France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Arlebosc is a commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arleboscois or Arleboscoises Arlebosc is located some 12 km west by south-west of Tournon-sur-Rhône and 8 km north-east of Lamastre. Access to the commune is by the D578 road from Saint-Jeure-d'Ay in the north passing through the village and continuing west south-west to join the D534 north-west of Lamastre. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Saint-Just in the north-east and Les Fauries in the western extension of the commune; the commune is rugged and forested with some farmland on the eastern side. The Doux river forms part of the south-western border and flows through the commune from south-west to north-east; the Ruisseau de Balaye forms the western border. Other streams rise in the flow south-east to join the Doux; the Merdenc rises in the north of the commune and forms part of the northern border as it flows north-east to join the Daronne south-east of Saint-Félicien.
A legend attributes the name of the commune to one of its Lords: Bozon d'Arles. In reality, it is a name from the Old French -bosc attested in the Occitan form of Arlabosc from 912 and Latinized to Allabosco in the 14th century. Ernest Nègre explained the first element as an Occitan form erela meaning "cranberry"; the French term for cranberry is considered to be a borrowing from a variant of the Massif Central or the Alpine éiréla. The Provençal aire is used for "cranberry", from the Latin ater meaning "black", d'où la signification globale de « bois des airelles ».3, so the overall meaning is "forest of cranberries". List of Successive Mayors In 2009 the commune had 354 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of the town is old.
The ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national average and the departmental average. Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Arlebosc and Ardèche Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the Chateau of Chazotte is registered as an historical monument. The Chateau of Malgaray The Chateau of Romaneaux The Church of Saint Sacrement from the 19th century; the church contains several items that are registered as historical objects: 2 Statues: Torch-bearing Angels A Silk Cope A Group Sculpture: Crucifixion A Ciborium The Chapel of Saint Just Myriam Gagnaire, a presenter on France 3 and TV5 Monde on "Side gardens" is a resident of the commune and artistic director of La Compagnie du Chat qui louche, a cultural association whose headquarters is in Arlebosc and covers the Ardèche department with various cultural and educational activities in association with the local authorities.
Communes of the Ardèche department Arlebosc on the National Geographic Institute website Arlebosc on Lion1906 Arlebosc on Google Maps Arlebosc on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Arlebosc on the 1750 Cassini Map Arlebosc on the INSEE website INSEE
Gorges de l'Ardèche
The Gorges de l'Ardèche is made up of a series of gorges in the river and locally known as the "European Grand Canyon", Located in the Ardèche, in the French department Ardèche, forming a thirty-kilometre long canyon running from Vallon-Pont-d'Arc to Saint-Martin-d'Ardèche. The lower part of the gorge forms the boundary between the Ardèche department and the Gard department; the canyon is a tourist attraction, drawing over a million visitors per year, in addition to a rich historical and archeological site. Most of the canyon is protected. Notable sights along the canyon include the Pont d'Arc at the beginning of the canyon, a natural arch 60 m wide and 54 m high. Much of the canyon is inaccessible except by water, canoeing and kayaking are popular sports on the river. Overnight camping is not allowed, except for at two bivouac shelters; the cliffs offer habitat to rare birds such as the Bonelli's eagle. Humans have lived in caves in the area for over 300,000 years. Over 2,000 caves are found in the gorge, some of them painted.
Aubusson is a commune in the Creuse department region in central France. Aubusson is situated in the southern part of the département, at the confluence of the Creuse River and the Beauze; the route nationale N141 goes through the town. Local lore held that the community was settled by defeated Berbers following the 8th-century Battle of Tours, but it is now established that Aubusson has existed at least since the Gallo-Roman period; the Camp des Châtres, within the town's boundaries, for a long time considered a Roman fort dates back a little further, to the Iron Age. The town was known as Albuciensis in 936 and under the name Albuconis in 1070; the name originates from a name of a man, Albucius Other scholars claim the name is from a Celtic word meaning craggy. In the Middle Ages the town was ruled by viscounts; the vicecomital family produced a troubadour named Joan d'Aubusson. Aubusson is well known for its tapestry and carpets, which have been famous throughout the world since the 14th century.
Its origins were born with the arrival of weavers from Flanders, who took refuge in Aubusson around 1580. There is a famous collection of Aubusson tapestries at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc; the style of the tapestries produced has changed through the centuries, from scenes of green landscapes through to hunting scenes. In the 17th Century, the Aubusson and Felletin workshops were given "Royal Appointment" status. A downturn in fortunes came after the arrival of wallpaper. However, tapestry made something of a comeback during the 1930s, with artists such as Cocteau, Dali, Braque and Picasso being invited to Aubusson to express themselves through the medium of wool. Aubusson tapestry still thrives today. In 1983, l’Atelier Raymond Picaud chose Burhan Doğançay's Ribbon Series as a tapestry subject. Coventry cathedral's famous Christ in Glory tapestry, designed by artist Graham Sutherland, was woven in nearby Felletin. Installed in 1962, this was the world's largest vertical tapestry up until the 1990s. Created in 1981, the museum exhibits nearly 600 years of tapestry production.
This rich collection is composed of 18th and 19th Century tapestries and carpets. As well as works from its own collection, there are regular exhibitions of tapestries from around the world, showcasing works right up to the present day; this is a permanent exhibition, staged in an ancient Creusois house in Aubusson. The interior tells the history and traditions of tapestry as well as showing furniture of the period; the Clock Tower The old town Sainte-Croix church Ruins of the chateau The Vallenet House In the medieval period, Aubusson was a vicomté, similar to the English vice-county. Its rulers were: Ranulf I?-934 Robert I 934-942 Renaud I 942-958 Ranulf II Cabridel 958-1031 Ranulf III 1031-1060 Renaud III 1060-1069 William I 1069-1106 Renaud IV 1106-? Renaud V The Leper?-1185 Guy I 1185-? Renaud VI?-1249 Ranulf V 1249-c. 1265 William II 1263, lord of La Borne, La Feuillade, Monteil-au-Vicomte, Poux and Damoiseau, started a noble line that continued with his son Renaud VIII and his successors.
Around 1263/1266 the vice-county was sold to the count of La Marche. Jules Sandeau, member of the Académie française André Jorrand and organist Aubusson is twinned with: Eguisheim, France Communes of the Creuse département INSEE "Site du Théâtre Jean Lurçat - Scène nationale". "Site du Musée de la Tapisserie". Archived from the original on 2007-05-19. Retrieved 2007-11-14. "Site sur la ville aujourd'hui". Archived from the original on 2007-10-27. "Site de la ville". "Site sur le passé de la ville". Archived from the original on 2007-11-18. "Aubusson on Quid website". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. "Localisation d'Aubusson on a map of France". "Website of the Association Les Amis de l'Orgue d'Aubusson"
Albon-d'Ardèche is a commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Albonnais or Albonnaises Albon-d'Ardèche is located some 25 km west of Livron-sur-Drome and about 30 km east of Langogne; the commune is traversed by the D102 coming east from Mézilhac through the village and continuing east to Saint-Sauveur-de-Montagut. The D211 traverses the commune in the south running east from the D122 to Saint-Pierreville. Grand Feouzet in the south of the commune is accessed from this road via country roads. There is a considerable amount of forest in a little farming; the Glueyre river passes through the commune from west to east fed by a number of streams in the commune. The river passes through the village and continues east to join the Eyrieux river at Saint-Sauveur-de-Montagut; the Communes of Albon d'Ardèche and Marcols-les-Eaux formed the village of Marcol until 1912. List of Successive Mayors of Albon d'Ardèche The population of the town is old.
The rate of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national rate and departmental level. Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population; the distribution of the population of the municipality by age groups is, in 2008, as follows: 54.4% of men. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Albon d'Ardèche and Ardèche Department in 2008 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2008, INSEE. Results of the Census for Ardèche in 2008, INSEE.| Communes of the Ardèche department Albon-d'Ardèche official website Albon-d'Ardèche on the joint Inforoutes website Albon-d'Ardèche on the old National Geographic Institute website Albon-d'Ardèche on Lion1906 Albon-d'Ardèche on Google Maps Albon-d'Ardèche on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Albon on the 1750 Cassini Map Albon-d'Ardèche on the INSEE website INSEE
Ailhon is a French commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ailhonnais or Ailhonnaises Located at an altitude of 406 metres, Ailhon is a commune in the Canton of Aubenas and the Arrondissement of Largentière, some 5 km south-west of Aubenas, it can be accessed by the D223 road from Prades in the north, a tortuous mountain road which continues south through the commune, without passing near the village, to join the D103. Access to the village is by the D235 from Aubenas in the north-east to the hamlet of La Charberterie in the north of the commune the D359 south to the village continuing south to Merzelet; the commune is characterised by a large area with mountainous terrain forested with a network of small mountain roads and many scattered hamlets. Numerous streams cover the commune with the Ruisseau du Gary rising in the north and flowing the length of the commune gathering many tributaries south-west to join La Lanche which forms the south-western border of the commune.
There is the Auzon which rises just north of the commune and forms the eastern border gathering many tributaries and continues south to join the Ardeche near Saint-Sernin. The Ruisseau d'Ailhon flows through the village east to join the Auzon. A prehistoric tomb at Gay and many vestiges at Daus attest to human presence since antiquity, it was in 1298 when the name of the noble family of Ailhon appeared for the first time when Pierre d'Ailhon sold a nearby fortified house to the house of Mirabel. During the Wars of Religion from 1586 to 1591, the village paid a heavy price: the fort was taken and retaken and nothing remains except a tower in the Chabert house south of the village. In 1670, Ailhon participated in the Roure Revolt, a rebellion caused by a disastrous harvest followed by a rumour of an increase in taxes; the insurgents armed only with scythes and sticks were massacred by the king's armies on the plain of Lavilledieu. The leader of the revolt, Anthoine du Roure, was arrested in Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and broken on the wheel in Montpellier on 29 October 1670.
His body was exposed on the high road from Montpellier to Nimes and his head placed on top of the Porte Saint-Antoine in Aubenas. A square Jacques Roure was dedicated to his memory in Aubenas. Another square bears his name in Lachapelle-sous-Aubenas; the disorder during the French Revolution resulted in a band of brigands led by Fourniquet de Chassiers scouring the territory. List of Successive Mayors of Ailhon Mayors from 1977 Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Ailhon and Ardèche Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE. Daus: prehistoric site The Church of Saint André is registered as an historical monument; the church was enlarged and revised until the beginning of the 16th century and it houses many sculptures. There is a huge trunk of an Elm tree planted in 1593 - as in many parishes - by order of Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, to celebrate the conversion to the Catholic religion of Henry IV.
Two items in the church are registered as historical objects: A Sarcophagus cover A Stoup Communes of the Ardèche department Cantons of the Ardèche department Arrondissements of the Ardèche department Charles Albin Mazon, A Historical Account of the Ancient Parish of Ailhon, imprimerie centrale, 1905 Ailhon official website Ailhon on the old National Geographic Institute website Ailhon on Lion1906 Ailhon on Google Maps Ailhon on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ailhon on the 1750 Cassini Map Ailhon on the INSEE website INSEE
The Ardèche is a 125-kilometre long river in south-central France, a right-bank tributary of the River Rhône. Its source is near the village of Astet, it flows into the Rhône near north-west of Orange. The river gives its name to the French department of Ardèche; the valley of the Ardèche is scenic, in particular a 30-kilometre section known as the Ardèche Gorges. The walls of the river here are limestone cliffs up to 300 metres high. A kayak and camping trip down the gorge is not technically difficult and is popular in the summer; the most famous feature is a natural 60-metre stone arch spanning the river known as the Pont d'Arc. The source of the river lies at 1,467 metres above sea level in the Vivarais, near the Col de la Chavade, in the forest of Mazan in the commune of Astet. After the towns of Aubenas and Ruoms, it collects the Chassezac and the Beaume river, subsequently plunging into its famous gorge below Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, it flows into the Rhône at Pont-Saint-Esprit. The Ardèche flows through the following departments and communes: Ardèche Department: Astet Mayres Barnas Thueyts Pont-de-Labeaume Lalevade-d'Ardeche Vals-les-Bains Labégude Ucel Saint-Privat Aubenas Saint-Didier-sous-Aubenas Saint-Étienne-de-Fontbellon Vogüé Lanas Saint-Maurice-d'Ardeche Balazuc Chauzon Pradons Ruoms Labeaume Saint-Alban-Auriolles Vallon-Pont-d'Arc Salavas Labastide-de-Virac Saint-Remèze Bidon Saint-Martin-d'Ardeche Saint-Just-d'Ardèche Gard Department Le Garn Aiguèze Saint-Julien-de-Peyrolas Saint-Paulet-de-Caisson Pont-Saint-Esprit The most important tributaries and subtributaries to the Ardèche River include: The river has an average discharge of 65 cubic metres per second but experiences severe floods, called "coups de l'Ardèche", in spring and autumn and periods of low water in summer.
During flood events in 1827, 1890, 1924, it reached 7,800 cubic metres per second and the water level rose to a record 21.4 metres in the gorge. Despite the Ardèche's short length, the flow of the river at 65 cubic metres per second is high—higher than the Gardon at 32 cubic metres per second, the Cèze, the Hérault, or the Agout —major rivers south of the Massif Central but much longer; the inter-annual average flow of the Ardèche was observed and calculated over a period of 26 years at Saint-Martin d'Ardèche. It amounted to 63.4 cubic metres per second for a surface basin of 2,240 square kilometres —i.e. the vast majority of its watershed of 2,430 square kilometres. The river has seasonal fluctuations: a typical flow around the Cevennes, with high water in autumn and winter being double the normal, brings the average monthly flow at the first peak of 93 cubic metres per second in October after falling to 76 cubic metres per second in December, a new peak occurs from 96 to 102 cubic metres per second in January–March.
A rapid decline in flow rate follows ending in a dry period in July–August resulting in a decrease of the average monthly rate to the level of 12 cubic metres per second in July. The VCN3 can drop to 2.5 cubic metres per second in a dry year. Floods can be important; the Qix 2 and Qix 5 are 1,800 and 2,600 cubic metres per second, high. QIX 10 is 3,100 cubic metres per second while QIX 20 and QIX 50 rise to 3,600 and 4,300 cubic metres per second; the maximum instantaneous flow recorded in Saint-Martin d'Ardèche has been 4,500 cubic metres per second, while the maximum recorded daily rate was 2,506 cubic metres per second. The runoff curve number flowing into the catchment of the river is 897 millimetres annually, high; the specific flow reaches 28.3 litres per second per square kilometre of the catchment. The prefecture of Ardèche has provided a voice server since June 2005 whose objective is to disseminate information messages to allow monitoring of any significant event that might trigger a civil security crisis or standby alert.
Precise information on the evolution of any flood is provided. The Ardèche receives water from the Loire river via the "La Palisse" flood barrier and the Lake d'Issarlès; the water is collected to feed the EDF hydroelectric plant at Montpezat-sous-Bauzon and is subsequently piped into the Fontaulière river, a tributary of the Ardèche, near the town of Aubenas. Several ancient inscriptions about a college of nautes in associated rivers have been discovered in the Gard, it is possible that the two rivers concerned are the Ouvèze. The identification of these two rivers is still pending. However, if it does involve the Ardèche river, the spellings Hentica Ardesca have been attested; the Ardèche is protected along all of its course