1st Golden Raspberry Awards
The 1st Golden Raspberry Awards were held on March 31, 1981, at John Wilson's living room alcove to recognize the worst the film industry had to offer in 1980. Each category included as many as ten nominees; the recipients are denoted in bold: 1980 in film 53rd Academy Awards 34th British Academy Film Awards 38th Golden Globe Awards Official summary of awards Nomination and award listing at the Internet Movie Database
Alexander Joseph "Lex" Luthor is a fictional supervillain appearing in publications by the publisher DC Comics. The character was created by Joe Shuster. Lex Luthor first has since endured as the archenemy of Superman. Introduced as a mad scientist whose schemes Superman would foil, Lex's portrayal has evolved over the years and his characterisation has deepened. In contemporary stories, Lex is portrayed as a wealthy, power-mad American business magnate, ingenious engineer, philanthropist to the city of Metropolis, one of the most intelligent people in the world. A well-known public figure, he is the owner of a conglomerate called LexCorp, he is intent on ridding the world of the alien Superman, whom Lex Luthor views as an obstacle to his plans and as a threat to the existence of humanity. Given his high status as a supervillain, however, he has come into conflict with Batman and other superheroes in the DC Universe; the character has traditionally lacked superpowers or a dual identity and appears with a bald head.
He periodically wears his Warsuit, a high-tech battle suit giving him enhanced strength, advanced weaponry, other capabilities. The character was introduced as a diabolical recluse, but during the Modern Age, he was reimagined by writers as a devious, high-profile industrialist, who has crafted his public persona in order to avoid suspicion and arrest, he is well known for his philanthropy, donating vast sums of money to Metropolis over the years, funding parks and charities. The character was ranked 4th on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time and as the 8th Greatest Villain by Wizard on its 100 Greatest Villains of All Time list. Luthor is one of a few genre-crossing villains whose adventures take place "in a world in which the ordinary laws of nature are suspended". Scott James Wells, Sherman Howard, John Shea, Michael Rosenbaum, Jon Cryer have portrayed the character in Superman-themed television series, while Lyle Talbot, Gene Hackman, Kevin Spacey, Jesse Eisenberg have portrayed the character in major motion pictures.
Clancy Brown, Powers Boothe, James Marsters, Chris Noth, Anthony LaPaglia, Steven Blum, Fred Tatasciore, Jason Isaacs, Kevin Michael Richardson, Mark Rolston, John DiMaggio, James Woods and Rainn Wilson, others have provided the character's voice in animation adaptations. In his first appearance, Action Comics #23, Luthor is depicted as a diabolical genius and is referred to only by his surname, he resides in a flying city suspended by a dirigible and plots to provoke a war between two European nations. Lois Lane and Clark Kent investigate. Luthor battles Superman with a green ray but Luthor is defeated by Superman, Lois is rescued. Superman destroys Luthor's dirigible with him still on it, implying Luthor may have died, although stories ending with Luthor's apparent death are common in his earliest appearances. Luthor returns in Superman #4 and steals a weapon from the U. S. Army, capable of causing earthquakes. Superman battles and defeats Luthor, the earthquake device is destroyed by Superman.
The scientist who made the device commits suicide to prevent its reinvention. In a story in the same issue, Luthor is shown to have created a city on the sunken Lost Continent of Pacifo and to have recreated prehistoric monsters, which he plans to unleash upon the world. Superman thwarts his plans, Luthor appears to have been killed by the dinosaurs he created. Luthor returns in Superman #5 with a plan to place hypnotic gas in the offices of influential people, he intends to throw the nation into a depression with the help of corrupt financier Moseley, but the story ends with Superman defeating him. In these early stories, Luthor's schemes are centered around financial gain or megalomaniacal ambitions. Luthor's obsessive hatred of Superman came in the character's development. In Luthor's earliest appearances, he is shown as a middle-aged man with a full head of red hair. Less than a year however, an artistic mistake resulted in Luthor being depicted as bald in a newspaper strip; the original error is attributed to Leo Nowak, a studio artist who illustrated for the Superman dailies during this period.
One hypothesis is that Nowak mistook Luthor for the Ultra-Humanite, a frequent foe of Superman who, in his Golden Age incarnation, resembled a balding, elderly man. Other evidence suggests Luthor's design was confused with that of a stockier, bald henchman in Superman #4; the character's abrupt hair loss has been made reference to several times over the course of his history. When the concept of the DC Multiverse began to take hold, Luthor's red-haired incarnation was rewritten as Alexei Luthor, Lex's counterpart from the Earth-Two parallel universe. In 1960, writer Jerry Siegel altered Luthor's backstory to incorporate his hair loss into his origin. In 1944 Lex Luthor was the first character in a comic book to use an atomic bomb; the United States Department of War asked this story line be delayed from publication, which it was until 1946, to protect the secrecy of the Manhattan Project. The War Department asked for dailies of the Superman comic strip to be pulled in April 1945 which depicted Lex Luthor bombarding Superman with the radiation from a cyclotron.
Luthor vanished for a long time, coming back in Superboy #59 (Sept. 19
Harvey Herschel Korman was an American actor and comedian who performed in television, film productions, as a voice artist. His big break was being a featured performer on CBS' The Danny Kaye Show, but he is best remembered for his performances on the sketch comedy series The Carol Burnett Show and in several films by Mel Brooks. Korman, of Russian Jewish descent, was born in Chicago, the son of Ellen and Cyril Raymond Korman, a salesman, he served in the United States Navy during World War II. After being discharged, he studied at HB Studio, he was a member of the Peninsula Players summer theater program during the 1950, 1957, 1958 seasons. Korman's first television role was as a head waiter in The Donna Reed Show episode, "Decisions, Decisions", he appeared as a comically exasperated public relations man in a January 1961 episode of the CBS drama Route 66. He was seen on numerous television programs after that, including the role of Blake in the 1964 episode "Who Chopped Down the Cherry Tree?" on the NBC medical drama The Eleventh Hour and a bartender in the 1962 Perry Mason episode, "The Case of the Unsuitable Uncle."
He appeared as a supporting player on The Danny Kaye Show from 1963 through 1967. He was cast three times, including the role of Dr. Allison in "Who Needs Glasses?", on ABC's The Donna Reed Show. He guest-starred on Dennis the Menace and on the NBC modern western series Empire. From 1964 to 1966, he appeared three times in consecutive years on the CBS comedy The Munsters starring Fred Gwynne and Yvonne De Carlo. During the 1965–1966 season, Korman made regular appearances on ABC's The Flintstones as The Great Gazoo in its final season on network television. With the 1967 debut of The Carol Burnett Show, Korman saw his greatest fame, he was nominated for six Emmy Awards for his decade of work on The Burnett Show and won four times – in 1969, 1971, 1972, 1974. He was nominated for four Golden Globes for the series, winning that award in 1975. While appearing on The Carol Burnett Show, Korman gained further fame by appearing as the villainous Hedley Lamarr in the 1974 film Blazing Saddles, he starred in High Anxiety as Dr. Charles Montague.
In 1978 he appeared in the CBS Star Wars Holiday Special providing "comedy" in three of the special's variety segments: a cantina skit with Bea Arthur where he plays a barfly who drinks through a hole in the top of his head, another as Chef Gormaanda, a four-armed parody of Julia Child, one as a malfunctioning Amorphian android in an instruction video. In 1980 he played Captain Blythe in Herbie Goes Bananas. In 1981 he played Count de Monet in History of the World, Part 1. In years he did voice work for the live-action film The Flintstones as well as for the animated The Secret of NIMH 2: Timmy to the Rescue, he starred in the short-lived Mel Brooks TV series The Nutt House, in his final Mel Brooks film, as the zany Dr. Seward, in Dracula: Dead and Loving It. In 1986, he starred in the failed CBS comedy series Liz in Beverly Hills with Valerie Perrine, he reunited with fellow Carol Burnett Show alumnus Tim Conway, making a guest appearance on Conway's 1980–1981 comedy-variety series The Tim Conway Show.
The two toured the U. S. reprising skits from the show as well as performing new material. A DVD of new comedy sketches by Korman and Conway, Together Again, was released in 2006. Korman and Conway had been jointly inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 2002. Korman was married to Donna Ehlert from 1960 to 1977, they had two children together and Christopher Korman, he married Deborah Korman in 1982 and was married to her until his death in 2008. They had two daughters together and Laura Korman. Korman died at the age of 81 on May 29, 2008, at UCLA Medical Center, as the result of complications from a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm he had suffered four months earlier, his grave is at Santa Monica's Woodlawn Cemetery. The Donna Reed Show, as Head Waiter in "Decisions, Decisions" Hennesey as Dr. Don Spright in "The Gossip Go-Round" The Red Skelton Hour as Artie in "Appleby's Office Party" Route 66 as Len Statler in "The Quick and the Dead" and as Mr. Mills in "Suppose I Said I Was the Queen of Spain?"
Perry Mason as the bartender in "The Case of the Unsuitable Uncle" I'm Dickens, He's Fenster as Mr. Rembar in "The Acting Game" The Detectives Starring Robert Taylor as Gibson Holly in "The Jagged Edge" Empire as Bunce in "Pressure Lock" Dennis the Menace as Mr. Griffin in "My Four Boys" Sam Benedict as a reporter in "Of Rusted Cannons and Fallen Sparrows" Saints and Sinners as Jerry Grant in "The Year Joan Crawford Won the Oscar" Glynis, with Glynis Johns, as Ken Bradford in "Three Men in a Tub" The Munsters, as Journalist Lennie Bates in "Family Portrait" The Lucy Show, three episodes Hazel as Max Denton in "Maid for a Day" Gidget as Joe Hanley in "Daddy Come Home" The John Forsythe Show in "Duty and the Beast" The Munsters as the Psychiatrist in "Yes Galen, There Is a Herman" The Munsters as Professor Fagenspahen in "Prehistoric Munster" The Flintstones as the voice of The Great Gazoo F Troop as Col. Heindreich von Zeppel in "Bye, Balloon" The Carol Burnett Show series regular The Wild Wild West as Baron Hinterstoisser in "The Night of the Big Blackmail" The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour guest appearance Tattletales as himself The Muppet Show as himself The Carpenters at Christmas as Harvey
The Electric Horseman
The Electric Horseman is a 1979 American western adventure-romance film starring Robert Redford and Jane Fonda and directed by Sydney Pollack. The film is about a former rodeo champion, hired by a cereal company to become its spokesperson, runs away on a $12 million electric-lit horse and costume he is given to promote it in Las Vegas. Norman "Sonny" Steele is a former championship rodeo rider who has sold out to a business conglomerate and is now reduced to making public appearances to sell a brand of breakfast cereal. Prior to making a Las Vegas promotional appearance to ride the $12 million champion thoroughbred race horse who responds to the name of Rising Star, Sonny discovers to his horror that the horse has been drugged and is injured. Identifying with the plight of the horse and disillusioned with the present state of his life, Sonny decides to abscond with Rising Star and travel cross-country in order to release him in a remote canyon where herds of wild horses roam. Hallie Martin, a television reporter eager to be the first to break the Rising Star story, locates Sonny and follows him on his unusual quest through the countryside.
While en route, the unlikely pair have a romance. Robert Redford as Sonny Jane Fonda as Hallie Valerie Perrine as Charlotta Willie Nelson as Wendell John Saxon as Hunt Sears Nicolas Coster as Fitzgerald Allan Arbus as Danny Wilford Brimley as Farmer Will Hare as Gus Basil Hoffman as Toland Timothy Scott as Leroy James Sikking as Dietrich James Kline as Tommy Frank Speiser as Barnie Quinn K. Redeker as Bud Broderick Lois Hamilton as Joanna Camden Sarah Harris as Lucinda Tasha Zemrus as Louise James Novak as Dennis Debra L. Maxwell as Convention Hostess Michele Heyeden as Sunny Angel Robin Timm as Model Narrator Patricia Blair as Fashion Narrator Gary M. Fox as Bellman Richard Perlmutter as Desk Clerk Carol Eileen Montgomery as Carol Theresa Ann Bent as Ranch Breakfast Model Perry Sheehan as Mrs. George Philips Sarge Allen as Mr. Phillips Sylvie Strause as Matron Richard Knoll as Dealer Angelo Giouzelis as Maitre D' Mark Jamison as Major Domo Brendan Kelly as Grocer Sheila B. Wakely as Store Clerk X.
V. Kelly as Sheriff Gary Shermaine as Trucker Gary Liddiard as Townsman Jerry Kurland as Ampco Personnel J. Carlton Adair Ampco Personnel Charles J. Monahan as Ampco Personnel George W. Etter as Ampco Personnel Raymond G. Maupin as Ampco Personnel Bob C. Barrett as Ampco Personnel Red Mcilvaine as Reporter Frank Nicholas as Reporter Johnny Magnus as Reporter Vic Vallaro as Reporter Bob Bailey as Reporter Roger Lowe as Reporter Casting for The Electric Horseman either continued or led to many reoccurring collaborations between cast and crew members. On November 28, 1978, Robert Redford was announced to star in the film, becoming the fifth film in which Sydney Pollack directed Redford following This Property Is Condemned, Jeremiah Johnson, The Way We Were and Three Days of the Condor; this director-actor relationship would continue with two more films: Out of Havana. Pollack had previously directed Fonda in They Shoot Horses, Don't They?, whereas Redford and Fonda teamed on The Chase and Barefoot in the Park.
The Electric Horseman is noted as being the debut acting performance of long-time country and western singer Willie Nelson, who plays the role of Wendell Hickson. According to Pollack, Nelson improvised most of his dialogue in the film. Pollack would be executive producer for Nelson's 1980 starring vehicle Honeysuckle Rose; the film was only the second film performance of character actor Wilford Brimley, who would team with Redford in The Natural. Principal photography for The Electric Horseman took place during late 1978 and early 1979 throughout Nevada and Utah. While the film was prominently shot on location in Las Vegas and Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, additional filming took place in various locations across the state of Utah, including Grafton, St. George, Zion National Park. While filming went smoothly, Pollack struggled with revising the script while filming was underway. In addition, there was one particular day in which production was continuously delayed due to traveling thunderstorms that interrupted the 20-second kissing scene between Redford and Fonda.
The scene ended up requiring 48 takes that pushed costs to $280,000. The film went over budget by $1.3 million. The musical score to The Electric Horseman was composed by Dave Grusin. In addition to co-starring, Willie Nelson contributed to the film's soundtrack as well, singing five songs including "My Heroes Have Always Been Cowboys", "Midnight Rider," "Mammas Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys," "So You Think You're a Cowboy" and "Hands on the Wheel." Coinciding with the film's release, a soundtrack album was released featuring both Nelson's songs and Grusin's score. The Electric Horseman was released theatrically in the United States on December 21, 1979. With the budget escalating to $12.5 million, the film was a box office success, becoming the eleventh highest grossing film of 1979 after grossing a domestic total of nearly $62 million. While the film was co-produced by Columbia Pictures and Universal Pictures, distributed by Columbia domestically and Universal internationally, the US film rights would revert to Universal.
It has since been released on CED Videodiscs, VHS, LaserDisc and DVD by Universal Studios Home Entertainment, although current home video releases have replaced "My Heroes Have Always Been Cowboys" with a generic instrumental sound-alike recording in the opening title
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
Leonard Alfred Schneider, better known by his stage name Lenny Bruce, was an American stand-up comedian, social critic, satirist. He was renowned for his open, free-style and critical form of comedy which integrated satire, religion and vulgarity, his 1964 conviction in an obscenity trial was followed by a posthumous pardon, the first in the history of New York state, by then-Governor George Pataki in 2003. Bruce is renowned for paving the way for future outspoken counterculture-era comedians, his trial for obscenity is seen as a landmark for freedom of speech in the United States. In 2017, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him third on its list of the 50 best stand-up comics of all time. Lenny Bruce was born Leonard Alfred Schneider to a Jewish family in Mineola, New York, grew up in nearby Bellmore, attended Wellington C. Mepham High School, his parents divorced before he turned 10, Lenny lived with various relatives over the next decade. His British-born father, Myron Schneider, was a shoe clerk and Lenny saw him infrequently.
Bruce's mother, Sally Marr, had an enormous influence on Bruce's career. After spending time working on a farm, Bruce joined the United States Navy at the age of 16 in 1942, saw active duty during World War II aboard the USS Brooklyn fighting in Northern Africa. In May 1945, after a comedic performance for his shipmates in which he was dressed in drag, his commanding officers became upset, he defiantly convinced his ship's medical officer. This led to his undesirable discharge in July 1945. However, he had not admitted to or been found guilty of any breach of naval regulations and applied to have his discharge changed to "Under Honorable Conditions... by reason of unsuitability for the naval service". In 1959, while taping the first episode of Hugh Hefner's Playboy's Penthouse, Bruce talked about his Navy experience and showed a tattoo he received in Malta in 1942. After a short stint in California spent living with his father, Bruce settled in New York City, hoping to establish himself as a comedian.
However, he found it difficult to differentiate himself from the thousands of other show business hopefuls who populated the city. One locale where they congregated was Hanson's, the diner where Bruce first met the comedian Joe Ancis, who had a profound influence on his approach to comedy. Many of Bruce's routines reflected his meticulous schooling at the hands of Ancis. According to Bruce's biographer Albert Goldman, Ancis's humor involved stream-of-consciousness sexual fantasies and references to jazz. Lenny took the stage as "Lenny Marsalle" one evening at the Victory Club, as a stand-in master of ceremonies for one of his mother's shows, his ad-libs earned him some laughs. Soon afterward, in 1947, just after changing his last name to Bruce, he earned $12 and a free spaghetti dinner for his first stand-up performance in Brooklyn, he was a guest—and was introduced by his mother, who called herself "Sally Bruce"—on the Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts radio program. Lenny did a bit inspired by Sid Caesar, "The Bavarian Mimic", featuring impressions of American movie stars.
Bruce's early comedy career included writing the screenplays for Dance Hall Racket in 1953, which featured Bruce, his wife Honey Harlow, mother Sally Marr in roles. In 1956 Frank Ray Perilli, a fellow nightclub comedian who became a screenwriter of two dozen successful films and plays, became a mentor and part-time manager of Lenny Bruce. Through Perilli, Bruce met and collaborated with photojournalist William Karl Thomas on three screenplays, none of which made it to the screen, the comedy material on the first three albums. Bruce was a roommate of Buddy Hackett in the 1950s, they appeared on the Patrice Munsel Show, calling their comedy duo the "Not Ready for Prime Time Players," 20 years before the cast of Saturday Night Live used the same name. In 1957 Thomas booked Bruce into The Slate Brothers nightclub, where Bruce was fired the first night for what Variety headlined as "blue material". Thomas shot other album covers, acted as cinematographer on abortive attempts to film their screenplays, in 1989 authored a memoir of their ten-year collaboration titled Lenny Bruce: The Making of a Prophet.
The 2016 biography of Frank Ray Perilli titled The Candy Butcher, devotes a chapter to Perilli's ten-year collaboration with Bruce. Bruce released a total of four albums of original material on Berkeley-based Fantasy Records, with rants, comic routines, satirical interviews on the themes that made him famous: jazz, moral philosophy, patriotism, law, abortion, the Ku Klux Klan, Jewishness; these albums were compiled and re-released as The Lenny Bruce Originals. Two records were produced and sold by Bruce himself, including a 10-inch album of the 1961 San Francisco performances that started his legal troubles. Starting in the late 1950s, other unissued Bruce material was released by Alan Douglas, Frank Zappa and Phil Spector, as well as Fantasy. Bruce developed the complexity and tone of his material in Enrico Banducci's North Beach nightclub, the "hungry i", where Mort Sahl had earlier made a name for himself. Branded a "sick comic", Br
A stripper or exotic dancer is a person whose occupation involves performing striptease in a public adult entertainment venue such as a strip club. At times, a stripper may be hired to perform at other private event. Modern Americanized forms of stripping minimize interaction by strippers with customers, reducing the importance of tease in the performance in favor of speed to undress. Not every stripper will end a performance nude, though full nudity is common where not prohibited by law; the integration of the burlesque pole as a nearly ubiquitous prop has shifted the emphasis in the performance toward a more acrobatic, explicit expression compared to the slow-developing burlesque style. Most strippers work in strip clubs. A "house dancer" works for a particular club or franchise, while a "feature dancer" tends to have her own celebrity, touring a club circuit making appearances. Entertainers are not actual employees of the club itself but perform as independent contractors; until the 1970s, strippers in Western cultures were invariably female, performing to male audiences.
Since male strippers have become common. Certain male and female strippers perform for LGBT audiences as well as for both sexes in pansexual contexts. Before the 1970s, dancers of both sexes appeared in underground clubs or as part of a theatre experience, but the practice became common enough on its own. Performances are fully choreographed, involve dance routines and a costume of some sort; the term "male stripper" has gone down in use in books in the 21st century. Strippers perform striptease for a number of reasons; the physical attractiveness and sex appeal of the dancer determines the business she tends to generate. There are no job prerequisites. Dancers learn; as long as she can "sell" herself, she is capable of becoming an exotic dancer. The image of strippers as known today evolved through the late 1960s and 1970s in the U. S. and international cultures. By the 1980s, the pole dancing and highly-explicit imagery associated with today's performers was accepted and portrayed in film and theater.
In a bikini performance, both breasts and genital areas remain covered by revealing attire while dancers provide services and entertainment. Go-go dancers will retain their bottoms for the duration of their performance. A stripper whose upper body is exposed but the genital areas remain obscured during a performance is said to be topless. Touching of strippers is not permitted in many localities. However, some dancers and clubs allow touching of dancers during private dances. If permitted, during a lap dance the dancer grinds against the customer's crotch while he or she remains clothed in an attempt to arouse or bring the recipient to climax. In parts of the USA, there are laws forbidding the exposure of female nipples, which have to be covered by pasties by the dancer. Research suggests that exotic dancing can pay well, but at a significant cost to the stripper. Due to the common practice of hiring strippers as contractors, not as full-time employees, strippers must deal with extreme job insecurity, unstable pay, no health benefits, the requirement of paying fees to the club for technically renting their stage.
This precarious employment is accepted because of the stigma associated with exotic dancing. Dancers use props such as make-up, clothing and appealing fragrances to complete their character and maintain their "front." Strippers, when working, are most to be found at strip clubs. An essential draw of the strip club is the live entertainment, which the vast majority of the time are the strippers. Dancers entertaining customers are the key to generating revenue by keeping the customers on site and enticing them to be repeat visitors. House dancers work for franchise. Feature dancers tend touring a club circuit and making appearances. Porn stars will become feature dancers to earn extra income and build their fan base. High-profile adult film performers Jenna Haze and Teagan Presley among others have participated in feature shows through the USA, as did now-retired stars such as Jenna Jameson. Entertainers are not actual employees of the club itself but allowed to perform as independent contractors for a predetermined house fee.
During each set of one or more songs, the current performer will dance on stage in exchange for tips. Where legal, dancers may offer additional services such as lap dances or a trip to the champagne room for a set fee rather than a tip. Strippers can be contracted for performances outside the strip club environment; some strippers will only strip for private engagements and do not have a regular affiliation with a strip club. Much like activities inside the club, different dancers have different comfort levels for services they will provide during a private party. Aside from advertising for striptease services outside the club, an unknown percentage of strippers work in other aspects of the sex industry; this can include erotic and nude modeling, escorting, in some cases prostitution. Outside the U. S. the use of strip clubs to facilitate sex for hire is much more common, stripping is viewed in those settings as advertising for sexually oriented services performed in private areas of the club or off premises.
Stage performanceMost clubs have a dancer rotation where each dancer in turn will perform for one or more songs in a fixed se