Jan Tomáš "Miloš" Forman was a Czech American film director, screenwriter and professor who, until 1968, lived and worked in the former Czechoslovakia. Forman was an important component of the Czechoslovak New Wave, his 1967 film The Firemen's Ball, on the surface a naturalistic representation of an ill-fated social event in a provincial town, was seen by both film scholars and authorities in Czechoslovakia as a biting satire on Eastern European Communism. As a result, it was banned for many years in Forman's home country. After Forman left Czechoslovakia for the United States, two of his films, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and Amadeus, acquired particular renown, both gained him an Academy Award for Best Director. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest became the second film to win all five major Academy Awards after It Happened One Night in 1934—an accomplishment not repeated until 1991, by The Silence of the Lambs. Forman was nominated for a Best Director Oscar for The People vs. Larry Flynt, he won Golden Globe, Berlinale, BAFTA, David di Donatello, European Film Academy, Czech Lion awards.
Along with future favorite cinematographer Miroslav Ondříček and longtime schoolfriend Ivan Passer, Forman filmed the silent documentary Semafor about Semafor theater. Forman's first important production was the documentary Audition whose subject was competing singers, he directed several Czech comedies in Czechoslovakia. However, during the Prague Spring and the ensuing 1968 invasion, he was in Paris negotiating the production of his first American film, his employer, a Czech studio, fired him, he decided to move to the United States. He moved to New York, where he became a professor of film at Columbia University in 1978 and co-chair of Columbia's film department. One of his protégés was future director James Mangold. In 1977, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. In 1985, he in 2000 did the same for the Venice festival, he presided over a ceremony of Caesar in 1988. In 1997, he received the Crystal Globe award for outstanding artistic contribution to world cinema at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival.
Forman performed alongside actor Edward Norton in Norton's directorial debut, Keeping the Faith, as the wise friend to Norton's conflicted priest. In April 2007, he took part in the jazz opera Dobře placená procházka, itself a remake of the TV film he made in 1966, it premiered at the Prague National Theatre, directed by Petr Forman. Forman received an honorary degree in 2009 from Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts, US, he collaborated with cinematographer Miroslav Ondříček. Loves of a Blonde is one of the best–known movies of the Czechoslovak New Wave, won awards at the Venice and Locarno film festivals, it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1967. A 1967 Czechoslovak–Italian co-production, this was Forman's first color film, it is one of the best–known movies of the Czechoslovak New Wave. On the face of it a naturalistic representation of an ill-fated social event in a provincial town, the film has been seen by both film scholars and the then-authorities in Czechoslovakia as a biting satire on East European Communism, which resulted in it being banned for many years in Forman's home country.
The Czech term zhasnout, associated with petty theft in the film, was used to describe the large-scale asset stripping that occurred in the country during the 1990s. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Film; the first movie Forman made in the United States, Taking Off won the Grand Prix at the 1971 Cannes Film Festival. The film starred Lynn Carlin and Buck Henry, featured Linnea Heacock as Jeannie; the film left Forman struggling to find work. Forman said that it did so poorly he ended up owing the studio $500. Despite the failure of Taking Off, producers Michael Douglas and Saul Zaentz hired him to direct the adaptation of Ken Kesey's cult novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. Forman said they hired him because he was in their price range. Starring Jack Nicholson and Louise Fletcher, the adaptation was a commercial success; the film won Oscars in the five most important categories: Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Picture and Best Adapted Screenplay. One of only three films in history to do so, it established Forman's reputation.
The success of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest allowed Forman to direct his long-planned film version of Hair in 1979, a rock musical based on the Broadway musical by James Rado, Gerome Ragni, Galt MacDermot. The film starred John Savage and Beverly D'Angelo, it was disowned by the writers of the original musical, although it received positive reviews, it did not do well financially. Forman's next important achievement was an adaptation of Peter Shaffer's Amadeus. Retelling the story of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Antonio Salieri, it starred Tom Hulce, Elizabeth Berridge, F. Murray Abraham; the film was internationally acclaimed and won eight Oscars, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor. Forman's adaptation of Pierre Choderlos de Laclos's novel Les Liaisons dangereuses had its premiere on November 17, 1989. Another film adaptation by Stephen Frears from the same source material had been released the previous year and overshadowed Forman's adaptation; the film starred Colin Firth, Meg Tilly, and
Fabia Drake OBE was a British actress whose professional career spanned 73 years during the 20th century. Drake was born in Kent, her first professional role in a film was in Fred Paul's Masks and Faces, her last role was as Madame de Rosemonde in Miloš Forman's Valmont. Drake was a lifelong friend of Laurence Olivier. Born Ethel McGlinchy, the actress's Irish father, a caterer, was an actor manqué, she passed an entrance test to the Academy of Dramatic Art in December 1913.. Founded by Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, her contemporaries at the Academy of Dramatic Art included the actress Meggie Albanesi, Eva Le Gallienne, Miles Malleson - a senior student who wrote plays for her, she was small, was called'the Shrimp', played a wide range of parts - Richard II, Cardinal Richelieu in Bulwer Lytton's play, the Shaughraun in Dion Boucicault's The Shaughraun. Her teachers included Norman Page, whom she admired and to whose teaching she responded – "he gave you confidence, he inspired you with his enthusiasm', Helen Haye, to whom she did not respond and, not, according to Drake, a great teacher.
She made her first professional appearance on a stage at the Court Theatre, Sloane Square, in a children's theatre production titled The Cockjolly Bird as a hermit land-crab – "in a shell of immense weight and unparalleled discomfort." Her first paid work came. In the cast was Noël Coward, it was the beginning of a lifelong friendship. In the same year, 1916, she met Ellen Terry, when she played Robin, Falstaff's diminutive page in scenes from The Merry Wives of Windsor, for a week, at the Palace Pier Theatre in Brighton. Besides acting the most formative influence in Drake's childhood was the Anglican religion – seceded from – and the outstanding memory of her Christmases was the sung Saint Cecilia Mass of Gounod, at the Midnight Mass in the Anglo-Catholic church of All Saints, Margaret Street; when one year the chorister set to play Sir Toby Belch in the kitchen scene from Twelfth Night fell ill, Drake was called in to replace him, so she met a junior chorister in the production - Laurence Olivier.
"His subsequent intimate friendship became one of my most treasured possessions. At the age of 16, she was sent to a finishing school in Camposenea at Meudon-val-Fleury, it had been a hunting lodge of Louis XIV and the sunken marble bath of Madame de Maintenon was still in place. She was taken to Reims, in ruins after World War I, to Versailles, the Forest of Fontainebleau, she was taught by Georges Le Roy sociétaire of the Comédie-Française, to become one of the great teachers of the Paris Conservatoire. Back in London in 1921 and unemployed, she spent time with Meggie Albanesi in her dressing room during her'waits' in Albanesi's current success A Bill of Divorcement at St Martin's Theatre. Drake wrote "Albanesi was by now established as the most talented young actress in England, under contract to Basil Dean...the warmth and sympathy of her personality was like a lodestar in my bleak night sky." Having tried, failed, to gain employment with J. E. Vedrenne, Drake decided to join Madame Alice Gachet's French acting classes at RADA, another teacher of brilliance, her most famous pupil - Charles Laughton.
She signed with Vedrenne for 18 months, playing small parts, understudying and was sent to Basil Dean, about to produce James Elroy Flecker's Hassan. This proved a memorable production, incidental music was by Frederick Delius, the great ballet in the House-of-the-Moving-Walls was devised by Fokine, the cast included Malcolm Keen as the Caliph and Henry Ainley as Hassan. Drake, an understudy, playrf both of the two women's parts in the play and Pervaneh - Isabel Jeans and Laura Cowrie, both went down with influenza in the epidemic of 1923; when C. Aubrey Smith needed an actress to play his daughter in a production of Roland Pertwee's The Creaking Chair his wife suggested Fabia and she was released from Hassan to create her own, part; the play ran for six months, directed by Gerald du Maurier, starred Tallulah Bankhead as well as Aubrey Smith. Shortly after this Drake worked with Marie Tempest in a play by John Hastings Turner titled The Scarlet Lady. In Marie Tempest, she found " artistic understanding and succour."
The play was a success when it brought Drake some critical attention. Charles Langbridge Morgan critic of The Times wrote "Fabia Drake...she has not been long on the professional stage. She has judgment and poise and a mind that lifts a trivial part out of its triviality." And James Agate in The Sunday Times wrote "Miss Fabia Drake is the best ingénue on the present-day stage, provided she is able to conceal, her brains will one day make a popular success. She suggests health, physical and moral." RADA ex-students formed the The RADA Players, Drake became the second of its secretaries. In a play of Allan Monkhouse's titled Sons and Fathers, Drake played opposite John Gielgud, she was the victim of serious stage-fright at this period in her career, the result of a spasm in her throat that p
Dame Jane Elizabeth Ailwên Phillips, known professionally as Siân Phillips, is a Welsh actress. Phillips was born in Gwaun-Cae-Gurwen, Wales, the daughter of Sally, a teacher, David Phillips, a steelworker who became a policeman, she is a Welsh-speaker: in the first volume of her autobiography Private Faces she notes that she spoke only Welsh for much of her childhood, learning English by listening to the radio. She attended Pontardawe Grammar School and was known there as Jane, but her Welsh teacher called her Siân, the Welsh form of Jane, she took up English and philosophy at University College Cardiff. Phillips graduated from the University of Wales in 1955, she entered the RADA with a scholarship in September 1955, the same year as Diana Rigg and Glenda Jackson. She went on to win the Bancroft Gold Medal for Hedda Gabler and was offered work in Hollywood when she left the RADA. While still a student, she was offered three film contracts to work for an extended period of time in the United States, but she declined, preferring to work on stage instead.
Phillips began acting professionally at the age of 11 with the Home Service of BBC Radio in Wales. Her first role was as a ginger tom cat. At the same age she won her first speech-and-drama award, for her performance at the National Eisteddfod held at Llandybïe in 1944, where she and a schoolfriend played the parts of two elderly men in a dramatic duologue, she made her first British television appearance at 17 and won a Welsh acting award at 18. In 1953, while still a student at Cardiff University, she worked as a newsreader and announcer for the BBC in Wales and toured Wales in Welsh-language productions of the Welsh Arts Council. From 1953 to 1955 Phillips was a member of the BBC Repertory Company and the National Theatre Company and toured Wales performing Welsh and English plays for the Welsh Arts Council. For the Nottingham Playhouse in 1958, she was Masha in Three Sisters, she performed as Princess Siwan in Saunders Lewis' The King's Daughter at the Hampstead Theatre Club in 1959 and as Katherine in Taming of the Shrew for the Oxford Playhouse in 1960.
She was Princess Siwan again in the BBC's production of Siwan: The King's Daughter alongside Peter O'Toole with Emyr Humphrys as producer. It was broadcast on BBC One on 1 March 1960. From October 1958 to April 1959 she was compere of the Land of Song monthly programme at TWW Channel 10 with baritone Ivor Emmanuel, she made her first appearance on the London stage in 1957 when she appeared in Hermann Sudermann's Magda for RADA. Magda, about an opera diva, was her first real success in London; the play benefited her career greatly. In 1957 Phillips performed the title role in Ibsen's Hedda Gabler. Many sources consider this her London stage debut but she did Magda before Hedda Gabler. In September 1958 she was performing as Margaret Muir in John Hall's The Holiday at Oxford New Theatre. In May 1958 Phillips performed as Joan in G. B. Shaw's Saint Joan, at the Belgrade Theatre in Coventry, which had opened just six weeks before, produced by Bryan Bailey. An observer described her performance: "Sian Phillips' portrayal of Joan defies the law of averages, after seeing Siobhan McKenna in the 1955 Arts Theatre production, I reckoned it impossible to equal within half a century.
Like the Irish girl, the Welsh girl is perfect...'This girl doesn't act Joan – she is Joan.' In short, perfection."She was Julia in the Royal Shakespeare Company's 1960–1961 version of The Duchess of Malfi. Her Royal Shakespeare Company performances are: Julia in The Duchess of Malfi: at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre. Julia in The Duchess of Malfi: at the Aldwych Theatre Bertha in Ondine: at the Aldwych Theatre Miss Havisham in Great Expectations: at Royal Shakespeare Company, her long career has included many films and television programmes, but she is best known for starring as Livia in the popular BBC adaptation of Robert Graves's novel I, for which she won the 1977 BAFTA Television Award for Best Actress, for many appearances on the original run of Call My Bluff. She appeared opposite her then-husband Peter O'Toole and Richard Burton in Becket. Another popular role was that of the Reverend Mother Gaius Helen Mohiam in David Lynch's Dune and Charal from Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, she appeared in seasons 2 and 4 of the Canadian TV series La Femme Nikita as Adrian, the renegade founder of the powerful Section One anti-terrorist organisation.
In 2001, she appeared as herself in Lily Savage's Blankety Blank. and in Ballykissangel as faith healer Consuela Dunphy in Episode 7. Her most recent film is The Gigolos by Richard Bracewell. In 2010, she appeared in New Tricks in the episode
Les Liaisons dangereuses
Les Liaisons dangereuses is a French epistolary novel by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, first published in four volumes by Durand Neveu from March 23, 1782. It is the story of the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, two narcissistic rivals who use seduction as a weapon to control and exploit others, all the while enjoying their cruel games and boasting about their manipulative talents, it has been claimed to depict the decadence of the French aristocracy shortly before the French Revolution, thereby exposing the perversions of the so-called Ancien Régime. However, it has been described as an amoral story; as an epistolary novel, the book is composed of letters written by the various characters to each other. In particular, the letters between Valmont and the Marquise drive the plot, with those of their victims and other characters serving as contrasting figures to give the story its depth; the Vicomte de Valmont is determined to seduce the virtuous and therefore inaccessible Madame de Tourvel, staying with Valmont's aunt while her husband is away on a court case.
At the same time, the Marquise de Merteuil is determined to corrupt the young Cécile de Volanges, whose mother has only brought her out of a convent to be married—to Merteuil's previous lover, who has rudely discarded her. Cécile falls in love with the Chevalier Danceny, Merteuil and Valmont pretend to help the secret lovers in order to gain their trust and manipulate them to benefit their own schemes. Merteuil suggests that the Vicomte should seduce Cécile in order to enact her revenge on Cécile's future husband. Valmont refuses, finding the challenge too easy and preferring to devote himself to seducing Madame de Tourvel. Merteuil promises Valmont that if he seduces Madame de Tourvel and provides her with written proof of seduction, she will spend the night with him, he does not find it as easy as his many other conquests. During the course of his pursuit, Valmont discovers that Cécile's mother has written to Madame de Tourvel about his bad reputation, he avenges himself by seducing Cécile.
Meanwhile, Merteuil takes Danceny as her lover. By the time Valmont has succeeded in seducing Madame de Tourvel, he seems to have fallen in love with her. Jealous, Merteuil tricks him into deserting Madame de Tourvel—and reneges on her promise of spending the night with him. In retaliation, Valmont reveals that he prompted Danceny to reunite with Cécile, leaving Merteuil abandoned yet again. Merteuil reveals to Danceny that Valmont has seduced Cécile. Danceny and Valmont duel, Valmont is fatally wounded. Before he dies, he gives Danceny the letters proving Merteuil's own involvement; these letters are sufficient to ruin her reputation so she flees to the countryside, where she contracts smallpox. Her face is left permanently scarred and she is rendered blind in one eye, so she loses her greatest asset: her beauty, but the innocent suffer from the protagonist's schemes: desperate with guilt and grief, Madame de Tourvel succumbs to a fever and dies, while Cécile returns to the convent, dishonoured.
Les Liaisons dangereuses is celebrated for its exploration of seduction and human malice, presented in the form of fictional letters collected and published by a fictional author. The book was viewed as scandalous at the time of its initial publication, though the real intentions of the author remain unknown, it has been suggested that Laclos's intention was the same as that of his fictional author in the novel. However, this theory has been questioned on several grounds. In the first place, Laclos enjoyed the patronage of France's most senior aristocrat— Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. Secondly, all the characters in the story are aristocrats, including the virtuous heroines—Madame de Tourvel and Madame de Rosemonde. Many ultra-royalist and conservative figures enjoyed the book, including Queen Marie Antoinette, which suggests that—despite its scandalous reputation—it was not viewed as a political work until the events of the French Revolution years made it appear as such, with the benefit of hindsight.
Wayland Young notes that most critics have viewed the work as... a sort of celebration, or at least a neutral statement, of libertinism... pernicious and damnable... Everyone who has written about it has noted how perfunctory are the wages of sin..." He argues, that... the mere analysis of libertinism… carried out by a novelist with such a prodigious command of his medium... was enough to condemn it and play a large part in its destruction. In a well-known essay on Les Liaisons dangereuses, used as a preface to French editions of the novel, André Malraux argues that, despite its debt to the libertine tradition, Les Liaisons dangereuses is more significant as the introduction of a new kind of character in French fiction; the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, Malraux writes, are creations "without precedent". They are "the first whose acts are determined by an ideology". In a manner, Les Liaisons dangereuses is a literary counterthesis to the epistolary novel as exemplified by Richardson's Pamela.
Whereas Richardson uses the technique of letters to provide the reader with a feeling of knowing the protagonist's true and intimate thoughts, Laclos' use of this literary device is opposite: by presenting the reader with grossly conflicting views from the same writer when addressing different recipients, it is left to the reader to reconcile story and characters be
Meg Tilly is a Canadian-American actress and novelist. For her role in the 1985 film Agnes of God, she won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, her other film roles include Psycho II, The Big Chill and Valmont. For her role in the television series Bomb Girls, she won the 2013 Canadian Screen Award for Best Lead Actress in a Drama Series. Tilly has written six novels, including Porcupine, a finalist for the Sheila A. Egoff Children's Literature Prize, she is the younger sister of actress Jennifer Tilly. Tilly was born in Long Beach, the daughter of Patricia Ann, a Canadian teacher, businessman Harry Chan, her father was Chinese American, while her mother was of Finnish descent. Following her parents' divorce when she was three, Tilly was raised by her mother and stepfather, John Ward, on rural Texada Island in British Columbia, she claimed that Ward was a violent pedophile. At the age of 12, Tilly started taking dance lessons, in part to avoid her stepfather, in a few years had developed into a gifted ballerina.
After graduating from Esquimalt High School in Esquimalt, British Columbia, Tilly left home and moved to the United States to pursue a career as a professional dancer. In New York City she studied with Melissa Hayden on full scholarship, she joined the Connecticut Ballet Company. She made her screen debut as a dancer in Alan Parker's 1980 musical drama Fame. Tilly's dance career came to an abrupt halt when, in 1979, a dance partner dropped her, causing a serious back injury. Forced to give up dancing because of complications stemming from her back injury, Tilly moved to Los Angeles to pursue a career as an actress and studied acting under Peggy Fuery, she made her television debut in the 1981 half-hour drama The Trouble with Grandpa, co-starring Elisha Cook Jr.. After playing a prostitute in a second-season episode of Hill Street Blues, she appeared in her first starring role in the 1982 coming-of-age adventure film Tex with Matt Dillon. In 1983, after she starred as the lead in the supernatural horror film One Dark Night, she appeared in Psycho II with Anthony Perkins, Lawrence Kasdan's award-winning ensemble film The Big Chill, with Kevin Kline, Glenn Close, Tom Berenger, William Hurt, Jeff Goldblum, JoBeth Williams and Mary Kay Place.
Tilly's appearance in The Big Chill, nominated for three Academy Awards, including Best Picture, helped her career significantly. In 1985, Tilly landed the acclaimed, title role in Norman Jewison's Agnes of God, appearing with Jane Fonda and Anne Bancroft. Playing the role of a novitiate nun who confesses her involvement in a virgin conception, Tilly "delivered a magnificent portrayal of a tormented young woman experiencing the ultimate crisis of faith". Tilly's critically praised performance earned her an Academy Award nomination and a Golden Globe Award. Tilly was the first choice for the role of Constanze Mozart in Miloš Forman's film Amadeus, having received glowing appraisals of her rehearsal work by both her would-be costar Tom Hulce and director Forman. However, she had to abandon the project; the role went to Elizabeth Berridge. Tilly appeared in Valmont, The Two Jakes with Jack Nicholson and Leaving Normal with Christine Lahti, as well as the 1993 horror film, Body Snatchers. After this, she stopped acting for the next 15 years.
Tilly returned to acting in 2010, portraying the Blessed Mother, a Pope-like figure in the Caprica episode "Unvanquished". In 2011 she played Martha in Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, presented by the Blue Bridge Repertory Theatre in Victoria, B. C. In January 2012, Global Television in Canada launched the six-part Bomb Girls about women who work in a munitions factory during World War II. Tilly stars as Lorna, the closed floor matron who blossoms as a leader and an appealing woman, she won Drama Canadian Screen Award for her work on the series. Tilly is the author of six published novels. In 1994, Tilly's first novel Singing Songs was published by Dutton to positive reviews. Donna Rifkind from Publishers Weekly called the book "an impressive first novel", the New York Times Book Review praised Tilly for "the remarkable coherence and clarity" of Anna's narrative voice; the book is about a young girl and her sisters living in the Northwest who are molested by their stepfather. Her second novel Gemma was published in 2006 by the Syren Book Company.
And picked up by St. Martin's Press in 2010; the book is about a twelve-year-old girl, kidnapped and taken on a cross-country journey in which she is physically and sexually abused by her captor. Her third novel Porcupine was published in 2007 by Tundra Books; the book is about a twelve-year-old girl, Jacqueline "Jack" Cooper, whose life is shattered by the death of her father by friendly fire in the War in Afghanistan. Porcupine was a finalist for the Sheila A. Egoff Children's Literature Prize, shortlisted for The Canadian Libraries Association Best Children's Book 2008, Foreword Magazine Book of the Year and was an Ontario Library Best Bets 2008, her fourth novel First Time was published in 2008 by Orca Book Publishers. The novel is about a sixteen-year-old, molested and physically abused by her mother's boyfriend, must deal with the trauma alone without the help of her mother or best friend. First Time was a 2009 YALSA Quick Picks and 2010 CCBC Best Books. Tilly's fifth novel A Taste of Heaven was published in 2013 by Puffin Books.
A departure from the darker themes of Tilly's previous work, the novel is about two young girls who becom
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr