RadhaKrishn are collectively known within Hinduism as the combined forms of feminine as well as the masculine realities of God. Radha and Krishna are the primeval forms of God and His pleasure potency in the Vaishnava school of thought in Vedic culture. Krishna is referred to as svayam bhagavan in Vaishnavism theology and Radha is illustrated as the primeval potency of the three main potencies of God, Hladini and Samvit of which Radha is an embodiment of the feeling of love towards the almighty God Shree Krishna. With Krishna, Radha is acknowledged as the Supreme Goddess, for it is said that Krishna or God is only satiated by devotional service in loving servitude and Radha is the personification of devotional service to the supreme, she is considered in Vaishnavism as the total feminine energy and as the Supreme Lakshmi. Various devotees worship her with the understanding of her merciful nature as the only way to attain Krishna. Radha is depicted to be Krishna himself, split into two, for the purpose of His enjoyment.
It is believed that Krishna enchants the world, but Radha "enchants Him. Therefore She is the supreme goddess of all. RadhaKrishn". While there are much earlier references to the worship of this form of God, it is since Jayadeva Goswami wrote a famous poem Gita Govinda in the twelfth century of the Common Era, that the topic of the spiritual love between the divine Krishna and his devotee Radha, became a theme celebrated throughout India, it is believed that Radha is not just one cowherd maiden, but is the origin of all the gopis, or divine personalities that participate in the rasa dance. Vigneshwara cannot be broken into two – Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, his shakti Radha such was the love of Radha towards Krishna that they became one. Krishna in Vrindavana is depicted with Radha standing on his left; the common derivation of shakti and shaktiman, i.e. Female and male principle in a god implies that shakti and shaktiman are the same; each and every god has its partner,'betterhalf' or Shakti and without this Shakti, is sometimes viewed being without essential power.
It is a not uncommon feature of Hinduism when worship of a pair rather than one personality constitutes worship of God, such is worship of Radha Krishna. Traditions worshiping Krishna, as svayam bhagavan, male, include reference and veneration to his Radha, worshiped as supreme. A view that exists of orthodox Vaishnavism or Krishnaism is that Radha is shakti and Krishna is shaktiman and are always found without any tinge of materialistic attributes or cause. From the Vaishnava point of view the divine feminine energy implies a divine source of energy, God or shaktiman. "Sita relates to Rama. As Krishna is believed to be the source of all manifestations of God, "Shri Radha, His consort, is the original source of all shaktis" or feminine manifestation of divine energy. A number of interpretations according to traditions possess a common root of personalism in the understanding of worship. Caitanyaite Gaudiya Vaishnava doctrine and mission is fiercely "personalistic," proclaiming the supremacy of Krishna, the identification of Caitanya as Radha-Krishna, the reality and eternality of individual selves, a method for approaching the absolute reality and the Deity as a person first and foremost.
Jiva Goswami in his Priti Sandarbha states that each of the Gopis exhibits a different level of intensity of passion, among which Radha's is the greatest. In his famous dialogs Ramananda Raya describes Radha to Caitanya and quotes, among other texts, a verse from Chaitanya Charitamrta 2.8.100, before he goes on to describe her role in the pastimes of Vrindavana. The central pivot point of the theology is related to the word rasa; the theological use of the word can be found early, about two thousand years before the Nimbarka or Caitanya school, in a phrase that the tradition quotes: "Truly, the Lord is rasa" of Brahma sutras. This statement expresses the view that God is the one who enjoys the ultimate rasa or spiritual rapture, emotions. Radha Krishna are worshiped in the following traditions of Hinduism: King Gareeb Nivaz ruled from 1710 to 1734 and was initiated into Vaishnavism of the Chaitanya tradition, which worships Krishna as the supreme deity, Svayam bhagavan, he practiced this religion for nearly twenty years.
Preachers and pilgrims used to arrive in large numbers and cultural contact with Assam was maintained. The Manipuri Vaishnavas Radha-Krishna. With the spread of Vaishnavism the worship of Krishna and Radha became the dominant form in the Manipur region; every village there has a temple. Rasa and other dances are a feature of the regional folk and religious tradition and for example, a female dancer will portray both Krishna and his consort, Radha, in the same piece. In Vedic and Puranic literature and other forms of the root >rAdh have meaning of ‘perfection’, ‘success’ and ‘wealth’. Lord of Success, Indra was referred to as Radhaspati. In references to Mahavishnu as the Lord of Fortune and used by Jayadeva as Jaya Jayadeva Hare – the victorious Hari, ‘Radhaspati’ all found in many places; the word Radha occurs in Taittiriya BrAhmana and Taittiriya Samhita. Charlotte Vaudeville, in the article Evolution of Love Symbolism in Bhagavatism draws some parallel to Nappinnai, appearing in Godha's magnum opus Thiruppavai and in Nammalwar’s references to Nappinnani, the daughter-in-law of Nandagopa.
Nappinnai is believed to be the source of Radha’s conception in
Religious texts are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal identity, guide individual and communal religious practice. Religious texts communicate the practices or values of a religious traditions and can be looked to as a set of guiding principles which dictate physical, spiritual, or historical elements considered important to a specific religion; the terms'sacred' text and'religious' text are not interchangeable in that some religious texts are believed to be sacred because of their nature as divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired, whereas some religious texts are narratives pertaining to the general themes, practices, or important figures of the specific religion, not considered sacred by itself. A core function of a religious text making it sacred is its ceremonial and liturgical role in relation to sacred time, the liturgical year, the divine efficacy and subsequent holy service.
It is not possible to create an exhaustive list of religious texts, because there is no single definition of which texts are recognized as religious. One of the oldest known religious texts is the Kesh Temple Hymn of Ancient Sumer, a set of inscribed clay tablets which scholars date around 2600 BCE; the Epic of Gilgamesh from Sumer, although only considered by some scholars as a religious text, has origins as early as 2150-2000 BCE, stands as one of the earliest literary works that includes various mythological figures and themes of interaction with the divine. The Rig Veda of ancient Hinduism is estimated to have been composed between 1700–1100 BCE, which not only denotes it as one of the oldest known religious texts, but one of the oldest written religious text, still used in religious practice to this day, though no actual evidence of this text exists prior to the 13th century AD. There are many possible dates given to the first writings which can be connected to Talmudic and Biblical traditions, the earliest of, found in scribal documentation of the 8th century BCE, followed by administrative documentation from temples of the 5th and 6th centuries BCE, with another common date being the 2nd century BCE.
Although a significant text in the history of religious text because of its widespread use among religious denominations and its continued use throughout history, the texts of the Abrahamic traditions are a good example of the lack of certainty surrounding dates and definitions of religious texts. High rates of mass production and distribution of religious texts did not begin until the invention of the printing press in 1440, before which all religious texts were hand written copies, of which there were limited quantities in circulation. A religious canon refers to the accepted and unchanging collection of texts which a religious denomination considers comprehensive in terms of their specific application of texts. For example, the content of a Protestant Bible may differ from the content of a Catholic Bible - insofar as the Protestant Old Testament does not include the Deuterocanonical books while the Roman Catholic canon does. Protestants and Catholics use the same 27 book NT canon, as well as the same 39 book OT protocanon shared by Jews.
The word "canon" comes from the Sumerian word meaning "standard". The terms "scripture" and variations such as "Holy Writ", "Holy Scripture" or "Sacred Scripture" are defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as terms which apply to Biblical text and the Christian tradition. Hierographology is the study of sacred texts; the following is an in-exhaustive list of links to specific religious texts which may be used for further, more in-depth study. A Course in Miracles The writings of Franklin Albert Jones a.k.a. Adi Da Love-Ananda Samraj Aletheon The Companions of the True Dawn Horse The Dawn Horse Testament Gnosticon The Heart of the Adi Dam Revelation Not-Two IS Peace Pneumaton Transcendental Realism The Nine Freedoms Havamal Eddur Great Hymn to the Aten The Akilathirattu Ammanai The Arul Nool The Borgia Group codices Books by Bahá'u'lláh The Four Valleys The Seven Valleys The Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh The Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh Gems of Divine Mysteries The Book of Certitude Summons of the Lord of Hosts Tabernacle of Unity Kitáb-i-Aqdas Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas Epistle to the Son of the Wolf Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh Bon Kangyur and Tengyur Theravada BuddhismThe Tipitaka or Pāli Canon Vinaya Pitaka Sutta Pitaka Digha Nikaya, the "long" discourses.
Majjhima Nikaya, the "middle-length" discourses. Samyutta Nikaya, the "connected" discourses. Anguttara Nikaya, the "numerical" discourses. Khuddaka Nikaya, the "minor collection". Abhidhamma PitakaEast Asian Mahayana The Chinese Buddhist Mahayana sutras, including Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra Shurangama Sutra and its Shurangama Mantra Great Compassion Mantra Pure Land Buddhism Infinite Life Sutra Amitabha Sutra Contemplation Sutra other Pure Land Sutras Tiantai and Nichiren Lotus Sutra Shingon Mahavairocana Sutra Vajrasekhara SutraTibeta
Mohini in Hindu mythology is a goddess and the only female avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. She is portrayed as a"femme fatale", an enchantress, who maddens lovers, sometimes leading them to their doom. Mohini is introduced into the Hindu mythology in the narrative epic of the Mahabharata. Here, she appears as a form of Vishnu, acquires the pot of Amrita from the thieving asuras, gives it back to the devas, helping them retain their immortality. Many different legends tell including union with Shiva; these tales relate, among other things, the birth of the god Shasta and the destruction of Bhasmasura, the ash-demon. Mohini's main modus operandi is to beguile those she encounters, she is worshipped throughout Indian culture, but in Western India, where temples are devoted to her depicted as Mahalasa, the consort of Khandoba, a regional avatar of Shiva. The name Mohini comes from the verb root moha, meaning "to enchant, perplex, or disillusion," and means "delusion personified." In the Baiga culture of Central India, the word mohini means "erotic magic or spell."
The name has an implied connotation of "the essence of female beauty and allurement." The earliest reference to a Mohini-type goddess appears in the Samudra manthan episode of the 5th century BCE Hindu epic Mahabharata. The Amrita, or nectar of immortality, is produced by the churning of the Ocean of Milk; the Devas and the Asuras fight over its possession. The Asuras contrive to keep the Amrita for themselves. Vishnu, wise to their plan, assumes the form of an "enchanting damsel", she uses her allure to trick the Asuras into giving her the Amrita, distributes it amongst the Devas. Rahu, an Asura, tries to drink some Amrita himself. Surya and Chandra inform Vishnu, he uses the Sudarshana Chakra to decapitate Rahu, leaving the head immortal; the other major Hindu epic, narrates the Mohini story in the Bala Kanda chapter. This same tale is recounted in the Vishnu Purana four centuries later. In the original text, Mohini is referred to as an enchanting, female form of Vishnu. In versions, Mohini is described as the maya of Vishnu.
Still, the name of the avatar becomes Mohini from the original phrase describing his deliberate false appearance. Once the Mohini legend became popular, it was retold and expanded in several texts; the tales of Mohini-Vishnu increased among devotional circles in various regions. The same expanded Mahabharata version of the story is recounted in the Bhagavata Purana in the 10th century CE. Here, Mohini becomes a formal avatar of Vishnu; this legend is retold in the Padma Purana and Brahmanda Purana. In the Brahmanda Purana, Vishnu-Mohini after meditation upon the Great Goddess Maheshvari, acquires her form to trick the thieving asuras. Mohini has an active history in the destruction of demons throughout Hindu texts. In the Vishnu Purana, Mohini defeats Bhasmasura, the "ash-demon". Bhasmasura invokes the god Shiva by performing severe penances. Shiva, pleased with Bhasmasura, grants him the power to turn anyone into ashes by touching their head; the demon decides to try the power on Shiva himself. Shiva runs terrified.
Vishnu, witnessing the unfortunate turn of events, transforms into charms Bhasmasura. Bhasmasura is so taken by Mohini. Mohini agrees, but only on the condition. In the course of the dance, she places her hand on her head. Bhasmasura mimics the action, in turn, reduces himself to ashes; the legend of Bhasmasura is retold in the Buddhist text Satara Dewala Devi Puvata, with a slight variation. In this tale, Vishnu charms Bhasmasura; the female Vishnu asks Bhasmasura to promise never to leave her by placing his hand on his head as per the usual practice to swear on one's head. On doing so, Bhasmasura is reduced to ashes. In a similar legend related to the birth of Ayyappa, the demon Surpanaka earns the power to turn anyone into ashes by his austerities; the tale mirrors all other aspects of the Buddhist version of the Bhasmasura tale, where he is forced by Mohini to severe fidelity by keeping his hand on his head and is burnt. The prelude of the Ramakien, the Thai version of the Ramayana, the demon Nontok is charmed and killed by Mohini-Vishnu.
Nontok misuses a divine weapon given to him by Shiva. The four-armed Mohini-Vishnu enchants Nontok and attacks him. In his last moments, the demon accuses Vishnu of foul play saying that Vishnu first seduced him and attacked him. Vishnu decrees that in his next birth, Nontok will be born as the ten-headed demon Ravana and Vishnu will be a mortal man called Rama, he will fight him and defeat him. In a lesser-known tale in the Ganesha Purana the wise asura king Virochana is rewarded a magical crown by the sun-god Surya; the crown shields him against all harm. Vishnu as Mohini enchants Virochana and steals his crown; the demon, thus unprotected, is killed by Vishnu. Another South Indian legend about the demon Araka associates Mohini with Krishna rather than the god himself; the demon Araka had become invincible because he had never laid eyes on a woman. Krishna marries him. After three days of marriage, Araka's bonds of chastity are broken, Krishna kills him in battle. Transgender Hijras consider Krishna-Mohini to be a transsexual deity.
Stories about Mohini and Shiva have been po
Narayana is known as Nirguna Bhrama and is the creator of Tridevas - Bhrama and Mahesh. He is sometimes considered same as God Vishnu but is different as he is Nirguna and God Vishnu has Divya Satva Guna, he is known as "The Purusha" and is considered Supreme in Yogic Tradition. He is "Guru of the Universe"; the Bhagavata Purana and Veda declare Narayana as a part of the Trimurti who creates unlimited universes and enters each one of them.. Narayana engages in the creation of 14 worlds within the universe as Brahma when he deliberately accepts rajas guna according to Brahmanism. Narayana himself sustains and preserves the universe as Vishnu by accepting sattva guna. In Shaivism, Narayana annihilates the universe at the end of maha-kalpa as Shiva or Rudra when he accepts tamas guna. Bhagavata Purana Canto 2 Chapter 5 Verse Bhagavata Purana Canto 11 Chapter 4 Verse 5 Vishnu Purana. According to the Bhagavata Purana, Narayana Sukta, Purusha Sukta and Sri Sukta from Vedas, the ultimate soul, he is called as Surya Narayana, one who shines like the brilliant sun.
Bhagavata Purana: "Narayanam Devam adevam isam - Lord Narayana,: Just as the river Ganges is the greatest of all rivers, Lord Achyuta the supreme among deities and Lord Shambhu the greatest of Vaishnavas, so Bhagavata Purana is the greatest of all Puranas. He is said to pervade whatever is heard in this universe from inside and outside alike. "Narayana Sukta". Sanskrit Documents. Retrieved 2018-12-05, he is mainly associated with the cosmic waters of creation. According to Madhvacharya, Narayana is one of the five vyuhas of Vishnu, which are cosmic emanations of God in contrast to his incarnate avatars. Bryant, Edwin F. Krishna: a Sourcebook. P.359 "Madhvacharya separates Vishnu’s manifestations into two groups: Vishnu’s vyuhas and His avataras. The vyuhas have their basis in the Pancharatra agamas, a sectarian text, accepted as authoritative by both the Vishishtadvaita and Madhva schools of Vedanta, they are mechanisms by which the universe is ordered, was created, evolves. According to Madhvacharya, Vishnu has either four or five vyuhas, named Narayana, Sankarshana and Aniruddha, which evolve one after the other in the development of the universe.
In the Vedas and Puranas, Lord Narayana is described as having the divine blue colour of water-filled clouds, four-armed, holding a padma, Panchajanya shankha and the Sudarshana Chakra. Lord Narayana is often identified as Sharangapani, Hari, Purushottama or Purusha and Jagannath in the Hindu sacred texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, the Vedas and the Puranas. Narayana is venerated as Mukunda. In the Mahabharata, Krishna is referred to as Narayana and Arjuna as Nara; the epic identifies them both in plural'Krishnas', or as part incarnations of the earlier incarnations of Vishnu, recalling their mystical identity as Nara-Narayana. Narayana is described in the Bhagavad Gita as having a universal form, beyond the ordinary limits of human perception or imagination. Narayana's eternal and supreme abode beyond the material universe is Vaikuntha, a realm of bliss and happiness called Paramapadha, which means final or highest place for liberated souls, where they enjoy bliss and happiness for eternity in the company of supreme lord.
Vaikuntha is situated beyond the material universe and hence, cannot be perceived or measured by material science or logic. Sometimes, Ksheera Sagara where Narayana or Vishnu rests on Ananta Shesha is perceived as Vaikuntha within the material universe. There are seven weapons and symbols of Narayana, namely: conch, club, sword, jewel and a garland of flowers. Balabhadra and Narayana are mighty half brothers, who appear nine times in each half of the time cycles of the Jain cosmology and jointly rule half the earth as half-chakravarti. Prati-naryana is killed by Narayana for his unrighteousness and immorality. Narayana are powerful and are as powerful as 2 Balabhadras. Chakravartins are as powerful as 2 Narayanas. Hence Narayanas become half-chakravartins. Tirthankaras are much more powerful than Chakravartins. In Jain Mahabharta, there is a friendly duel between cousin brothers Neminatha and Krishna in which Neminath defeats Krishna without any effort at all. There is a story of Neminath lifting Conch of Krishna and blowing it without any effort.
In Jain Mahabharat, the main fight between Krishna and Jarasandha is described, killed by Krishna. Lord Narayana is hailed in each and every part of Vedas like, Purusha Suktam, Narayana Suktam, Hiranyagarbha Suktam, Vishnu Suktam, Rudra Suktam. Lord Narayana is hailed in the Upanishads like, Narayana Upanishad, Chandogya Upanishad, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Mundaka Upanishad, Mandukya Upanishad, Katha Upanishad, Prasna Upanishad, Svetasvatara Upanishad, Maha Narayana Upanishad, Narasimha Tapani Upanishad. There are multiple variations of Lord Narayana's name; the word'Narayana' means "The one who rests on waters of creation". The Manusmriti states, The waters are called "narah", for the waters are, produced by Nara-Narayana. Narayana means, "The Supreme Being, the foundation of all men". Another interpretation sees, Nara means "human" and Ayana as "direction/goal"; some view Narayana as meaning "son of man." Hence, Narayana refers to the "d
In Hinduism, Shesha known as Sheshanaga or Adishesha, is the nagaraja or king of all nāgas and one of the primal beings of creation. In the Puranas, Shesha is said to hold all the planets of the universe on his hoods and to sing the glories of the God Vishnu from all his mouths, he is sometimes referred to as Ananta Shesha, which translates as endless-Shesha or Adishesha "first Shesha". It is said that creation takes place, he is described in Buddhism as Vasuki. Vishnu is depicted as resting on Shesha. Shesha is considered a manifestation of Vishnu, he is said to have descended to avatars: Lakshmana, brother of Rama. "Shesha" in Sanskrit texts those relating to mathematical calculation, implies the "remainder"—that which remains when all else ceases to exist. Shesha is depicted with a massive form that floats coiled in space, or on the ocean of bliss, to form the bed on which Vishnu lies. Sometimes he is shown as five-headed or seven-headed, but more as a many thousand-headed serpent, sometimes with each head wearing an ornate crown.
His name means "that which remains", from the Sanskrit root śiṣ, because when the world is destroyed at the end of the kalpa, Shesha remains as he is. In the Bhagavadgita of Chapter 10, verse 29, Shri Krishna while describing 75 of his common manifestations, declares, "anantaś ca asmi nāgānāṁ": Of the nagas, I am Ananta; as per the Mahabharata, Shesha was born to his wife Kadru. Kadru gave birth to a thousand snakes. After Shesha, Vasuki and Takshaka were born, in order. A lot of Shesha's brothers were bent upon inflicting harm on others, they were unkind to Garuda, Kashyapa's son through Vinatha, sister of Kadru.. Shesha, disgusted by the cruel acts of his brothers, left his mother and kin, took to austere penances, he lived on air and meditated in places including Gandhamadhana, Gokarna and Himalayas. His penances were so severe that his flesh and muscles dried up and merged with his frame. Brahma, convinced of his Shesha's will, asked Shesha to request a boon. Shesha asked that he be able to keep his mind under control so that he could continue to perform ascetic penances.
