Kingdom of Kosala was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding in area with the region of Awadh in present-day Uttar Pradesh. It emerged as a small state during the late Vedic period, with connections to the neighboring realm of Videha. Kosala belonged to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture, the Kosala region gave rise to the Sramana movements, including Jainism and Buddhism, it was culturally distinct from the Painted Grey Ware culture of the Vedic Aryans of Kuru-Pancala west of it, following independent development toward urbanisation and the use of iron. During the 5th century BCE, Kosala incorporated the territory of the Shakya clan, to which the Buddha belonged. According to the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya and the Jaina text, the Bhagavati Sutra, Kosala was one of the Solasa Mahajanapadas in 6th to 5th centuries BCE, its cultural and political strength earned it the status of a great power. However, it was weakened by a series of wars with the neighbouring kingdom of Magadha and, in the 5th century BCE, was absorbed by it.
After collapse of the Maurya Empire and before the expansion of the Kushan Empire, Kosala was ruled by the Deva dynasty, the Datta dynasty, the Mitra dynasty. Kosala is not mentioned in the early Vedic literature, but appears as a region in the Vedic texts of the Satapatha Brahmana and the Kalpasutras. In the Ramayana and the Puranas the ruling family of the Kosala kingdom was the Ikshvaku dynasty, descended from king Ikshvaku; the Puranas give lists of kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty from Ikshvaku to Prasenajit. According to the Ramayana, Rama ruled the Kosala kingdom from Ayodhya. Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism taught in Kosala. A Buddhist text, the Majjhima Nikaya mentions Buddha as a Kosalan, which indicates that Kosala may have subjugated the Shakya clan, which the Buddha is traditionally believed to have belonged to. In the time of king Mahakosala, the conquered neighboring kingdom of Kashi had become an integral part of the Kosala kingdom. Mahakosala's daughter Kosaladevī married with king Bimbisāra of Magadha.
Mahakosala was succeeded by his son Pasenadi, a follower of the Buddha. During Pasenadi's absence from the capital, his minister Digha Charayana raised Pasedani's son Vidudabha Virudhaka to the throne. During the reign of Vidudabha, Raja Bir Sen of the Baghochia clan invaded the Shakya clan, to which the Buddha belonged, brought the territory under the sovereignty of Kosala. Not much the Kosala kingdom was defeated by Ajatashatru of the Magadhan Haryanka dynasty, absorbed into the Magadha kingdom, which formed the basis of the Mauryan empire. Kosala was annexed by Shishunaga, it is assumed that during the Mauryan reign, Kosala was administratively under the viceroy at Kaushambi. The Sohgaura copper plate inscription issued during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya deals with a famine in Shravasti and the relief measures to be adopted by the officials; the Yuga Purana section of the Garga Samhita mentions about the Yavana invasion and subsequent occupation of Saket during the reign of the last Maurya ruler Brihadratha.
The names of a number of rulers of Kosala of the post-Maurya period are known from the square copper coins issued by them found at Ayodhya. The rulers, forming the Deva dynasty, are: Muladeva, Vishakhadeva, Naradatta and Shivadatta. There is no way to know whether king Muladeva of the coins is identifiable with Muladeva, murderer of the Shunga ruler Vasumitra or not. King Dhanadeva of the coins is identified with king Dhanadeva of Ayodhya inscription. In this Sanskrit inscription, King Kaushikiputra Dhanadeva mentions about setting a ketana in memory of his father, Phalgudeva. In this inscription he claimed himself as the sixth in descent from Pushyamitra Shunga. Dhanadeva issued both cast and die-struck coins and both the types have a bull on obverse. Other local rulers whose coins were found in Kosala include: a group of rulers whose name ends in "-mitra" is known from their coins: Satyamitra, Aryamitra and Devamitra, sometimes called the "Late Mitra dynasty of Kosala". Other rulers known from their coins are: Kumudasena and Sanghamitra.
The Kosala region had three major cities, Ayodhya and Shravasti, a number of minor towns as Setavya, Dandakappa and Pankadha. According to the Puranas and the Ramayana epic, Ayodhya was the capital of Kosala during the reign of Ikshvaku and his descendants. Shravasti is recorded as the capital of Kosala during the Mahajanapada period, but post-Maurya kings issued their coins from Ayodhya. Kosala belonged to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture, preceded by the Black and red ware culture; the Central Gangetic Plain was the earliest area for rice cultivation in South Asia, entered the Iron Age around 700 BCE. According to Geoffrey Samuel, following Tim Hopkins, the Central Gangetic Plain was culturally distinct from the Painted Grey Ware culture of the Vedic Aryans of Kuru-Pancala west of it, saw an independent development toward urbanisation and the use of iron. Local religions and during the rise of Buddhism and the influence of the Vedic-Brahmanical traditions, were centered on laukika or worldly deities, including yaksas, guardian deities.
According to Samuel, there is "extensive iconographical evidence for a religi
The canto is a principal form of division in medieval and modern long poetry. The word canto is derived from the Italian word for "song" or "singing", which comes from the Latin cantus, "song", from the infinitive verb canere, "to sing"; the use of the canto was described in the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica as " a convenient division when poetry was more sung by the minstrel to his own accompaniment than read". There is no specific format, construction or style for a canto and it is not limited to any one type of poetry; some famous poems that employ the canto division are Dante's Divine Comedy, Camões' Os Lusíadas, Torquato Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata, Byron's Don Juan and Ezra Pound's The Cantos. The typical length of a canto varies from one poem to another; the average canto in the Divine Comedy is 142 lines long, while the average canto in Os Lusíadas is 882 lines long
Thiruvanmiyur is a residential neighborhood in the south of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Thiruvanmiyur witnessed a spike in its economy with the construction of Chennai's first dedicated technology office space, the Tidel Information Technology Park in neighboring Taramani; the subsequent rise of several information technology businesses, research centres and offices around Tidel park proved fortuitous for Thiruvanmiyur, as many of the workers at these offices made Thiruvanmiyur their home. The Marundeeswarar Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva defined the area, leading it to be mentioned in Sangam Tamil epics. Thiruvanmiyur houses the Kalakshetra cultural academy, dedicated to the preservation and development of Indian culture and fine arts, it is commonly referred to as the MICO layout of Chennai city. The place derives its name from Thiru-Valmiki-Ur, meaning location of the temple of Valmiki.. This place was referred to as Thiru-aamai-yur in the Sangam Literature of Tamil Literature; this means city of turtles.
From time immemorial this town's beach has been an important turtle habitat. This Valmiki must however not be mistaken for the sage that wrote'The Ramayana', as he lived in North India. Valmiki is an attributed name given to those who are so lost in their penance that they are covered by ant-hills. Buses The area is accessible by Metropolitan Transport Corporation buses and has a sprawling bus terminus; the MTC bus stops in the area are Jeyanthi Theatre, Thiruvanmiyur Bus Stand, Marundeeswarar temple, R. T. O office and Tidel park. SETC buses heading towards Pondicherry has a bus stop. Railways Thiruvanmiyur Railway station, opposite to Tidel Park, is on the Mass Rapid Transit System Railway line which connects Velachery and Beach via Chennai Central. STPI known as Software Technology Parks of India, located near Tidel Park, is another hub for Information Technology companies. Road The East Coast Road starting in Thiruvanmiyur leads to Pondicherry; the main post office is located east of Lattice Bridge Road, around 100 meters before it meets Old Mahabalipuram Road.
The two main theatres in the area are the Jayanthi and the Theyagaraja/Sathyam S2. The South Chennai RTO is located here on ECR Road. Thiruvanmiyur beach is a popular attraction and the beach line is 1 km from East Coast Road; the Beach Walkers promenade is popular with the local residents. The beach is a maintained clean with active support from the local community; the local community with the support of cotton house, has made an elderly walker's resting spot named after Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam; this beach offers a healthy playground for kids to play various sports such as football, etc. Schools: CBSE-Shraddha Children’s Academy, State Board-Nellai Nadar Matriculation School, Sri Sankara Vidyashram matriculation higher secondary school. Thiruvanmiyur is an important juncture in the city since it has easy public connectivity to other places. Leading food outlets like KFC, Domino's, Pizza Hut, Ibaco ice creams and Sri Krishna Sweets have set up their outlets here. There are many shopping outlets like Reliance Trends, Arrow, Indian Terrain, Megamart, Europa etc.
Located about 3 km south of Adyar, stretching from Tidel Park/Kalakshetra road to SRP Tools/Srinivasapuram/New Beach Road. The Valmiki temple Marundeeswarar Temple, Marundeeshwarar Temple The Pamban Swamigal Temple Thiruveethi Amman Temple Shirdi Sai Baba Temple, Kamaraj Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur Sarkarai Ammal Temple The'Srinivasa Perumal' temple known as Mangani Vinayakar Temple Masjid E Noor, Thiruvanmiyur East, Netaji Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur Masjid Ilahi, Kamaraj Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur Advent Church, ECR, Thiruvanmiyur
Narada is a Vedic sage, famous in Hindu traditions as a traveling musician and storyteller, who carries news and enlightening wisdom. He appears in a number of Hindu texts, notably the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, as well as in the Puranas. In Indian texts, Narada travels to distant realms, he is depicted carrying a khartal and tambura with the name Mahathi and is regarded as one of the great masters of the ancient musical instrument. This instrument is known by the name "mahathi" which he uses to accompany his singing of hymns and mantras. In the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism, he is presented as a sage with devotion to Lord Vishnu. Narada is described as both wise and mischievous, in humorous tales. Vaishnav enthusiasts depict him as a pure, elevated soul who glorifies Vishnu through his devotional songs, singing the names Hari and Narayana, therein demonstrating bhakti yoga; the Narada Bhakti Sutra is attributed to him. Other texts named after Narada include Narada Purana and the Nāradasmṛti, the latter called the "juridical text par excellence" and represents the only Dharmaśāstra text which deals with juridical matters and ignoring those of righteous conduct and penance.
The name Narada, referring to many different persons, appears in many mythical legends of Hinduism, as an earlier birth of Sariputta in the Jataka tales of Buddhism as well as names of medieval Buddhist scholars, in Jainism. In the Mahabharata, Narada was conversant with the Vedas and the Upanishads and was acquainted with history and Puranas, he had mastery of the six Angas: pronunciation, prosody, religious rites and astronomy. All celestial beings worshiped him for his knowledge - he is supposed to be well versed in all that occurred in ancient Kalpas and is termed to be conversant with Nyaya and the truth of moral science, he was a perfect master in re-conciliatory texts and differentiating in applying general principles to particular cases. He could swiftly interpret contraries by references to differences in situation, he was eloquent, resolute and possessor of powerful memory. He knew the science of morals, skilled in drawing inference from evidence, proficient in distinguishing inferior things from superior ones.
He was competent in judging the correctness and incorrectness of complex syllogistic statements consisting of 5 proponents. He was capable of arriving at definite conclusions about religion, wealth and salvation, he possessed knowledge of this whole everything surrounding it. He was capable while arguing, he was the master of the Sankhya and Yoga systems of philosophy, conversant with sciences of war and treaty and proficient in drawing conclusions of judging things not within a direct knowledge. He knew about the six sciences of treaty, military campaigns, maintenance of posts against the enemy and strategies of ambushes and reserves, he was a thorough master of every branch of learning. He was fond of war and music and was incapable of being repulsed by any science or any course of action; the Bhagavata Purana describes the story of Narada's spiritual enlightenment: He was the primary source of information among Gods, is believed to be the first journalist on Earth. In his previous birth Narada was a Gandharva, cursed to be born on an earthly planet for singing glories to the demigods instead of the Supreme Lord.
He was born as the son of a maid-servant of some saintly priests. The priests, being pleased with both his and his mother's service, blessed him by allowing him to eat some of their food offered to their lord, Vishnu, he received further blessings from these sages and heard them discussing many spiritual topics. After his mother died, he decided to roam the forest in search of enlightenment in understanding the'Supreme Absolute Truth'. Reaching a tranquil forest location, after quenching his thirst from a nearby stream, he sat under a tree in meditation, concentrating on the paramatma form of Vishnu within his heart as he had been taught by the priests he had served. After some time Narada experienced a vision wherein Narayana appeared before him and spoke "that despite having the blessing of seeing him at that moment, Narada would not be able to see his divine form again until he died". Narayan further explained that the reason he had been given a chance to see his form was because his beauty and love would be a source of inspiration and would fuel his dormant desire to be with the lord again.
After instructing Narada in this manner, Vishnu disappeared from his sight. The boy awoke from his meditation both disappointed. For the rest of his life Narada focused on meditation upon and worship to Vishnu. After his death Vishnu blessed him with the spiritual form of "Narada" as he became known. In many Hindu scriptures Narada is considered a saktyavesa-avatara or partial-manifestation of God, empowered to perform miraculous tasks on Vishnu's behalf. Narada temples are Sri Narada Muni Temple at Chigateri, Karnataka. In Jainism, there are a total of 9 Naradas in every cycle of Jain Cosmology, current cycle's Naradas were Bhima, Rudra, Kala, Durmukha and Adhomukha. Bhagavata Purana Narad Bhakti Sutra Nāradasmṛti Sangita Makarandha Four Kumaras Vishnu Doniger, Wendy, ed. Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster, ISBN 0-87779-044-2 Translation by Richard W. Lariviere; the Nāradasmr̥ti. University of Philadelphia. Narada's Instructions on Srimad-Bhagavatam for Vyasadeva R
In Hinduism, Hanuman is an ardent devotee of Lord Rama. Lord Hanuman, known as the Lord of Celibacy was an ideal "Brahmachari" or called Naistika Brahmachari in Sanskrit and is one of the central characters of the Indian Epic ￼￼Ramayana￼￼. ￼￼As one of the Chiranjivi, he is mentioned in several other texts, such as the Mahabharata and the various Puranas. Hanuman is the son of Anjani and Kesari and is son of the wind-god Vayu, who according to several stories, played a role in his birth. If yoga is the ability to control one's mind Hanuman is the quintessential yogi having a perfect mastery over his senses, achieved through a disciplined lifestyle tempered by the twin streams of celibacy and selfless devotion. In fact, Hanuman is the ideal Brahmachari, if there was one, he is a perfect karma yogi since he performs his actions with detachment, acting as an instrument of destiny rather than being impelled by any selfish motive. While Hanuman is one of the central characters in the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, the evidence of devotional worship to him is missing in the texts and archeological sites of ancient and most of the medieval period.
According to Philip Lutgendorf, an American Indologist known for his studies on Hanuman, the theological significance and devotional dedication to Hanuman emerged about 1,000 years after the composition of the Ramayana, in the 2nd millennium CE, after the arrival of Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent. Bhakti movement saints such as Samarth Ramdas expressed Hanuman as a symbol of nationalism and resistance to persecution. In the modern era, his iconography and temples have been common, he is viewed as the ideal combination of "strength, heroic initiative and assertive excellence" and "loving, emotional devotion to his personal god Rama", as Shakti and Bhakti. In literature, he has been the patron god of martial arts such as wrestling, acrobatics, as well as meditation and diligent scholarship, he symbolizes the human excellences of inner self-control and service to a cause, hidden behind the first impressions of a being who looks like an Ape-Man Vanara. Hanuman is stated by scholars to be the inspiration for the allegory-filled adventures of a monkey hero in the Xiyouji – the great Chinese poetic novel influenced by the travels of Buddhist monk Xuanzang to India.
The meaning or the origin of word "Hanuman" is unclear. In the Hindu pantheon, deities have many synonymous names, each based on the noble characteristic or attribute or reminder of that deity's mythical deed. Hanuman has many names like Maruti, Bajrangbali, Mangalmurti but these names are used. Hanuman is the common name of the vaanar god. One interpretation of the term is that it means "one having a jaw, prominent"; this version is supported by a Puranic legend wherein baby Hanuman mistakes the sun for a fruit, attempts to heroically reach it, is wounded and gets a disfigured jaw."Hanuman": the name derives from the Sanskrit words Han and maana. This epithet resonates with the story in the Ramayana about his emotional devotion to Sita, he combines two of the most cherished traits in the Hindu bhakti-shakti worship traditions: "heroic, assertive excellence" and "loving, emotional devotion to personal god". Linguistic variations of "Hanuman" include Hanumat, Hanumantha, Hanumanthudu. Other names of Hanuman include: Anjaneya, Anjaneyar, Anjanisuta all meaning "the son of Hanuman's mother Anjana".
Kesari Nandan, based on his father, which means "son of Kesari" Maruti, or the son of the wind god. Sankata Mochana, the remover of dangers The earliest mention of a divine monkey, interpreted by some scholars as the proto-Hanuman, is in hymn 10.86 of the Rigveda, dated to between 1500 and 1200 BCE. The twenty-three verses of the hymn are a riddle-filled legend, it is presented as a dialogue between multiple characters: the god Indra, his wife Indrani and an energetic monkey it refers to as Vrisakapi and his wife Kapi. The hymn opens with Indrani complaining to Indra that some of the soma offerings for Indra have been allocated to the energetic and strong monkey, the people are forgetting Indra; the king of the gods Indra responds by telling his wife that the living being that bothers her is to be seen as a friend, that they should make an effort to coexist peacefully. The hymn closes with all agreeing that they should come together in Indra's house and share the wealth of the offerings; the orientalist F. E. Pargiter theorized.
According to this theory, the name "Hanuman" derives from the Tamil word for male monkey, first transformed to "Anumant" – a name which remains in use. "Anumant", according to this hypothesis, was Sanskritized to "Hanuman" because the ancient Aryans confronted with a popular monkey deity of ancient Dravidians coopted the concept and Sanskritized it. According to Murray Emeneau, known for his Tamil linguistic studies, this theory does not make sense because the Old Tamil word mandi in Caṅkam literature can only mean "female monkey", Hanuman is male. Further, adds Emeneau, the compound ana-mandi makes no semantic sense in Tamil, which has well developed and sophisticated grammar and semantic rules; the "prominent jaw" etymology, according to Emeneau, is therefore plausible. Hanuman is mentioned in both the
Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India; the city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists, it was ranked the 43rd most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists; as such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016.
Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index, was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values. National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature in its 2015 "Top 10 food cities" list. Chennai was named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet. In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network list for its rich musical tradition; the Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is known as a major film production centre. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission.
The name Chennai is of Telugu origin. It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the town in 1639; the first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company before the Chennakesava Perumal Temple was built in 1646 while some scholars argue for the contrary. The name Madras is of native origin, has been shown to be in use before the British presence in India. A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram. According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George. However, it is uncertain.
The British military mapmakers believed Madras was Mundir-raj or Mundiraj,which was the name of a telugu community of rulers of nayakasThere are suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase Mãe de Deus or Madre de Dios, which means "mother of God", due to Portuguese influence on the port city referring to a Church of St. Mary. In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name. However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city, as well as for places named after the city such as University of Madras, IIT Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, Madras Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, Madras Christian College. Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India, Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, pre-historic communities resided in the settlement; the region around Chennai has served as an important administrative and economic centre for many centuries.
During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named. From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas; the Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period. Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period; the Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai. On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya.
Day was seeking to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful i
Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed