Valley Metro Rail is a 28.2-mile light rail line operating in the U. S. state of Arizona. Part of the Valley Metro public transit system, it serves the cities of Phoenix and Mesa. Construction began in March 2005; the line had a weekday ridership of 49,416 in 2016, making it the 14th busiest light rail system in the country. In the years since it opened in 2008, the system has undergone two expansions, with at least five more scheduled, including the Tempe Streetcar. Furthermore, extensions are planned into West Phoenix and South Phoenix to Baseline Road, all of which were expanded as a direct result of obtaining funding under the Proposition 104 sales tax increase; the expected construction cost for the initial 20 miles was $70 million per mile. In 2008, Valley Metro estimated the train would cost $184 million to operate over the following five years with fares covering $44 million of the operation costs and tax subsidies covering the remaining costs. Trains operate on city streets in a "center reservation", similar to the Red Line of the METRO light rail system in Houston, the surface sections of the Green Line in Boston, some surface sections of the Muni Metro in San Francisco and TRAX in Salt Lake City.
Some parts of the line, such as the bridge over Tempe Town Lake, have no contact with other traffic. The vehicles used are rated for a maximum speed of 58 miles per hour, have to complete the 28 miles route in just over 90 minutes, including station stops; the system is powered by an overhead catenary. Numerous plans have preceded the current implementation of light rail; the Phoenix Street Railway provided streetcar service from 1887 to 1948. Historic vehicles may be seen at the Arizona Street Railway Museum, with Car #116 celebrating her 80th birthday on December 25, 2008, just days before the opening of modern rail service. In 1989, the ValTrans elevated rail proposal was turned down by voters in a referendum due to cost and feasibility concerns. Subsequent initiatives during the 1990s failed over similar reasons. Metro was created by the Transit 2000 Regional Transportation Plan called the Transit 2000 plan, which involved a 0.5 per cent sales tax, was approved by Phoenix voters in 2000. Transit 2000 aimed at improving the local bus service and the formation of bus rapid transit and light rail, among other things, seen as a more affordable approach.
It used the route color designations from the 1989 ValTrans plan. Construction on the new light rail line began in March 2005. In March 2008, cracks in the system's rails were discovered; the cause of the cracks was determined to be improper use of plasma cutting torches by contractors. The affected track was repaired by May at a cost of $600,000 with still no word on which parties will be held financially responsible; the last of the concrete and rail for the system was installed in the end of April, with the CEO declaring the system to be on time and on budget. There are 28 stations on the initial twenty-mile starter segment; the line celebrated its grand opening on December 27, 2008, with official ribbon-cutting ceremonies and community celebrations throughout Phoenix and Mesa. The event was produced by Arizona's Entertainment Solutions, Inc. and was attended by thousands of local residents who waited as long as an hour or more to ride the vehicles. The stations have been designed to complement their immediate surroundings.
Station platform areas are 16 feet wide by 300 feet long. As of early 2014, income has exceeded Metro's stated goal with 44.6% farebox recovery due to the light rail ridership far exceeding original projections. The light rail has led to rapid urban development in downtown Phoenix and Tempe, generating additional revenue through taxes. Valley Metro had its busiest month in April 2017, with a total passenger count of 1,514,456 and an average weekday ridership of 52,910. On the weekend of March 31, 2017, through April 2, 2017, the light rail system saw 275,615 passengers board the train due to several large events including Final Four Fan Fest, March Madness Music Festival, Arizona Diamondbacks home opener, Phoenix Pride Festival, Phoenix Suns game, Tempe Festival of the Arts; that Sunday, April 2, 2017, they saw 80,210 passengers board the train thanks to fans attending the Arizona Diamondbacks home opening game as well as the other large events occurring that weekend. The Central Mesa Extension extended 3.1 miles from Sycamore/Main St in the median of Main Street to Mesa Drive.
It added four stations at Alma School Road, Country Club Drive, Center Street, Mesa Drive. In March 2012, Valley Metro selected a design-build joint venture between Kiewit Corporation and Mass. Electric to construct the extension. Construction began in July 2012 and passenger service began on August 22, 2015. Mesa held a summit in early 2012 to have urban developers give their ideas on how to revitalize Downtown Mesa; the extension cost $200 million, paid for from a combination of Proposition 400 sales tax revenues and federal air quality and New Starts grants, is estimated to have added 5,000 daily riders. An original part of the Transit 2000 plan, this extension was scheduled to open by 2012. However, a combination of lower than expected sales tax revenues, combined with uncertainty surrounding the availability of federal funds to support the project resulted in the opening date being pushed back to 2014, by 9 years, to fiscal year 2023, by the Phoenix City Council in June 2009. In July 2012, a vote was held to reschedule this extension to op
"The Star" is the third and final segment of the thirteenth episode from the first season of the American television series The Twilight Zone. On an interstellar journey in the future, a medical doctor and a priest debate the existence of God in the wonders of the universe. Dr. Chandler believes the universe to be random, but Father Matthew Costigan, who's an astrophysicist, believes in God's grand but ineffable design. During their friendly debate, their spaceship picks up a subspace signal from a long-dead world. Father Matthew claims it is impossible that a civilization could have survived its star going supernova. Upon landing on the now-dead planet, the explorers discover that it holds the last remains of a race, destroyed when the supernova's blast hit, their civilization was quite advanced, they find remnants of art and other pieces of their culture. A computer record shows. Father Matthew determines the star went supernova in the year 3120 B. C. To his dismay, Father Matthew realizes that it would have taken 3,120 years for the light from this explosion to reach Earth in the Eastern Hemisphere, causing the starlight that shone down on Earth the day Jesus was born, "The Star of Bethlehem".
Father Matthew's faith is shaken, exclaiming that it is unfair that such a star should have exploded near a world, harboring life. Dr. Chandler attempts to comfort him by translating a poem he found among the archives of the dead culture, it says that no one should mourn for them, for they lived in peace and saw the beauty of the universe. It says to grieve for those who never see the light of peace. Dr. Chandler says that whatever destiny was theirs, they fulfilled it and passed their light onto another world; the doctor's words and this artifact encourages the priest. This episode is based on a short story, "The Star" by Arthur C. Clarke, published in Infinity Science Fiction. However, while Clarke's story ended with the priest in despair after the revelation that the alien civilization had perished in order to light "the Christmas star," the TV episode added an epitaph by the aliens, revealing their acceptance of their place in the universe. "The Star" on IMDb "The Star" at TV.com
Orophora unicolor is a bagmoth of the Psychidae family, endemic to New Zealand. It was described by Arthur Gardiner Butler in 1877, redescribed in ignorance by Richard William Fereday in the same year; this species is restricted to dry areas of the South Island, where it feeds on cassinia. Its case is covered with layers of short lengths of tussock, laid longitudinally and overlapping, so that it looks like a bundle of twigs. Fereday collected O. unicolor on matagouri but noted that these were all pupal cases and that fragments of matagouri were not incorporated into the cases. The case can reach 40 mm. Only the male metamorphoses into a recognisable moth; the adult female never has no wings. The male is a hairy grey moth with translucent wings and a short abdomen and a 26.5 mm wingspan
Jacks Knob Trail is a hiking trail, designated as a National Recreation Trail in Georgia, US. The trail is 4.5 miles long and is located in the Chattahoochee National Forest in the Brasstown Ranger District. The trail is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; the trail starts at Brasstown Bald and heads in a southernly direction along the boundary between Union and Towns counties. After 2.2 miles and a descent of nearly 1,500 feet, it reaches Jacks Gap and crosses Georgia State Route 180. Shortly after reaching Jacks Gap, Jacks Knob Trail enters the Mark Trail Wilderness; the trails ends at an intersection with the Appalachian Trail below the peak of Jacks Knob at an elevation of about 3,550 feet. Jacks Knob entry in the National Recreational Trail Database TopoQuest Map showing intersection of the Jacks Knob and Appalachian Trails Jacks Knob Trail description with Google map to location
Adam Kuligowski is a Polish chess master. He was awarded the GM title in 1980. In 1973, he won Polish Junior Championship. In 1973/74, he took 3rd in Groningen. In 1974, he took 15th in Manila. In 1975, he took 6th in Tjentište. In 1975, he tied for 6-10th in Poznań. In 1975, he took 2nd in Dresden. In 1978, he tied for 1st-2nd with Aleksander Sznapik in Krakow, drew the playoff match, took the Polish Champion title on tie-break. In 1978, he won in Warsaw. In 1980, he tied for 3rd-4th in Łódź. In 1980, he won in Warsaw. In 1980, he tied for 2nd-4th in Krosno. In 1980, he tied for 1st-2nd in Niš. In 1981, he tied for 4-6th in Warsaw. In 1981, he tied for 3rd-4th in Lewisham. In 1983, he took 14th in Wijk aan Zee. Kuligowski played for Poland in three Chess Olympiads. In 1978, at second board in 23rd Chess Olympiad in Buenos Aires, he won individual gold medal at Buenos Aires 1978 and silver medal at La Valletta 1980. By the late 1980s he has not played competitively since. Adam Kuligowski player profile and games at Chessgames.com
The rule of three and rule of five are rules of thumb in C++ for the building of exception-safe code and for formalizing rules on resource management. The rules prescribe how the default members of a class should be used to achieve these goals systematically; the rule of three is a rule of thumb in C++ that claims that if a class defines any of the following it should explicitly define all three: destructor copy constructor copy assignment operatorThese three functions are special member functions. If one of these functions is used without first being declared by the programmer it will be implicitly implemented by the compiler with the following default semantics: Destructor – Call the destructors of all the object's class-type members Copy constructor – Construct all the object's members from the corresponding members of the copy constructor's argument, calling the copy constructors of the object's class-type members, doing a plain assignment of all non-class type data members Copy assignment operator – Assign all the object's members from the corresponding members of the assignment operator's argument, calling the copy assignment operators of the object's class-type members, doing a plain assignment of all non-class type data members.
The Rule of Three claims that if one of these had to be defined by the programmer, it means that the compiler-generated version does not fit the needs of the class in one case and it will not fit in the other cases either. The term "Rule of three" was coined by Marshall Cline in 1991. An amendment to this rule is that if the class is designed in such a way that Resource Acquisition Is Initialization is used for all its members, the destructor may be left undefined. A ready-to-go example of this approach is the use of smart pointers instead of plain ones; because implicitly-generated constructors and assignment operators copy all class data members, one should define explicit copy constructors and copy assignment operators for classes that encapsulate complex data structures or have external references such as pointers, if you need to copy the objects pointed to by the class members. If the default behavior is the intended one an explicit definition, although redundant, will be a "self-documenting code" indicating that it was an intention rather than an oversight.
With the advent of C++11 the rule of three can be broadened to the rule of five as C++11 implements move semantics, allowing destination objects to grab data from temporary objects. The following example shows the new moving members: move constructor and move assignment operator. For the rule of five we have the following special members: destructor copy constructor copy assignment operator move constructor move assignment operatorSituations exist where classes may need destructors, but cannot sensibly implement copy and move constructors and copy and move assignment operators; this happens, for example, when the base class does not support these latter Big Four members, but the derived class's constructor allocates memory for its own use. In C++11, this can be simplified by explicitly specifying the five members as default. C++ classes Class