Brahma gladly accepted the request. Brahma asked a favour of Shesha: to go beneath the unstable earth and stabilize it. Shesha went to the netherworld and stabilized her with his hood, he is known to support her today, thus making Patala his perennial residence. Shesha is depicted as floating in the ocean of the changing world, forming the bed of Maha Vishnu. Since he is known as Adishesha and because he is Anantashesha or Ananta. In the Bhagavata Purana Shesha is named Sankarshana, the tamasic energy of Lord Narayana himself, is said to live deep within the inner layers of patala, where there are many serpents with gems on their heads and where Sankarshana is the ruler, he is said to live since before the creation of the universe. When the universe is towards its end, he creates 11 Rudras from Them to destroy the universe for a new one to be created. Sankarshana is one of the four vyuha forms of Vishnu or Krishna, the other three being Vāsudeva and Aniruddha. Sankarshana expands himself as Garbhodakshayi-Vishnu in the beginning of the universe to create Brahma.
In other words, Lord Sankarshana is Lord Narayana himself. In previous chapters of the Purana it is said that Lord Sankarshana spoke the Bhagavata to the Four Kumaras, who in their turn passed this message of the Bhagavata. At some point the message was passed to sage Maitreya. Lakshmana and Balarama are considered avatara of Sheshanaga, it is considered in Vaishnavism, that Lord Balarama is the first manifestation from Lord Krishna, that Lord Balarama incarnates into Sesha to serve Krishna as Vishnu. In a story from the Puranas, Shesha's younger brother Vasuki loosens Mount Mandara, to enable it to be used in the churning of the ocean by the devas and asuras. According to the Mahabharata, his father was his mother Kadru; the city of Thiruvananthapuram is named after him as the "City of Lord Anantapadmanabha." "The foremost manifestation of Lord Vishnu is Sankarṣana, known as Ananta. He is the origin of all incarnations within this material world. Previous to the appearance of Lord Shri Krishna, this original Sankarsana will appear as Baladeva, just to please the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna in His transcendental pastimes."
Bhāgavata Purāṇa 10.1.24 "Sri Anantadeva has thousands of faces and is independent. Always ready to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He waits upon him constantly. Sankarsana is the first expansion of Vasudeva and because he appears by his own will, He is called svarat independent, he is therefore transcendental to all limits of time and space. He Himself appears as the thousand-headed Shesha." Srila Jiva Gosvami, in his Krishna-Sandarbha "Sankarsana of the quadruple form descends with Lord Shri Rama as Lakshmana. When Lord Shri Rama disappears, Shesha again separates himself from the personality of Lakshmana. Shesha returns to his own abode in the Patala regions and Lakshmana returns to His abode in Vaikuntha." A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada In the Bhagavad-Gita, when in the middle of the battlefield Kurukshetra, Shri Krishna explaining his omnipresence
Rukmini is the principal wife and queen of the God Krishna, the prince of Dwaraka. Krishna heroically kidnapped her and eloped with her to prevent an unwanted marriage at her request and saved her from evil Shishupala. Rukmini is the most prominent queen of Krishna. Rukmini is considered an avatar of Lakshmi, the Goddess of fortune. According to traditional accounts, princess Rukmini is believed to have been born on Vaishakha 11. Although born of an earthly king, her position as an incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi is described throughout Puranic literature: A hero among the Kurus, the Supreme Lord himself, married King Bhishmaka's daughter, Vaidarbhi Rukmini, a direct expansion of the Goddess of fortune. Dwaraka's citizens were overjoyed to see Krishna, the Lord of all opulence, united with Rukmini, the Goddess of fortune Rama. Lakshmi by Her portion took birth on earth as Rukmini in the family of Bhismaka. Rukminidevi, the Queen Consort of Krishna is the Swarupa-shakti, the essential potency of Krishna and she is the Queen / Mother of the Divine World, Dwaraka/Vaikuntha.
She was born at a royal princess from Vedic Aryan tribe. The daughter of a powerful king Bhishmaka; the Shrutis which are associated with the narrations of the pastimes of the Vraja-gopis with svayam-rupa Bhagavan Shri Krishna, the Parabrahma, have declared this truth. They cannot be separated; as Lakshmi is Vishnu's Shakti so as Rukmini is Krishna's strength. Rukmini was the daughter of the king of Vidarbha. Bhismaka was the vassal of King Jarasandha of Magadha, she fell in love with and longed for Krishna, whose virtue, character and greatness she had heard much of. Rukmini's eldest brother Rukmi though was a friend of evil King Kansa, killed by Krishna and was set against the marriage. Rukmini's parents wanted to marry Rukmini to Krishna but Rukmi, her brother opposed it. Rukmi was an ambitious prince and he did not want to earn the wrath of Emperor Jarasandha, ruthless. Instead, he proposed that she be married to his friend Shishupala, the crown prince of Chedi and a cousin of Krishna. Shishupala was a vassal and close associate of Jarasandha and hence an ally of Rukmi.
Bhishmaka gave in but Rukmini, who had overheard the conversation was horrified and sent for a brahmana, whom she trusted and asked him to deliver a letter to Krishna. She asked Krishna to come to Vidarbha and kidnap her to avoid a battle where her relatives may be killed, she suggested. Rukmini asked. Krishna, having received the message in Dwarka set out for Vidarbha with Balarama, his elder brother. Meanwhile, Shishupala was overjoyed at the news from Rukmi that he could go to Kundina Amravati district and claim Rukmini. Jarasandha, not so trusting, sent all his vassals and allies along because he felt that Krishna would come to snatch Rukmini away. Bhishmaka and Rukmini received the news. Bhishmaka, who secretly approved of Krishna and wished he would take Rukmini away had a furnished mansion set up for him, he made them comfortable. Meanwhile, at the palace, Rukmini got ready for her upcoming marriage, she went to Indrani temple on the day of Jyeshtha star to pray but was disappointed when she did not see Krishna there.
As she stepped out, she saw. They both started to ride off. All of Jarasandha's forces started chasing them. While Balarama occupied most of them and held them back Rukmi had caught up with Krishna and Rukmini, he overtook Krishna near Bhadrod. Krishna and Rukmi dueled with the inevitable result of Krishna's victory; when Krishna was about to kill him, Rukmini fell at the feet of Krishna and begged that her brother's life be spared. Krishna, generous as always, but as punishment, shaved Rukmi's head and let him go free. There was no greater shame for a warrior than a visible sign of defeat. Rukmi was worshipped as Gaudera by villagers, he was known as the God of shame. According to folklore, Krishna came to the village of Madhavpur Ghed after kidnapping Rukmini and got married to her at this place. In the memory of that event, there is a temple built for Madhavrai. A celebration of this event is held at Madhavpur in memory of this marriage every year in a cultural fair. At Dwaraka and Rukmini were welcomed with great pomp and ceremony.
The Tulabharam is an incident in the life of Rukmini, that reveals the extent to which humble devotion is worth more than material wealth. Satyabhama, another queen of Krishna, prides herself about the love Krishna has for her and her grasp over his heart. Rukmini, on the other hand is a devoted wife, humble in her service of her Lord, her devotion is her real inner beauty. On one occasion, sage Narada arrived in Dwaraka and in the course of conversation hinted to Satyabhama that the love that Krishna exhibits towards her is not all that real and in fact it is Rukmini who has real control over his heart. Unable to bear this, Satyabhama challenges Narada to prove it. Narada, with his way with words, tricked her into accepting a Vrata where she has to give Krishna away in charity to Narada and reclaim him by giving the weight of Krishna in wealth. Narada lures her into accepting this vrata by telling her that Krishna's love to her will in
Vamana, is the fifth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu. He incarnates in a time of crisis to restore cosmic balance by creatively defeating the Asura king Mahabali, who had acquired disproportionate power over the universe. According to Hindu mythology, the noble demon king sponsors a sacrifice and gift giving ceremony to consolidate his power, Vishnu appears at this ceremony as a dwarf mendicant Brahmin called Vamana; when Vamana's turn comes to receive a gift, Mahabali offers him whatever riches and material wealth he would like, but Vamana refuses everything and states he would just like three paces of land. Mahabali irrevocably grants it. Vamana grows into a giant of cosmic proportions. In one step he covers the earth, in another the heavens, for the third, Mahabali offers his head on which Vamana steps, sending the demon king to the Patala; the Vamana avatar has roots in Vedic texts of Hinduism. The hymns of the Rigveda describes Vishnu as that benevolent god who in three steps defined all there is in the universe.
The giant form of Vamana is known as Trivikrama. The Vamana legend has been a popular one, inspiring icons found in Hindu temples and sections in Hindu texts such as the Puranas and the epics. About thirty different versions of his mythology are found in these texts.. The Sanskrit word Vamana means "dwarf", he is known as Trivikrama means the three steps, representing the Svarga, the earth, the Patala. The legend of Vishnu covering the universe in three steps is found in Vedic texts. For example, hymns, 1.22 and 1.154 of the Rigveda describe Vishnu as that bountiful, just god in three steps defined all there is in the universe. Other Rigvedic hymns that mention three steps of Vishnu include 1.154, 6.49, 7.100 and 8.29, in these the context is of a benevolent god who protects the oppressed humanity by his creative acts against the evil. Aditi took Payovrata to propitiate Lord Vishnu; as a result, Vamana was born to Kashyapa. He is the twelfth of the Adityas; the Bhagavata Purana describes that Vishnu descended as the Vamana avatar to restore the authority of Indra over the heavens, as it had been taken by a benevolent Asura King Mahabali.
Bali was the grand son of Prahlada and son of Virochana. Vamana, as a dwarf Brahmin carrying a wooden umbrella, went to the king to request for land that he could set his foot upon for three paces. Mahabali consented against the warning of his guru, having underestimated the nature of the request. Vamana enlarged to gigantic proportions to stride over the three worlds. With the first step he covered the space from heaven to earth, with the second from earth to the netherworld. King Mahabali's realms were exhausted, there was no space for the third step. Unable to fulfill his promise, Mahabali offered his head for the third. Vamana placed his foot on Mahabali's head, granted the king immortality for his humility, he was allowed to return every year to see the citizens of his country. The festival of Onam for some and first day of Diwali for some is related to this return of Mahabali to a visit to earth once every year in August-September; some texts state. In giant form, Vamana is known as Trivikrama.
According to another but similar version, Prahlada's grandson Mahabali came to power by defeating the gods, taking over the three worlds. According to Vaishnavism mythology, the defeated Devas approached Vishnu for help in their battle with Mahabali. Vishnu refused to join the gods in violence against Mahabali, because Mahabali was a good ruler and his own devotee. He, decided to test Mahabali's devotion at an opportune moment. Mahabali, after his victory over the gods, declared that he will perform Yajna and grant anyone any request during the Yajna. Vishnu took the avatar of a dwarf boy approached Mahabali; the king offered anything to the boy – gold, elephants, food, whatever he wished. The boy said that one must not seek more than one needs, all he needs is the property right over a piece of land that measures "three paces". Mahabali agreed; the Vamana covered everything Mahabali ruled over in just two paces. For the third pace, Mahabali offered himself to the Vamana. Mahabali symbolizes Samridhi, the three feet symbolizes the three states of existence (Jagrat and Sushupti and final step is on his head which elevates from these three states, unto moksha.
In one version of the Vamana legend, when Mahabali offered himself for Vishnu's third step, it was an act of Mahabali's devotion. Vishnu granted him a boon. Mahabali chose to revisit earth, once every year, the lands and people he ruled; this revisit marks the festival of Onam, as reminder of the virtuous rule and his humility in keeping his promise before Vishnu. According to Nanditha Krishna, a simpler form of this legend, one without Mahabali, is found in the Rigveda and the Vedic text Shatapatha Brahmana where a solar deity is described with powers of Vishnu; this story grew over time, is in part allegorical, where Bali is a metaphor for thanksgiving offering after a bounty of rice harvest during monsoon, Vishnu is the metaphor of the Kerala sun and summer that precedes the Onam. According to Roshen Dalal, the story of Mahabali is important to Onam in Kerala, but similar Mahabali legends are significant in the region of Balia in Uttar Pradesh, Bawan in the same state, Bharuch in Gujarat, Mahabaleshwar in Maha