Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
Lemhi County, Idaho
Lemhi County is a county located in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,936; the largest city and county seat is Salmon. The county was established in 1869, named after Fort Lemhi, a remote Mormon missionary settlement from 1855–58 in Bannock and Shoshone territory. Main & Challis Salmon Main & Church Salmon According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,569 square miles, of which 4,563 square miles is land and 5.4 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Idaho by area; the highest point is Bell Mountain at 11,612 ft above sea level, the lowest point is the Salmon River as it exits on the county's western border with Idaho County at 3,000 feet. The river cuts through the center of Lemhi County before turning west; the county's eastern border with Beaverhead County, Montana, is the continental divide. Idaho County, Idaho - northwest/Pacific Time Border Ravalli County, Montana - north Beaverhead County, Montana - northeast Clark County, Idaho - east Butte County, Idaho - south Custer County, Idaho - southwest Valley County, Idaho - west Challis National Forest Salmon National Forest Targhee National Forest Frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness (part Habitation of the Lemhi and Salmon Rivers dates back 14,000 years ago.
Early natives were spear hunters of big game. The Salmon River was the dividing point among the first cultural split which occurred after 5,000 BC; the Lemhi band of Shoshoni developed culturally in similar fashion to other Shoshoni tribes located south of and east of the Salmon River. The Lemhi band of Shoshoni had developed into a migratory culture, they were known as "Salmon Eaters". Their migratory pattern consisted of fishing for Salmon in the Lemhi Valley in the summer, digging Camas on Camas Creek in the spring, hunting buffalo in the Three Forks area of the Missouri River, they were known to travel to trade with other tribes. The Lemhi band was forced to a reservation on 12 February 1875 though the tribe failed to ratify the treaty creating it in 1868; the reservation was disbanded in 1907 and the tribe sent to Fort Hall. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered Idaho on August 12, 1805 at Lemhi Pass in present-day Lemhi County. Meriwether Lewis and three other members of the expedition were the first Americans to enter what is now Idaho.
For Sacajawea, their guide and interpreter, the Lemhi Valley was her birthplace and her brother was the Chief of the Lemhi band. Clark went out to scout the expedition's route. Within a month, travel down the Salmon and Snake Rivers was ruled out and the expedition headed for Lolo Pass on the Bitterroot Range. Michael Bourdon of the Hudson's Bay Company established the Lemhi Valley as a base of trapping operations in 1822; the region would support trapping operations for about 20 years. Finnan McDonald, Alexander Ross, David Skene Ogden, Jedediah Smith, Jim Bridger all spent time in the area. Exploration of the full Salmon River from its source to the Snake River did not occur until 1832. Mormon settlers established Fort Lemhi from 1855 to 1858; the settlement was withdrawn after a native attack on the settlement. The first gold miners ventured into Lemhi County starting in 1862, with miners working the main Salmon River all the way from Salmon down to Slate Creek. F. B. Sharkey and his party struck gold at Leesburg on July 16, 1866.
The rush to Leesburg ensued within a month. A Stagecoach route was established from Montana in May 1867 to the present location of Salmon City. Additional discovery of gold occurred at Lemhi in 1867 and Shoup in 1868. Salmon City became the county seat of Lemhi County when it was formed in 1869. Additional mining operations occurred at Yellow Jacket in 1869, Gibbonsville in 1877, Gilmore in 1880, Blackbird in 1892, Leadore in 1904; the Gilmore and Pittsburgh Railroad was completed from Dubois to Salmon on May 18, 1910. The railroad was built to access ore from Gilmore; the railroad ceased operations in 1940. Salmon City was platted in 1867. While Salmon has gone by the name of Salmon City since its inception, it did not have legal status as a city until around 1900. Leadore and Patterson were incorporated as villages in 1947. Patterson was dis-incorporated by 1980. At the start of mining operations in present-day Lemhi County in 1862, the region was within Idaho County, Washington Territory. Boise County was created in 1863 with its northern boundary running just north of the ridge dividing Birch Creek from the Lemhi River.
Under Idaho Territory, the southern portion became part of Alturas County on February 2, 1864 and the dividing line between Alturas and Idaho counties was adjusted to 44° 30′ North Latitude. The Idaho Territorial Legislature created Lemhi County twice; the first occasion was on December 21, 1866. A county government was organized at Salmon City, yet the bill approving the county was misplaced and never published in session laws; the following session, the legislature passed the bill again creating Lemhi County on January 9, 1869. The county government was reorganized at Salmon City on February 22, 1870; the western and southern county boundaries for Lemhi were adjusted frequently. At its creation, Lemhi inherited Idaho county's southern and eastern boundaries which created two areas of non-contiguous territory with one of the sections containing territory along the Salt Lake to Virginia City stagecoach route just north of the present town of Humphrey Idaho. Finalization of the southern boundary came in several steps from 1885 to 1896.
In 1885, the boundary was moved southward, gaining territory in present Clark County, crea
Gem County, Idaho
Gem County is a county in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,719; the county seat and largest city is Emmett. Gem County is part of ID Metropolitan Statistical Area. Gem County is home to the Idaho ground squirrel. Named for the state nickname, "Gem State," the county was established on March 15, 1915, partitioned from Canyon County and Boise County. Fur trappers were in the area as early as 1818, Alexander Ross explored Squaw Creek in 1824. Prospectors and miners moved through the county in 1862 en route to the gold rush in the Boise Basin around Idaho City, by the next year irrigation began along the Payette River. Under Washington Territory, the area was part of Idaho County from the time of settlement until the territory south of the Payette River became part of Boise County at its creation in 1863. Picket's Corral, northeast of Emmett was the base of operations for a gang of horse thieves and "bogus dust peddlers" between 1862 and 1864; the Payette Vigilance Committee eliminated the gang.
The act creating Ada County in 1864 established the Ada County boundary common to Boise County as a line from Grimes Creek to Picket's Corral and north from that point to the existing northern boundary of Boise County, leaving the areas outside of Emmett within Boise County. Jonathan Smith and Nathaniel Martin settled near Emmett about 1862, they established a ferry on the Payette River at Emmett in 1866. On May 31, 1867, a post office was named Martinsville. Martinsville was renamed Emmettsville on October 31, 1868. Postal officials shortened the name of the post office to Emmett in 1885. Census data for the area shows Squaw Creek Precinct under Boise County with a population of 30 in 1870. Ada County did not separately return precincts at that census. By 1890, Squaw Creek was split into two precincts; those precincts were grouped with Horseshoe Bend at the 1890 census. The Emmett precinct contained 479 residents at that time; the Emmett area was transferred to Canyon County at its establishment in 1892.
At the 1910 Census, three Emmett area precincts contained a population of 2,601 while three Boise County precincts of Upper Squaw Creek, Lower Squaw Creek, Pearl contained 1,069 residents. The Black Canyon diversion dam on the river was built in the early 1920s, east of Emmett. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 566 square miles, of which 561 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. It is the fifth-smallest county in Idaho by area. Adams County - north Valley County - northeast Boise County - east Ada County - south Canyon County - southwest Payette County - west Washington County - northwest Boise National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 15,181 people, 5,539 households, 4,176 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 5,888 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.79% White, 0.73% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.07% Black or African American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.16% from other races, 1.83% from two or more races.
6.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.9% were of American, 17.5% German, 13.1% English and 7.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 5,539 households out of which 34.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.40% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 20.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,460, the median income for a family was $40,195. Males had a median income of $31,036 versus $20,755 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $15,340. About 11.60% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 13.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,719 people, 6,495 households, 4,611 families residing in the county; the population density was 29.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,099 housing units at an average density of 12.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.4% white, 0.6% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.1% black or African American, 3.1% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 23.2% were German, 19.2% were English, 15.8% were American, 12.3% were Irish. Of the 6,495 households, 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.9% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.0% were non-families, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age was 42.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,794 and the median income for a family was $49,976. Males had a median income of $39,482 versus $31,083 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,431. About 9.7% of families and 14.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those u
John Sidney McCain III was an American politician and military officer who served as a United States senator from Arizona from January 1987 until his death. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was the Republican nominee for president of the United States in the 2008 election, which he lost to Barack Obama. McCain graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1958 and received a commission in the United States Navy, he flew ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he died in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire. While on a bombing mission during Operation Rolling Thunder over Hanoi in October 1967, he was shot down injured, captured by the North Vietnamese, he was a prisoner of war until 1973. He refused an out-of-sequence early release. During the war, he sustained wounds, he moved to Arizona, where he entered politics. In 1982, McCain was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served two terms, he entered the U. S. Senate in 1987 and won reelection five times.
While adhering to conservative principles, McCain had a reputation as a "maverick" for his willingness to break from his party on certain issues. His supportive stances on LGBT rights, gun regulations, campaign finance reform were more liberal than those of the party's base. McCain was investigated and exonerated in a political influence scandal of the 1980s as one of the Keating Five, he was known for his work in the 1990s to restore diplomatic relations with Vietnam. McCain opposed pork barrel spending, he belonged to the bipartisan "Gang of 14", which played a key role in alleviating a crisis over judicial nominations. McCain entered the race for the Republican nomination for president in 2000, but lost a heated primary season contest to Governor George W. Bush of Texas, he lost the general election. McCain subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and opposed actions of the Obama administration with regard to foreign policy matters. In 2015, he became Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee.
He refused to support then-Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump in 2016. While McCain opposed the Affordable Care Act, he cast the deciding vote against the ACA-repealing American Health Care Act of 2017. After being diagnosed with brain cancer in 2017, McCain reduced his role in the Senate in order to focus on treatment, he died on August 2018, four days before his 82nd birthday. Following his death, McCain lay in state in the Arizona State Capitol rotunda and in the United States Capitol rotunda, his funeral was televised from the Washington National Cathedral, with former U. S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama giving eulogies. John Sidney McCain III was born on August 29, 1936, at Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone, to naval officer John S. McCain Jr. and Roberta McCain. He had a younger brother Joe. At that time, the Panama Canal was under U. S. control. McCain's family tree includes English ancestors, his father and his paternal grandfather, John S. McCain Sr. were Naval Academy graduates and both became four-star admirals in the United States Navy.
The McCain family followed his father to various naval postings in the United States and the Pacific. Altogether, he attended about 20 schools. In 1951, the family settled in Northern Virginia, McCain attended Episcopal High School, a private preparatory boarding school in Alexandria, he excelled at wrestling and graduated in 1954. He referred to himself as an Episcopalian as as June 2007 after which date he said he came to identify as a Baptist. Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy, where he was a friend and informal leader for many of his classmates and sometimes stood up for targets of bullying, he fought as a lightweight boxer. McCain did well in academic subjects that interested him, such as literature and history, but studied only enough to pass subjects that gave him difficulty, such as mathematics, he came into conflict with higher-ranking personnel and did not always obey the rules, which contributed to a low class rank, despite a high IQ. McCain graduated in 1958.
McCain began his early military career when he was commissioned as an ensign and started two and a half years of training at Pensacola to become a naval aviator. While there, he earned a reputation as a man, he became a naval pilot of ground-attack aircraft. McCain began as a sub-par flier, at times careless and reckless, his aviation skills improved over time, he was seen as a good pilot, albeit one who tended to "push the envelope" in his flying. On July 3, 1965, McCain was 28 when he married Carol Shepp, who had worked as a runway model and secretary. McCain adopted her two young children Andrew, he and Carol had a daughter named Sidney. McCain requested a combat assignment and was assigned
Custer County, Idaho
Custer County is a rural mountain county in the center of the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,368; the county seat is Challis. Established in 1881, the county was named for the General Custer Mine, where gold was discovered five years earlier. Custer County relies on ranching and tourism as its main resources. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,937 square miles, of which 4,721 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in Idaho by area. The Lost River Range, the state's highest mountains, are located in eastern Custer County; the highest is the highest natural point in Idaho at 12,662 feet. On the western border of the county is Idaho's famous Sawtooth Range. Twenty miles east are the White Cloud Mountains, the tallest of, Castle Peak at 11,815 feet; the Salmon River and Big Lost River flow through Custer County. Lemhi County - north Butte County - east Blaine County - south Elmore County - southwest Boise County - southwest Valley County - west US 93 SH 21 SH 75 Challis National Forest Sawtooth National Forest Sawtooth National Recreation Area Hemingway–Boulders Wilderness Jim McClure–Jerry Peak Wilderness Sawtooth Wilderness Cecil D. Andrus–White Clouds Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 4,342 people, 1,770 households, 1,196 families residing in the county.
The population density was 0.88 people per square mile. There were 2,983 housing units at an average density of 0.60 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.28% White, 0.55% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.17% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 4.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.6% were of English, 17.0% German, 10.9% Irish and 9.9% American ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 1,770 households out of which 29.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.10% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 4.80% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 29.30% from 45 to 64, 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 104.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,174, the median income for a family was $39,551. Males had a median income of $32,255 versus $21,463 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,783. About 10.70% of families and 14.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.70% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,368 people, 1,936 households, 1,244 families residing in the county; the population density was 0.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,103 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.4% white, 0.6% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.5% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.0% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 34.3% were English, 25.6% were German, 19.5% were Irish, 2.8% were American. Of the 1,936 households, 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families, 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age was 48.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,910 and the median income for a family was $56,710. Males had a median income of $42,865 versus $27,317 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,625. About 10.1% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.2% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. Custer County is at present overwhelmingly Republican; the last Democrat to carry the county was John F. Kennedy in 1960, since 1968 no Democrat has passed 37 percent of the county’s vote, the last to pass 28 percent was Michael Dukakis in 1988.
However, unusually for so Republican a county, the westernmost precincts adjacent to Blaine County, give Democratic majorities in most statewide elections. In the 2008 Presidential election, it supported Republican John McCain over Democrat Barack Obama by a margin of 71 percent to 25 percent. In 2012, Mitt Romney won the Republican primary caucus in the county on the first ballot and voted 74.1 percent for him in the Presidential election. In 2016, Donald Trump won the Republican primaries with 41.8 percent of support in the county if Ted Cruz won the state with 45.5 percent. Challis Clayton Lost River Mackay Stanley Ellis Goldburg Bayhorse Bonanza Custer National Register of Historic Places listings in Custer County, Idaho Official website Challis School District #181 The History of Custer County
Boise County, Idaho
Boise County is a rural mountain county in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 7,028; the county seat is Idaho City, connected through a series of paved and unpaved roads to Lowman, Placerville, Star Ranch, Garden Valley, Horseshoe Bend. The elevated central basin area rises 1,700 feet higher than Horseshoe Bend for instance and thus receives more snow during the winter. Star Ranch and Centerville altitudes average 4,300 above sea level whereas Horseshoe Bend is 1,700 feet lower, Garden Valley is 1,157 feet lower, Idaho City is 400 feet lower. Snow volumes around the county are best illustrated by the county Snow Load Map. Placerville roofs must be designed to withstand 150 pounds per square foot of snow whereas Horseshoe Bend is 1/3 that amount at 52. Boise County is part of ID Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Bogus Basin ski area is in the southwestern part of the county. The county's eastern area contains the central section of the Sawtooth Wilderness, the western part of the Sawtooth National Recreation Area.
In 2010, the center of Idaho's population was in Boise County. The county was established on February 1864, with its county seat at Idaho City, it was named for the Boise River, named by French-Canadian explorers and trappers for the great variety of trees growing along its banks in the lower desert valley. The county is one of four Idaho counties that existed under Washington Territory. On January 12, 1863, The Washington territorial legislature established the county containing most of Idaho below 114° 30', excluding the territory lying west of the Payette River, they established its county seat at what would become Idaho City. The Boise Basin, which contains Idaho City, was one of the nation's richest gold mining districts. At its peak in the mid-1860s, Idaho City was the largest city in the Northwest, it was this rapid population influx that led to the establishment of the Idaho Territory in 1863; the lower–elevation communities of Horseshoe Bend and Boise were staging areas for the Boise Basin mines.
The county's boundaries changed several times during Idaho's territorial period. Owyhee County and a portion of Oneida County were carved from the southern and eastern portion of the county as it existed under Washington Territory in late December 1863 and January 1864; when Idaho Territory established the county in February 1864, it contained all of present Ada and Payette counties. It included most of present Boise and Gem Counties, the southern half of Washington County, small portions of Adams, Custer and Valley counties; when Ada County was created in December 1864, most of that territory was transferred to Ada County, leaving only small portions of Custer, Payette and Washington counties together with most of present-day Boise County. The Boise River portion of the current western boundary was established by 1866; the southern boundary common to present Ada County was defined the following year. The northern boundary was most volatile Between 1873 and 1887 with the boundary shifting further north into Valley County, back south below Cascade, again north to include the North Fork of Payette River Basin.
The county obtained its current boundary after Gem County was created in 1915 and Valley County in 1918. In March 2011, the county filed a Chapter 9 bankruptcy petition due to judgment against the county for violating the Fair Housing Act; the county's petition for Chapter 9 relief was denied. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,907 square miles, of which 1,899 square miles is land and 7.4 square miles is water. The highest point in the county is Thompson Peak at 10,751 feet, on its eastern border in the Sawtooth Wilderness; the county's lowest point is on the Payette River, on its western border with Gem County, at 2,500 feet. Boise National Forest Sawtooth National Recreation Area Sawtooth Wilderness SH 21 - Ponderosa Pine Scenic Byway SH 52 SH 55 - Payette River Scenic BywayThe county's two primary routes are scenic byways. Both are two-lane undivided highways for most of their length; the Ponderosa Pine Scenic Byway on State Highway 21 climbs northeast from Boise to Idaho City and Lowman, ends at Stanley in Custer County, at the junction with State Highway 75.
The Payette River Scenic Byway on State Highway 55 is a designated national scenic byway. It heads north from Eagle to Horseshoe Bend and climbs the whitewater of the Payette River to Cascade and McCall in Valley County, ends at New Meadows in Adams County, at the junction with US Route 95; the closest thing to a traffic signal in Boise County is a flashing red light for Hwy 52 where it meets Highway 55, in Horsehoe Bend. Highway 55 has a flashing yellow. Hwy 52 & Hwy 55 Horseshoe Bend As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 6,670 people, 2,616 households, 1,899 families in the county; the population density was 3.5 people per square mile. There were 4,349 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.23% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.93% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 1.30% from other races, 2.01% from two or more races. 3.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.4 % were of 14.8 % American, 13.8 % English and 9.8 % Irish ancestry.
There were 2,616 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.50% were married couples living toget
Johnson Creek Airport
Johnson Creek Airport is a grass airstrip in Central Idaho three miles south of Yellow Pine, a village in Valley County, United States. It is managed by the Idaho Division of Aeronautics of the Idaho Transportation Department. A caretaker resides at the field and the turf runway is well cared for. Johnson Creek is popular with pilots who enjoy airplane camping. Johnson Creek Airport covers an area of 40 acres which contains one grass runway, 3,400 feet long and 150 feet wide; the field elevation is 4,933 feet above sea level. For the 12-month period ending October 24, 2003, the airport had 5,750 aircraft operations, an average of 15 per day: 87% general aviation and 13% air taxi. On the airport is a campground for fly-in campers, along with complimentary hot showers, a bunk house, pit toilets, two courtesy rental cars; the airport has a small shelter with a freezer, a telephone, map of the area, a small sign-in book that logs all the arrivals and departures. The caretaker mows and waters the grass of the runway and parking areas, provides freshly chopped firewood for campers, maintains the campground and courtesy cars.
Johnson Creek Airport at Idaho Transportation Department Time-lapse animation of the webcam located at Johnson Creek Airport Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for 3U2 AirNav airport information for 3U2 FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for 3U2