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Vallabhbhai Patel

Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel, popularly known as Sardar Patel, was an Indian politician. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India, he was an Indian barrister, a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and a founding father of the Republic of India who played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. In India and elsewhere, he was called Sardar, meaning "chief" in Hindi and Persian, he acted as Home Minister during the political integration of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Patel was raised in the countryside of the state of Gujarat, he was a successful lawyer. He subsequently organised peasants from Kheda and Bardoli in Gujarat in non-violent civil disobedience against the British Raj, becoming one of the most influential leaders in Gujarat, he was appointed as the 49th President of Indian National Congress, organising the party for elections in 1934 and 1937 while promoting the Quit India Movement.

As the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel organised relief efforts for refugees fleeing to Punjab and Delhi from Pakistan and worked to restore peace. He led the task of forging a united India integrating into the newly independent nation those British colonial provinces, "allocated" to India. Besides those provinces, under direct British rule 565 self-governing princely states had been released from British suzerainty by the Indian Independence Act of 1947. Patel persuaded every princely state to accede to India, his commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet "Iron Man of India". He is remembered as the "patron saint of India's civil servants" for having established the modern all-India services system, he is called the "Unifier of India". The Statue of Unity, the world's tallest statue, was dedicated to him on 31 October 2018, 182 metres in height. Patel, one of the six children of Jhaverbhai Patel and Ladba, was born in Gujarat.

Patel's date of birth was never recorded. He belonged to the Leuva Patel Patidar community of Central Gujarat, although after his fame, the Leuva Patels and Kadava Patels have claimed him as one of their own. Patel travelled to attend schools in Nadiad and Borsad, living self-sufficiently with other boys, he reputedly cultivated a stoic character. A popular anecdote recounts that he lanced his own painful boil without hesitation as the barber charged with doing it trembled; when Patel passed his matriculation at the late age of 22, he was regarded by his elders as an unambitious man destined for a commonplace job. Patel himself, harboured a plan to study to become a lawyer and save funds, travel to England, become a barrister. Patel spent years away from his family, studying on his own with books borrowed from other lawyers, passing his examinations within two years. Fetching his wife Jhaverba from her parents' home, Patel set up his household in Godhra and was called to the bar. During the many years it took him to save money, Patel – now an advocate – earned a reputation as a fierce and skilled lawyer.

The couple had a daughter, Maniben, in 1904 and a son, Dahyabhai, in 1906. Patel cared for a friend suffering from the Bubonic plague when it swept across Gujarat; when Patel himself came down with the disease, he sent his family to safety, left his home, moved into an isolated house in Nadiad. Patel practised law in Godhra and Anand while taking on the financial burdens of his homestead in Karamsad. Patel was the first chairman and founder of "Edward Memorial High School" Borsad, today known as Jhaverbhai Dajibhai Patel High School; when he had saved enough for his trip to England and applied for a pass and a ticket, they were addressed to "V. J. Patel," at the home of his elder brother Vithalbhai, who had the same initials as Vallabhai. Having once nurtured a similar hope to study in England, Vithalbhai remonstrated his younger brother, saying that it would be disreputable for an older brother to follow his younger brother. In keeping with concerns for his family's honour, Patel allowed Vithalbhai to go in his place.

In 1909 Patel's wife Jhaverba was hospitalised in Bombay to undergo major surgery for cancer. Her health worsened and, despite successful emergency surgery, she died in the hospital. Patel was given a note informing him of his wife's demise as he was cross-examining a witness in court. According to witnesses, Patel read the note, pocketed it, continued his cross-examination and won the case, he broke the news to others. Patel decided against marrying again, he raised his children with the help of his family and sent them to English-language schools in Bombay. At the age of 36 he enrolled at the Middle Temple Inn in London. Completing a 36-month course in 30 months, Patel finished at the top of his class despite having had no previous college background. Returning to India, Patel settled in Ahmedabad and became one of the city's most successful barristers. Wearing European-style clothes and sporting urbane mannerisms, he became a skilled bridge player. Patel nurtured ambitions to expand his practice and accumulate great wealth and to provide his children with modern education.

He had made a pact with his brother Vithalbhai to support his entry into politics in the Bombay Presidency, while Patel remaine

Treatment of bereavement through music therapy

Bereavement, as defined by Webster, is the state of being bereaved or deprived of something or someone. The DSM-IV TR lists bereavement as a mental health diagnosis when the focus of clinical attention is related to the loss of a loved one and when symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are present for up to two months. A number of treatments for bereavement have been used and evaluated, but music therapy models have been found to be the most successful in treating grief and bereavement. Music therapy practice is working together through music, to promote healthy change; the American Music Therapy Association has defined the practice of music therapy as "a behavioral science concerned with changing unhealthy behaviors and replacing them with more adaptive ones through the use of musical stimuli". The use of music to soothe grief has been used since the time of King Saul. In I Samuel, David plays the Lyre, it has since been used all over the world for treatment of various issues, though the first recorded use of official "music therapy" was in 1789 - an article titled "Music Physically Considered" by an unknown author was found in Columbian Magazine.

The creation and expansion of music therapy as a treatment modality thrived in the early to mid 1900's and while a number of organizations were created, none survived for long. It wasn't until 1950 that the National Association for Music Therapy was founded in New York that clinical training and certification requirements were created. In 1971, the American Association for Music Therapy was created, though at that time called the Urban Federation of Music Therapists; the Certification Board for Music Therapists was created in 1983 which strengthened the practice of music therapy and the trust that it was given. In 1998, the American Music Therapy Association was formed out of a merger between National and American Associations and is now the single largest music therapy organization in the world. More about the history along with general information and application of music therapy can be found on the American Music Therapy Association website. Though music therapy practice employs a large number of intervention techniques, some of the most used interventions include improvisation, therapeutic singing, therapeutic instrumental music playing, music-facilitated reminiscence and life review, music-facilitated relaxation, lyric analysis.

While there has been no conclusive research done on the comparison of interventions, the use of particular interventions is individualized to each client based upon thorough assessment of needs, the effectiveness of treatment may not rely on the type of intervention. Improvisation in music therapy allows for clients to make up, or alter. While improvisation is an intervention in a methodical practice, it does allow for some freedom of expression, what it is used for. Improvisation has several other clinical goals as well, which can be found on the Improvisation in music therapy page, such as: facilitating verbal and nonverbal communication, self-exploration, creating intimacy, developing creativity, improving cognitive skills. Building on these goals, R. Keith Botello and Dr. Robert E. Krout took steps to design a cognitive behavioral application of improvisation to assess and improve communication in couples. Further research is needed before the use of improvisation is conclusively proven to be effective in this application, but there were positive signs in this study of its use.

Singing or playing an instrument is used to help clients express their thoughts and feelings in a more structured manner than improvisation and can allow participation with only limited knowledge of music. Singing in a group can facilitate a sense of community and can be used as group ritual to structure a theme of the group or of treatment. In a one-time bereavement support group, songs that were composed by music therapists for this group to meet the goals of the program; the songs were sung by the group which appeared to result in the facilitation and growth of connectedness within the group. While not a substitute for long-term counseling, this one-time support group showed that sing-alongs can be powerful in providing support and connectedness in a group when the songs were composed to incorporate desired themes and context. Though lyric analysis is and used, research that compares music therapy intervention has been inconclusive up to this point. Dr. Michael Silverman completed a study on lyric analysis and found it to be the third most used type of intervention.

Music Therapists use lyric analysis in a variety of ways, but lyric analysis is used to facilitate dialogue with clients based on the lyrics, which can lead to discussion that addresses the goals of therapy. Dr. Silverman noted that the song that therapists found most effective in lyric analysis was "Lean on Me" by Bill Withers. Other popular choices were the songs "I am a Rock," "Bridge Over Troubled Water," "Concrete Angel," "Everybody Hurts," "Help," and "Let It Be." The choice of song is based around the material and issues listed in the song, but therapists have stated they choose songs based on their clients' preferences, on their own personal tastes in music. At the moment, bereavement is listed as its own diagnosis in the DSM-IV TR, but proposed changes in th

Man Ray

Man Ray was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in Paris. He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal, he considered himself a painter above all. He was best known for his photography, he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer. Man Ray is noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself. During his career as an artist, Man Ray allowed few details of his early life or family background to be known to the public, he refused to acknowledge that he had a name other than Man Ray. Man Ray's birth name was Emmanuel Radnitzky, he was born in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on August 27, 1890. He was the eldest child of Russian Jewish immigrants Max, a tailor, Minnie Radnitzky, he had a brother and two sisters and Essie, the youngest born in 1897 shortly after they settled in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. In early 1912, the Radnitzky family changed their surname to Ray.

Man Ray's brother chose the surname in reaction to the ethnic discrimination and antisemitism prevalent at the time. Emmanuel, called "Manny" as a nickname, changed his first name to Man and began to use Man Ray as his name. Man Ray's father worked in a garment factory and ran a small tailoring business out of the family home, he enlisted his children to assist him from an early age. Man Ray's mother enjoyed designing the family's clothes and inventing patchwork items from scraps of fabric. Man Ray wished to disassociate himself from his family background, but their tailoring left an enduring mark on his art. Mannequins, flat irons, sewing machines, pins, swatches of fabric, other items related to tailoring appear in every medium of his work. Art historians have noted similarities between Ray's collage and painting techniques and styles used for tailoring. Mason Klein, curator of a Man Ray exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York, Alias Man Ray: The Art of Reinvention, suggests that the artist may have been "the first Jewish avant-garde artist."Man Ray was the uncle of the photographer Naomi Savage, who learned some of his techniques and incorporated them into her own work.

Man Ray displayed mechanical abilities during childhood. His education at Brooklyn's Boys' High School from 1904 to 1909 provided him with solid grounding in drafting and other basic art techniques. While he attended school, he educated himself with frequent visits to the local art museums, where he studied the works of the Old Masters. After his graduation, Ray was offered a scholarship to study architecture but chose to pursue a career as an artist. Man Ray's parents were disappointed by their son's decision to pursue art, but they agreed to rearrange the family's modest living quarters so that Ray's room could be his studio; the artist remained in the family home over the next four years. During this time, he worked towards becoming a professional painter. Man Ray earned money as a commercial artist and was a technical illustrator at several Manhattan companies; the surviving examples of his work from this period indicate that he attempted paintings and drawings in 19th-century styles. He was an avid admirer of contemporary avant-garde art, such as the European modernists he saw at Alfred Stieglitz's "291" gallery and works by the Ashcan School.

However, with a few exceptions, he was not yet able to integrate these trends into his own work. The art classes he sporadically attended, including stints at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League, were of little apparent benefit to him; when he enrolled in the Ferrer School in the autumn of 1912, he began a period of intense and rapid artistic development. While living in New York City, Man Ray was influenced by the avant-garde practices of European contemporary artists he was introduced to at the 1913 Armory Show and in visits to Alfred Stieglitz's "291" art gallery, his early paintings display facets of cubism. After befriending Marcel Duchamp, interested in showing movement in static paintings, his works began to depict movement of the figures. An example is the repetitive positions of the dancer's skirts in The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself with Her Shadows. In 1915, Man Ray had his first solo show of paintings and drawings after he had taken up residence at an art colony in Grantwood, New Jersey, across the Hudson River from New York City.

His first proto-Dada object, an assemblage titled Self-Portrait, was exhibited the following year. He produced his first significant photographs in 1918, after picking up the camera to document his own artwork. Man Ray abandoned conventional painting to involve himself with a radical anti-art movement, he published two Dadaist periodicals, that each only had one issue, The Ridgefield Gazook and TNT, the latter co-edited by Adolph Wolff and Mitchell Dawson. He developed unique mechanical and photographic methods of making images. For the 1918 version of Rope Dancer, he combined a spray-gun technique with a pen drawing. Like Duchamp, he did readymades -- ordinary objects that are modified, his Gift readymade is a flatiron with metal tacks attached to the bottom, Enigma of Isidore Ducasse is an unseen object wrapped in cloth and tied with cord. Aerograph, another work from this period, was done with airbrush on glass. In 1920, Man Ray helped Duchamp make the Rotary Glass Plates, one of the earliest examples of kinetic art.

It was composed of glass plates turned by a motor. That same year, Man Ray, Katherine Dreier, Duchamp founded the Société Anonyme, an i

Larry Koroloff

Larry Koroloff is a Bulgarian-Canadian historian and educator, activist of the Macedonian Patriotic Organization, editor-in-chief of the “Macedonian Tribune” newspaper, head of the patriotic organization “Macedonia: Switzerland on the Balkans”, situated in Toronto. Larry Koroloff was born in 1951 in Toronto, Canada, in the family of the Bulgarian émigré Lazar Koroloff. Through his mother's family he is a relative of the Macedonian revolutionaries Nikola Kuzinchev and Lazar Poptraykov. Koroloff has graduated from the University of Toronto, where he studied French and Russian philology and pedagogy, he has taught history, French and English, as well as English literature, in various high schools in his home city. Koroloff has authored scientific publications on the Kostur dialect, his book about the village of Drenoveni in the Kastoria region, where both his paternal and maternal ancestors lived, has received praise from the scientific community as a source of “unique ethnographic and historical information”, which “greatly enhances our understanding of the history and the language of the southwesternmost parts of Macedonia” and “will be the basis for any further research in that field“.

The book presents the history, language and folklore of the village and the surrounding region in the Aegean Macedonia. It covers the activity of the Bulgarian Exarchate и IMARO, historic events like the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, as well as the Greek administration in the 1912–1950 years; the research is based on interviews with numerous people from the village, who had emigrated to North America, on voluminous historiographical and dialectological literature. Larry Koroloff has provided contributions to the book “Bulgarian dialect texts from Aegean Macedonia“ of the notable Bulgarian dialectologist and phonologist Blagoy Shklifov, sponsored its publication by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2003. Larry Koroloff was a member of the Central Committee of the Macedonian Patriotic Organization in 2010–2014. Since 2011 he is the editor-in-chief of the “Macedonian Tribune” newspaper, “the oldest Macedonian newspaper in the world published continuously since February 10, 1927”. Koroloff has been awarded with the highest award of the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the “Golden Laurel Branch”, for his “many-year activity and contribution to the preservation of the Bulgarian nature of the, for strengthening of the national and cultural identity of the Bulgarian emigrants in Canada”.

“Your life and your deed are an example of inspiration. I hope. Thank you for passing over the Bulgarian national spirit to the future generations and thus making us feel worthy for being Bulgarians and living in these lands” Koroloff, Drenòveni: The Life and Demise of a Macedonian Village, Pickering, ON, Britannia Printers, 2016, 342 pages, ISBN 978-177-1363-92-1 Королов, Лари-Лабро, Дренòвени: Разцвет и разорение на едно село в Южна Македония, София, Македонски научен институт, 2016, 360 с. ISBN 978-954-8187-98-5 Larry Koroloff speaks about the village of Drenoveni on YouTube

Stuart Tripp

Stuart Tripp is an Australian cyclist. He won a silver medal in the silver medal in the Men's Road Time Trial H5 at the 2016 Rio Paralympics. Tripp was born on 13 June 1970 in Victoria, his right leg was amputated following a 1994 car accident that had left him in a coma for several weeks after the initial accident. The accident happened when he was 23 years old and resulted in both his legs being broken. Neither drugs nor alcohol were causes and his seatbelt helped save his life. Following his accident, he turned to alcohol and smoking cigarettes as a form of coping but he stopped using both. Tripp has competed in the New York City Marathon in the handcycle class; as of 2016, he lives in Victoria. He is a husband and father and when not training or spending time with his kids he visits schools where he acts as a motivational speaker for youngsters. Tripp is an H5 classified cyclist, he uses a hand cycle, believes cycling helped save his life following his accident, taking up the sport on the recommendation of psychologist at a time when he was smoking two packs of cigarettes a day.

Tripp participated in the Victorian event in the 2012 Australian National Handcycle Series. With a time of 21:04, he finished first in the H4 event. Stuart Tripp, Alex Welsh, Kiwi Tiffiney Perry competed together as a team in a relay race at an Australian cycling event. At the 2012 London Paralympics he had two top ten placings. At the 2014 UCI Para-cycling Road Championships in Greenville, North Carolina, he finished fifth in the Men's Time Trial H5 and sixth in the Men's Road Race M5. Tripp won a silver medal in Men's Time Trial H5 at the 2014 UCI World Cup held in - Cantimpalos, Spain. In 2015 Tripp broke his arm during a riding accident and that prevented him from participating in the 2015 World Championships in Notwill, Switzerland and a World Cup event in Germany; this had serious potential consequences for a position in the 2016 Australian Paralympic Cycling Team. At the 2016 Rio Paralympics, he won the silver medal in the Men's Road Time Trial H5, he finished seventh in the Men's Road Race H5.

At the 2017 UCI Para-cycling Road World Championships, south Africa, he finished fourth in the Men's Time Trial H5. At the 2019 UCI Para-cycling Road World Championships, Netherlands, he finished fifth in Men's Time Trial H5 and Men's Road Race H5. In 2016, he was a Victorian Institute of Sport scholarship holder and was awarded their Sarah Tait Spirit Award with diver Anabelle Smith. Australian Paralympic Committee Profile Cycling Australia Profile

Plains leopard frog

The Plains leopard frog It is sometimes referred to as Blair's leopard frog, named after the noted zoologist and University of Texas professor, Dr. W. Frank Blair; the Plains leopard frog grows from 2.0 to 4.3 in in length, is brown in color. Their common name originates from dark colored spotting on their backs, they have long, powerful legs, are capable of leaping great distances. Although found throughout semiarid regions, the Plains leopard frog is always found in or near permanent water sources, such as streams and ponds, they are nocturnal, insectivorous, though they will eat anything they can overpower and swallow, including other frogs. They are shy animals fleeing beneath the water if approached; the Plains leopard frog, as its name implies, is found throughout the Great Plains of the United States, from Indiana west across central and southern plains to South Dakota, south to Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, with a disjunct population in Arizona. The Plains leopard frog Frog is common throughout its range, holds no special conservation status, except in the state of Indiana, where it is endangered.

This is because of the use of fertilizers and pesticides in farms located near this frog's habitats