improved with a subterranean heating system to contend with Siberian snowfalls. In preparation for the 2005 season in the Russian Premier League, substantial renovation was performed on the stadium. A new north stand was built. Two luxury suites were constructed over the west stand with room for 40 persons. New sound systems were installed. Expansion and renovation of player locker rooms. A long-awaited renovation of the toilets. Improved ingress to the stadium; the venue opened on 1 June 1929. Stadium picture from World Stadiums